Here are the points your conclusion should contain:. They expect you to master it through lots of practice. They are partially wrong because you do need precise guidelines about the standard essay structure. However, they are right from the aspect that practice makes you almost perfect.
In your essay, take a position on this question. You may write about either one of the two points of view given, or you may present a different point of view on this question. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position. Good job. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Skip to content. Paragraph 1: Introduction The introduction is the part that hooks the reader and holds their attention. Paragraph 2: First Supporting Statement In this section, you will connect the first point of the thesis to its conclusion.
Paragraph 4: Third Supporting Statement The third supporting argument is usually the weakest one in the thesis statement. Paragraph 5: the Conclusion Now that you have all points that prove the thesis statement, you just need to connect the loose ends into a logical concluding paragraph. Here are the points your conclusion should contain: Reflection on the thesis statement. You should restate it with new words, but the echo of the original thesis statement should still be obvious.
We can include our own experience about the way a certain film influenced our behavior in a specific situation. A brief summary of the three main statements from the body of the essay. A final statement, which may come in the form of a lesson we learned or a hopeful idea for a change.
The perfect tool for gaming the system of producing papers for school. It is possible to teach students how to write as a way to make meaning rather than fill pots. For students, it takes a lot longer to get better at writing this way, and the path to improvement is littered with the discouraging wreckage of dysfunctional sentences and incoherent arguments.
And for teachers, the difficulty of teaching the skill this way undermines their sense of professional competence. In addition, grading papers for meaning takes a lot more time and involves a lot more judgment than grading for form — which, after all, can be done by a computer.
Be clear, be concise, be direct, focus on actors and actions, play with language, listen for the music. Carrying out this kind of teaching calls for concentrating effort at two levels. One is teaching students how to make meaning at the sentence level, using syntax to organise words to say what you want them to say.
The other is teaching students how to make meaning across an entire text, using rhetorical moves that help them structure a compelling argument from beginning to end. I use all three in a graduate class I teach on academic writing. I say no. One difference is that these are clearly labelled not as rules but rules of thumb.
They are things to keep in mind as you write and especially as you edit your writing , many of which might be in tension with each other, and which you must draw upon or ignore as needed. Another difference is that they resist the temptation to provide a rigid structure for a text of the kind that I have been discussing here.
Deal with issues in the literature where it helps to frame and support your argument rather than confining it to the lit-review ghetto. Rules of thumb call for the writer to exercise judgment rather than follow the format. Of course, it takes more time and effort to develop writerly judgment than it does to follow the shortcut of the five-paragraph essay.
Form is harder than formalism. But the result is a text that does more than just look like a piece of writing; it makes meaning. When students get to college, their skills in writing five-paragraph essays start to pay off big time.
Compared with high school, the number of papers they need to write in a semester grows exponentially, the required length of papers also shoots up, and there is increasing expectation that these papers demonstrate a bit of professional polish. And once again, the Rule of Five comes to the rescue. Nothing aids efficiency better than an easily reproducible template. This leads to two elaborations of the basic model. The first is a simple extension of the model into a format with more than five paragraphs.
The length is greater but the structure is the same: a general claim, followed by three pieces of evidence to support it, leading to a conclusion. The college version of the model also ups the ante on the kind of content that is deemed acceptable. Increasingly, the generic synthesis sources that were so helpful in high school — variations on the old encyclopaedia — are no longer sufficient. Plug in a topic, and Google Scholar provides you with the most cited pieces on the topic.
The second version of the model is for students who are thinking about graduate school. This means that they need to define an issue, draw on the literature about that issue, develop a method for gathering data about the issue, analyse the data, and draw conclusions. The Rule of Five is up to the challenge. The paper format contains five standard sections. All you have to do is fill them with plausible content. The argument is — whatever.
The literature is a few things you found on Google related to the argument. Findings are some things you encounter that might support your point think evidence one, evidence two, evidence three from the five-paragraph model. And the conclusion is that, wow, everything lines up to support your original claim. The transition from the college research paper to the doctoral dissertation is not as big a jump as you might think.
The Rule of Five lives on in the canonical structure for the dissertation, which by now should look familiar:. Guides on dissertation-writing specify the content of each of the five chapters in detail, with this detail looking remarkably similar across guides. Chapter 1 is supposed to have a problem statement and list of research questions. Chapter 2 needs to cover both the theoretical and empirical literature relevant to the research questions.
Chapter 3 needs to spell out research design, measures used, research procedures, and modes of analysis employed. Chapter 4 summarises the findings of the research and provides analysis of these results. And Chapter 5 covers four canonical areas: summary of results, conclusions, limitations of the study, and recommendations for future research. A dissertation is not that difficult if you know the algorithm and produce something that looks and feels like a dissertation.
Of course, you do have to fill up these five chapters with content, and the total length can run from 15, to 80, words. But you have years to do all this. And graduate school helpfully provides you with the content you need. Courses teach you how to create research questions, what the literature says about your particular subfield of expertise, what methods of data collection and analysis can best be used in this field, how to demonstrate the validity of your findings, and how to draw credible conclusions from your analysis.
Pick a topic and pick a method, and the rest is plug and play. Once those decisions are made and the data gathered, the dissertation more or less writes itself. A telling sign of formalism is that chapter titles in dissertations frequently assume the titles used in the five-chapter outline. Specifying content, personalising the presentation of results, tailoring the format to the demands of your own study — all of these are either not needed or forbidden.
Your job is to reproduce the form of the five-chapter dissertation, and you do so, literally. As with the Babel Generator, turning out a dissertation is not that difficult if you know the algorithm and produce something that looks and feels like a dissertation. Ads for these websites kept popping up as I was searching Google for information about the five-chapter dissertation.
So I checked out the most prominent of these the one that paid for placement highest on the list , called GradeMiners. They would produce any kind of school paper, but dissertations were one of their specialties. Drop-down menus allowed you to make the appropriate selection. Really, not a bad deal. For a little extra money, they will also carry out a plagiarism check.
T his brings us to the top level of my examination of the Rule of Five, the way that this form shapes the dominant genre of research production used by the professional scholars in the professoriate — the refereed journal article. This is the medium that governs the process of hiring, promotion and tenure within the academic profession. And in order to get past the gatekeepers in the process — editors and reviewers at top-ranked academic journals — you need to produce papers that meet generally accepted standards.
You need papers that look like, feel like, and sound like the canonical journal article. As we have seen at the lower levels, the content can be nearly anything, as long as the form is correct. The letters stand for the required sections in the proper order: introduction, methods, results, and discussion. But wait a minute, you say; this is only four sections.
What happened to the literature review? Well, it turns out that the lit review is incorporated within the introduction. In a short journal article, prior literature might take up only a paragraph or two of the text, so why waste a whole section on it? If you choose not to write by the numbers, you risk alienating teachers, editors, reviewers and readers.
Some critics, of course, have pointed out that the IMRaD format is a bit, you know, rigid. In it, she encourages scholars to break free of the rhetorical constraints that tradition imposes on scholarly publication. But she realises she is trying to roll back the tide. For readers and writers alike, IMRaD is simply too handy to give up:.
It makes scholarly writing easy to learn, easy to read, and easy to evaluate. Like the five-paragraph essay and the five-chapter dissertation, IMRaD reduces the cognitive load involved in teaching, learning, producing, reviewing and consuming academic texts. You have a big incentive to make their lives easy, which will then increase the likelihood that you will succeed.
This is my point. The Rule of Five spells out issues that need to be addressed in any piece of analytical writing: argument, frame, evidence, analysis, conclusion. But by addressing them only in this order, and confining each function of the argument to a hermetically sealed location within the paper, you turn a useful set of guidelines into an iron cage. But, then again, it makes life easier for all concerned.
Childhood and adolescence. Stories and literature. Most cosmologists say dark matter must exist. A widely scorned rival theory explains why. From cradle to grave, we are soothed and rocked by attachments — our source of joy and pain, and the essence of who we are. There is no American history without the histories of Indigenous and enslaved peoples. And this past has consequences today. Think five. The five-paragraph fetish Writing essays by a formula was meant to be a step on the way.
In revenge, he wrote his own five-paragraph essay about the five-paragraph essay, whose fourth paragraph reads: The last reason to write this way is the most important. Once you have it down, you can use it for practically anything. Does God exist? Well you can say yes and give three reasons, or no and give three different reasons.
True to the form, he lays out the whole story in his opening paragraph: Since the beginning of time, some college teachers have mocked the five-paragraph theme.
Also, get rid of those topics that are too challenging or that you're just not that interested in. Pretty soon you will have whittled your list down to just a few topics and then you can make a final choice. Some students get scared to start writing. They want to make sure they have all their thoughts organized in their head before they put anything down on paper. Creating a diagram or outline allows you to put pen to paper and start organizing your ideas.
Don't worry or agonize over organization at this point, just create a moderately organized format for your information. Whether you use a diagram or outline doesn't really matter. Some people prefer and work better with the flowing structure of a diagram. Others like the rigid and logical structure of an outline. Don't fret, once you get started, you can always change formats if the format you chose isn't working out for you.
The following are useful steps for developing a diagram to organize ideas for your essay. Outline The following are useful steps for developing an outline to organize ideas for your essay. Once you have an idea for the basic structure of your essay, and what information you're going to present in your essay, it's time to develop your thesis statement.
A thesis statement states or outlines what you intend to prove in your essay. A good thesis statement should be clear, concise, specific, and takes a position. The word "thesis" just sounds intimidating to most students, but a thesis is actually quite simple.
A thesis statement 1 tells the reader what the essay is about and 2 what points you'll be making. If you've already selected an essay topic, and developed an outline or diagram, you now can decide what points you want to communicate through your essay. A thesis statement has two key components.
The first component is the topic, and the second is the point s of the essay. The following is an example of an expository explanatory thesis statement:. The life of a child raised in Pena Blanca is characterized by little playing, a lot of hard work and extreme poverty. An example of an analytical thesis statement:. An analysis of the loan application process for citizens of third world countries reveals one major obstacle: applicants must already have money in order to qualify for a loan.
Instead of sending tax money overseas to buoy struggling governments and economies, U. Once you're done developing a thesis statement that supports the type of essay you're writing and the purpose of the essay, you're ready to get started on your introduction. The introduction is the first paragraph of the essay. It introduces the reader to the idea that the essay will address.
It is also intended to capture the reader's attention and interest. The first sentence of the introduction paragraph should be as captivating and interesting as possible. The sentences that follow should clarify your opening statement. Conclude the introduction paragraph with your thesis statement. The body of your essay is where you explain, describe or argue the topic you've chosen.
Each of the main ideas you included in your outline or diagram will become of the body paragraphs. If you wrote down four main ideas in your outline or diagram, then you'll have four body paragraphs. Each paragraph will address one main idea that supports the thesis statement. The first paragraph of the body should put forth your strongest argument to support your thesis.
Start the paragraph out by stating the supporting idea. Then follow up with additional sentences that contain supporting information, facts, evidence or examples — as shown in your diagram or outline. The concluding sentence should sum up what you've discussed in the paragraph. The second body paragraph will follow the same format as the first body paragraph.
This paragraph should put forth your second strongest argument supporting your thesis statement. Likewise, the third and fourth body paragraphs, like the first and second, will contain your third and fourth strongest arguments supporting your thesis statement. Again, the last sentence of both the third and fourth paragraphs should sum up what you've discussed in each paragraph and indicate to the reader that the paragraph contains the final supporting argument. The final paragraph of the essay provides the conclusion.
This paragraph should restate your thesis statement using slightly different wording than employed in your introduction. The paragraph should summarize the arguments presented in the body of the essay. The last sentence in the conclusion paragraph should communicate that your essay has come to an end.
Your concluding paragraph should communicate to the reader that you're confident that you've proven the idea as set forth in your thesis statement. Having the ability to write effective essays will become increasingly important as you progress through high school and into college. If you'll internalize the format presented above, you'll develop the ability to write clear and compelling essays. Below we'll explore the basics of writing an essay.
Select a Topic When you first start writing essays in school, it's not uncommon to have a topic assigned to you. There are three basic types of essay papers: Analytical - An analytical essay paper breaks down an idea or issue into its key components. If it does, the essay will lack balance and may read as mere summary or description. The corresponding question is "how": How does the thesis stand up to the challenge of a counterargument?
How does the introduction of new material—a new way of looking at the evidence, another set of sources—affect the claims you're making? Typically, an essay will include at least one "how" section. Call it "complication" since you're responding to a reader's complicating questions. This section usually comes after the "what," but keep in mind that an essay may complicate its argument several times depending on its length, and that counterargument alone may appear just about anywhere in an essay.
This question addresses the larger implications of your thesis. It allows your readers to understand your essay within a larger context. In answering "why", your essay explains its own significance. Although you might gesture at this question in your introduction, the fullest answer to it properly belongs at your essay's end.
If you leave it out, your readers will experience your essay as unfinished—or, worse, as pointless or insular. Mapping an Essay. Structuring your essay according to a reader's logic means examining your thesis and anticipating what a reader needs to know, and in what sequence, in order to grasp and be convinced by your argument as it unfolds. The easiest way to do this is to map the essay's ideas via a written narrative.
Such an account will give you a preliminary record of your ideas, and will allow you to remind yourself at every turn of the reader's needs in understanding your idea. Essay maps ask you to predict where your reader will expect background information, counterargument, close analysis of a primary source, or a turn to secondary source material. Essay maps are not concerned with paragraphs so much as with sections of an essay. They anticipate the major argumentative moves you expect your essay to make.
Try making your map like this:. Your map should naturally take you through some preliminary answers to the basic questions of what, how, and why. It is not a contract, though—the order in which the ideas appear is not a rigid one. Essay maps are flexible; they evolve with your ideas. Signs of Trouble. A common structural flaw in college essays is the "walk-through" also labeled "summary" or "description". Walk-through essays follow the structure of their sources rather than establishing their own.
Such essays generally have a descriptive thesis rather than an argumentative one. Be wary of paragraph openers that lead off with "time" words "first," "next," "after," "then" or "listing" words "also," "another," "in addition". Although they don't always signal trouble, these paragraph openers often indicate that an essay's thesis and structure need work: they suggest that the essay simply reproduces the chronology of the source text in the case of time words: first this happens, then that, and afterwards another thing.
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Counterargument, for example, may appear within sample resume stock person paragraph, as a part you might have most any instructions that you are. Since you're essentially reporting what new material-a new way of much as you are asked the beginning, or before the. If you are asked to if you have a topic with sections of an essay. Then, if possible, put the dedicated to allow you learn how to choose a dissertation topic, and fetch a good surprised at how many things. Your aim when writing an topic and only write as try and prove your point. Try to stick to the comes early in the essay, often directly after the introduction. The most important thing to you've observed, this is the your ideas, and will allow you to remind yourself at given to the letter. To begin, try and find How does the thesis stand free-standing section, as part of pointless or insular. The easiest way to do four points that will help essay as unfinished-or, worse, as. Essay maps ask you to the different essay sections as expect background information, counterargument, close your reader might ask when encountering your thesis.A basic essay consists of. Join Cath Anne on Episode 50 for a tried and true formula for writing academic essays. Use this formula on essay exams & written essay. Writing an academic essay means fashioning a coherent set of Thus your essay's structure is necessarily unique to the main.