unit plan teaching writing a research paper

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Unit plan teaching writing a research paper cheap assignment ghostwriting services ca

Unit plan teaching writing a research paper

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Some filters moved to Formats filters, which is at the top of the page. All Resource Types. Results for research paper unit 10, results. Sort: Relevance. This CCSS aligned informative writing unit contains lesson plans, student printables, rubrics, anchor papers, and other materials needed to teach the information gathering process for research-based writing. Specifically, this pack includesDetailed day by day lesson plans broken into 3 categories. Thematic Unit Plans , Rubrics , Printables.

Show more details. Add to cart. Wish List. Research Paper - Complete Unit. PDF Compatible with. Research paper complete unit. Research papers made easy! This complete unit has everything you need to teach writing a research paper from start to finish. Students select two states in each U.

They find. Geography , Social Studies - History , U. Projects , Printables. This Research Paper Writing Bundle includes lessons on paraphrasing, quoting, summarizing, 8th edition MLA format and citations, research paper writing, and academic vocabulary. This Research Paper Writing Unit Bundle is includes everything you will need to help your students master research writing. Lesson Plans Bundled , Activities. Show 5 included products. Let this step-by-step resource help your student write nonfiction animal research reports during Writing Workshop.

Simple graphic organizers, activities, and tip sheets help your writers focus their thoughts and understand the various pieces that are essential in a nonfiction piece. Many, many opti. Graphic Organizers , Printables. This no-prep resource on biomes contains 13 posters and an engaging research project for students. Science , Earth Sciences , Environment.

Projects , Posters , Activities. This digital research paper writing unit includes my traditional research paper writing unit and my digital research paper writing unit that works with Google Drive! Show 2 included products. No prep start-to-finish student research packet in printable and digital. Projects , Research. Teaching students how to write a research paper can be difficult.

This resource will walk your students step-by-step through the writing process- from brainstorming ideas to publishing the final produ. Projects , Research , Printables. Research Paper Unit - Bundle of Lessons. Includes PDF presentations and more than 50 pages of resources including assignment sheets, rubrics, information sheets, and examples. This is a bundle of all my other MLA research paper writing materials.

Anything listed below does not need to be bo. English , Writing-Expository , Writing. Worksheets , Rubrics , Handouts. Show 10 included products. This product includes a multiple day research project that allows students to learn more about celebrations around the world! There are two Google Slides mini-lessons included. The first mini-lesson guides class discussion on what it means to celebrate in different cultures.

Students will work colla. Projects , Activities , Research. Writing a research paper - complete unit in APA style. Follows updated 7th edition guidelines that were published in January This digital research paper writing unit includes everything you need to teach your students about research paper writing: graphic organizers, research essay prompt, peer editing, rubric, and more! Use SMAR. Explain that students should take care not to formulate a research question so broad that it cannot be answered, or so narrow that it can be answered in a sentence or two.

Note that a good question always leads to more questions. Invite students to suggest additional questions resulting from the examples above and from the Example Research Paper Scaffold. Emphasize that good research questions are open-ended. Open-ended questions can be solved in more than one way and, depending upon interpretation, often have more than one correct answer, such as the question, Can virtue be taught?

Closed questions have only one correct answer, such as, How many continents are there in the world? Open-ended questions are implicit and evaluative, while closed questions are explicit. This question is too narrow for a five-page paper as it can be answered in just a few words. How does color affect mood? Instruct students to fill in the first section of the Research Paper Scaffold, the Research Question, before Session 2. This task can be completed in a subsequent class session or assigned as homework.

Allowing a few days for students to refine and reflect upon their research question is best practice. Explain that the next section, the Hook, should not be filled in at this time, as it will be completed using information from the literature search.

Session 2: Literature Review—Search. Introduce this session by explaining that students will collect five articles that help to answer their research question. Once they have printed out or photocopied the articles, they will use a highlighter to mark the sections in the articles that specifically address the research question.

This strategy helps students focus on the research question rather than on all the other interesting—yet irrelevant—facts that they will find in the course of their research. Point out that the five different articles may offer similar answers and evidence with regard to the research question, or they may differ. The final paper will be more interesting if it explores different perspectives.

Demonstrate the use of any relevant subscription databases that are available to students through the school, as well as any Web directories or kid-friendly search engines such as KidzSearch that you would like them to use.

Remind students that their research question can provide the keywords for a targeted Internet search. The question should also give focus to the research—without the research question to anchor them, students may go off track. Explain that information found in the articles may lead students to broaden their research question. A good literature review should be a way of opening doors to new ideas, not simply a search for the data that supports a preconceived notion.

Make students aware that their online search results may include abstracts, which are brief summaries of research articles. In many cases the full text of the articles is available only through subscription to a scholarly database. Provide examples of abstracts and scholarly articles so students can recognize that abstracts do not contain all the information found in the article, and should not be cited unless the full article has been read.

Internet articles need to be printed out, and articles from print sources need to be photocopied. Each article used on the Research Paper Scaffold needs to yield several relevant facts, so students may need to collect more than five articles to have adequate sources.

Remind students to gather complete reference information for each of their sources. They may wish to photocopy the title page of books where they find information, and print out the homepage or contact page of websites. Allow students at least a week for research. Schedule time in the school media center or the computer lab so you can supervise and assist students as they search for relevant articles.

Students can also complete their research as homework. Session 3: Literature Review—Notes. Have students find the specific information in each article that helps answer their research question, and highlight the relevant passages. Check that students have correctly identified and marked relevant information before allowing them to proceed to the Literature Review section on the Research Paper Scaffold.

Instruct students to complete the Literature Review section of the Research Paper Scaffold, including the last name of the author and the publication date for each article to prepare for using APA citation style. Have students list the important facts they found in each article on the lines numbered 1—5, as shown on the Example Research Paper Scaffold. Additional facts can be listed on the back of the handout.

Remind students that if they copy directly from a text they need to put the copied material in quotation marks and note the page number of the source. Note: Students may need more research time following this session to find additional information relevant to their research question. Explain that interesting facts that are not relevant for the literature review section can be listed in the section labeled Hook. Facts listed in the Hook section can be valuable for introducing the research paper.

Use the Example Research Paper Scaffold to illustrate how to fill in the first and last lines of the Literature Review entry, which represent topic and concluding sentences. These should be filled in only after all the relevant facts from the source have been listed, to ensure that students are basing their research on facts that are found in the data, rather than making the facts fit a preconceived idea.

Then have students complete the other four sections of the Literature Review Section in the same manner. Session 4: Analysis. Explain that in this session students will compare the information they have gathered from various sources to identify themes. Explain the process of analysis using the Example Research Paper Scaffold.

Show how making a numbered list of possible themes, drawn from the different perspectives proposed in the literature, can be useful for analysis. In the Example Research Paper Scaffold, there are four possible explanations given for the effects of color on mood. Remind students that they can refer to the Example Student Research Paper for a model of how the analysis will be used in the final research paper. Have students identify common themes and possible answers to their own research question by reviewing the topic and concluding sentences in their literature review.

Students may identify only one main idea in each source, or they may find several. Instruct students to list the ideas and summarize their similarities and differences in the space provided for Analysis on the scaffold. Return the Research Paper Scaffolds to students with comments and corrections. Note: In the finished research paper, the analysis section will be about one paragraph. Session 5: Original Research. During this session, students formulate one or more possible answers to the research question based upon their analysis for possible testing.

Invite students to consider and briefly discuss the following questions: How can you tell whether the ideas you are reading are true? If there are two or more solutions to a problem, which one is the best? Researchers verify the validity of their findings by devising original research to test them, but what kind of test works best in a given situation? Explain the difference between qualitative and quantitative research.

Quantitative methods involve the collection of numeric data, while qualitative methods focus primarily on the collection of observable data. Quantitative studies have large numbers of participants and produce a large collection of data such as results from people taking a question survey. Qualitative methods involve more detailed interviews and artifact collection. Show how the research question in the Example Research Paper Scaffold goes beyond what is reported in a literature review and adds new information to what is already known.

The test must be safe, both physically and mentally, for those involved. This means no unsupervised, dangerous experiments. Parental approval should be obtained see Permission Form. The number of subjects should be kept to multiples of 10, so it is easier to report the data statistically. If the research involves a survey An equal number of male and female participants should be included if possible.

A wide range of ages should be included if possible. The survey should have no more than 10 questions. The survey form should include an introduction that states why the survey is being conducted and what the researcher plans to do with the data. Inform students of the schedule for submitting their research plans for approval and completing their original research.

Students need to conduct their tests and collect all data prior to Session 6. Normally it takes one day to complete research plans and one to two weeks to conduct the test. Session 6: Results optional. If students have conducted original research, instruct them to report the results from their experiments or surveys.

Quantitative results can be reported on a chart, graph, or table. Qualitative studies may include data in the form of pictures, artifacts, notes, and interviews. Study results can be displayed in any kind of visual medium, such as a poster, PowerPoint presentation, or brochure. Check the Results section of the scaffold and any visuals provided for consistency, accuracy, and effectiveness.

Session 7: Conclusion. This section may be one to two paragraphs. Remind students that it should include supporting facts from both the literature review and the test results if applicable. Encourage students to use the Conclusion section to point out discrepancies and similarities in their findings, and to propose further studies. Discuss the Conclusion section of the Example Research Paper Scaffold from the standpoint of these guidelines.

Check the Conclusion section after students have completed it, to see that it contains a logical summary and is consistent with the study results. Session 8: References and Writing Final Draft. Show students how to create a reference list of cited material, using a model such as American Psychological Association APA style, on the Reference section of the scaffold. Distribute copies of the Internet Citation Checklist and have students refer to the handout as they list their reference information in the Reference section of the scaffold.

Have students access the citation site you have bookmarked on their computers. Demonstrate how to use the template or follow the guidelines provided, and have students create and print out a reference list to attach to their final research paper. Explain to students that they will now use the completed scaffold to write the final research paper using the following genre-specific strategies for expository writing: Use active, present tense verbs when possible.

Avoid the use of personal pronouns such as I and my unless the research method was qualitative. Cite all sources.

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Note that this section is not an essay going over everything you have learned about the topic; instead, you must choose what is most relevant in explaining the aims of your research. To that end, while there are no prescribed rules for establishing the significance of your proposed study, you should attempt to address some or all of the following:. Literature Review. Connected to the background and significance of your study is a section of your proposal devoted to a more deliberate review and synthesis of prior studies related to the research problem under investigation.

The purpose here is to place your project within the larger whole of what is currently being explored, while demonstrating to your readers that your work is original and innovative. Think about what questions other researchers have asked, what methods they have used, and what is your understanding of their findings and, when stated, their recommendations.

Since a literature review is information dense, it is crucial that this section is intelligently structured to enable a reader to grasp the key arguments underpinning your proposed study in relation to that of other researchers. A good strategy is to break the literature into "conceptual categories" [themes] rather than systematically or chronologically describing groups of materials one at a time. Note that conceptual categories generally reveal themselves after you have read most of the pertinent literature on your topic so adding new categories is an on-going process of discovery as you review more studies.

How do you know you've covered the key conceptual categories underlying the research literature? Generally, you can have confidence that all of the significant conceptual categories have been identified if you start to see repetition in the conclusions or recommendations that are being made.

NOTE : Do not shy away from challenging the conclusions made in prior research as a basis for supporting the need for your proposal. Assess what you believe is missing and state how previous research has failed to adequately examine the issue that your study addresses. Research Design and Methods. This section must be well-written and logically organized because you are not actually doing the research, yet, your reader must have confidence that it is worth pursuing.

The reader will never have a study outcome from which to evaluate whether your methodological choices were the correct ones. Thus, the objective here is to convince the reader that your overall research design and proposed methods of analysis will correctly address the problem and that the methods will provide the means to effectively interpret the potential results. Your design and methods should be unmistakably tied to the specific aims of your study.

Describe the overall research design by building upon and drawing examples from your review of the literature. Consider not only methods that other researchers have used but methods of data gathering that have not been used but perhaps could be.

Be specific about the methodological approaches you plan to undertake to obtain information, the techniques you would use to analyze the data, and the tests of external validity to which you commit yourself [i. When describing the methods you will use, be sure to cover the following:.

Preliminary Suppositions and Implications. Just because you don't have to actually conduct the study and analyze the results, doesn't mean you can skip talking about the analytical process and potential implications. The purpose of this section is to argue how and in what ways you believe your research will refine, revise, or extend existing knowledge in the subject area under investigation. Depending on the aims and objectives of your study, describe how the anticipated results will impact future scholarly research, theory, practice, forms of interventions, or policymaking.

Note that such discussions may have either substantive [a potential new policy], theoretical [a potential new understanding], or methodological [a potential new way of analyzing] significance. When thinking about the potential implications of your study, ask the following questions:. NOTE : This section should not delve into idle speculation, opinion, or be formulated on the basis of unclear evidence. The purpose is to reflect upon gaps or understudied areas of the current literature and describe how your proposed research contributes to a new understanding of the research problem should the study be implemented as designed.

The conclusion reiterates the importance or significance of your proposal and provides a brief summary of the entire study. This section should be only one or two paragraphs long, emphasizing why the research problem is worth investigating, why your research study is unique, and how it should advance existing knowledge. Someone reading this section should come away with an understanding of:.

As with any scholarly research paper, you must cite the sources you used. In a standard research proposal, this section can take two forms, so consult with your professor about which one is preferred. In either case, this section should testify to the fact that you did enough preparatory work to ensure the project will complement and not just duplicate the efforts of other researchers.

Start a new page and use the heading "References" or "Bibliography" centered at the top of the page. Cited works should always use a standard format that follows the writing style advised by the discipline of your course e. This section normally does not count towards the total page length of your research proposal. Develop a Research Proposal: Writing the Proposal.

Office of Library Information Services. Teresa Pereira and Caroline Tynan. Graham Butt, editor. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, , pp. Nigel Gilbert, ed. Search this Guide Search. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper Offers detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences.

The Abstract Executive Summary 4. The Introduction The C. The Discussion Limitations of the Study 9. The Conclusion Appendices Definition The goal of a research proposal is twofold: to present and justify the need to study a research problem and to present the practical ways in which the proposed study should be conducted.

How to Approach Writing a Research Proposal Your professor may assign the task of writing a research proposal for the following reasons: Develop your skills in thinking about and designing a comprehensive research study; Learn how to conduct a comprehensive review of the literature to determine that a research problem has not been adequately addressed or has been answered ineffectively and, in so doing, become better at locating pertinent scholarship related to your topic; Improve your general research and writing skills; Practice identifying the logical steps that must be taken to accomplish one's research goals; Critically review, examine, and consider the use of different methods for gathering and analyzing data related to the research problem; and, Nurture a sense of inquisitiveness within yourself and to help see yourself as an active participant in the process of doing scholarly research.

Regardless of the research problem you are investigating and the methodology you choose, all research proposals must address the following questions: What do you plan to accomplish? Be clear and succinct in defining the research problem and what it is you are proposing to research. Why do you want to do the research? In addition to detailing your research design, you also must conduct a thorough review of the literature and provide convincing evidence that it is a topic worthy of in-depth investigation.

Be sure to answer the "So What? How are you going to conduct the research? Be sure that what you propose is doable. If you're having difficulty formulating a research problem to propose investigating, go here for strategies in developing a problem to study.

Common Mistakes to Avoid Failure to be concise. A research proposal must be focused and not be "all over the map" or diverge into on unrelated tangents without a clear sense of purpose. Failure to cite landmark works in your literature review. Proposals should be grounded in foundational research that lays a foundation for understanding the development and scope of the issue. Failure to delimit the contextual boundaries of your research [e.

As with any research paper, your proposed study must inform the reader how and in what ways the study will examine the problem. Failure to develop a coherent and persuasive argument for the proposed research. This is critical. In many workplace settings, the research proposal is intended to argue for why a study should be funded. Sloppy or imprecise writing, or poor grammar. Although a research proposal does not represent a completed research study, there is still an expectation that it is well-written and follows the style and rules of good academic writing.

Too much detail on minor issues, but not enough detail on major issues. Your proposal should focus on only a few key research questions in order to support the argument that the research needs to be conducted. Minor issues, even if valid, can be mentioned but they should not dominate the overall narrative.

Structure and Writing Style Beginning the Proposal Process As with writing most college-level academic papers, research proposals are generally organized the same way throughout most social science disciplines. A good place to begin is to ask yourself a series of questions: What do I want to study? Why is the topic important? How is it significant within the subject areas covered in my class? What problems will it help solve? How does it build upon [and hopefully go beyond] research already conducted on the topic?

What exactly should I plan to do, and can I get it done in the time available? Introduction In the real world of higher education, a research proposal is most often written by scholars seeking grant funding for a research project or it's the first step in getting approval to write a doctoral dissertation.

My list you will see below of what I want students to learn by the end of the lesson is enough to make any teacher look at their planbook sideways. The mission is to break down information enough for students to understand, and if you have more than two preps like I do it can become increasingly difficult to scaffold lessons in a manner that makes sense to the students and to your planbook. This post will walk you through my process for taking on this tedious task on over a weekend, and the end result using essay packets.

Before you really sit down to put together your ideas, you need to take an inventory of what you have done already, what you want to do with your students, what they need to know, and what the end result will be for the overall project. I have put together a cheat sheet of launching the research unit in a previous post. If you are a seasoned teacher, you already have materials and this process will go much faster. If you are a newbie yes! This is where time gets eaten up.

If you are new, reach out to collaborate with other people in your building about how they do business. You can make connections and can gain materials. Overall, the biggest thing to figure out is the end product and to make a list of all of the skills and lessons you want students to experience. This is a broad list that doesn't include smaller steps in-between. Students have a variety of levels and backgrounds within each research lesson.

In sixth grade, this is the first time they do an MLA research paper. This is by far the most difficult unit we do all year, but it is the most rewarding because students work hard for an end product, and they get to have an element of choice in their work. Now that we understand the task is huge. Let me break down how I went about this in about three hours. This is the dreaming and setup time of your endeavor. I love Pinterest because it supplies materials that seasoned teachers already use effectively in their classrooms.

My personal board is at the end of this post where I collect all of my inspiration for research. This is the time where you call your teacher friend or get on the internet to look up ideas. During the dreaming time, you have 3 main missions:. Figure out what you want students to learn in terms of skills. Figure out what genre you want students to write in argumentative or expository.

I really like at the middle school level having an over-arching theme that binds all of our research together. So I have broken down their projects into subjects that they might consider in the 's that are not particularly the Atomic Bomb or The Holocaust. Even though these two topics are options. Another example is sixth grade.

Both General 6 and Advanced 6 are going to have an over-arching theme of Activism for their research projects. I have listed suggested topics, but I want students to get passionate about problems together. Whether you have a binding theme, or if you let students choose, really the research unit is about the skills gained in terms of finding and presenting information.

After 30 minutes of dreaming, you need to start scheduling lessons. I love online planning like Planboard , but you may be a person who likes their planbook written down. When I am crunched for time, I do both. I know that sounds counter-intuitive, but organization is necessary when you have no time. First, I write down the plan in a broad format, and then I move my lessons around online.

This makes sense in my brain because I can do the big lessons on paper, and the Planboard is beneficial for the day-to-day and minute-by-minute stuff that I need to be figured out to teach. My scheduling follows this process:. I leave a notes page in the front for reminders or things I want to work on. My first picture is my notes page.

I know I wanted to change warm-ups for this marking period; however, I also knew I needed to streamline my Article of the Week grading process. It was taking too much time in Marking Period 3, and students were not getting enough feedback. After I make a helpful notes and reminders page first, I then make calendars for all of my preps or classes. I made a calendar to sequence the big lessons I want to accomplish and when I wanted big papers submitted by so that we remain on pace.

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My scheduling follows this process:. I leave a notes page in the front for reminders or things I want to work on. My first picture is my notes page. I know I wanted to change warm-ups for this marking period; however, I also knew I needed to streamline my Article of the Week grading process. It was taking too much time in Marking Period 3, and students were not getting enough feedback.

After I make a helpful notes and reminders page first, I then make calendars for all of my preps or classes. I made a calendar to sequence the big lessons I want to accomplish and when I wanted big papers submitted by so that we remain on pace.

I am always in awe of those that have established a TeachersPayTeachers business because making materials are the longest part of the process. This year I changed my research focus and my librarian and I wanted to make the notes more interactive, so I did an overhaul of my research packets. I have included the final product below. I love using essay packets because they allow students to work at their own pace and keep all of the notes in one spot. It is more work upfront, however, it pays off in the long term.

Students can see where we are going, and they understand that it is an undertaking of work from the start. The last hour and a half are where you might go over on time. I used this last hour and a half to locate my research packets and start making revisions. I will admit, I did not walk into the school week from the weekend with these packets done because I wanted to talk to my same grade level teachers and librarian, but all they needed was touchups from the weekend.

If you don't use essay packets, here are some other ways to prepare your materials for students:. Research folders. Students keep all of their materials in one spot. I have used manila folders, three-prong folders, and binders. Individual handouts for lessons that students keep together. I recommend marking down different milestones for different turn-ins so students do not lose work, and your collection of materials for grading is easier.

This is one of the better options if you are in a time crunch, but can be daunting in the long run because you have to keep making individual lessons. Interactive notebooks for research. I love this idea, and I love the ideas I see in the teacher internet world.

Download an existing unit from TPT. You support other educators, and you get a benefit of using materials that have been tested in the classroom for the most part. Check out my completed research packets below. I personally like to look at the difference between General 6 and Advanced 6 because they have the same topic, but they are scaffolded for a different level of teaching to students. Research Unit Plan Whether you have one of those moments where you decide to change your whole game plan up, or if you have something like I did that caused you to go into an unexpected mad scramble, sometimes it is helpful to know how someone else tackled a difficult task in a short amount of time.

Ready, Set Here is my list:. First 30 Minutes: Dream This is the dreaming and setup time of your endeavor. During the dreaming time, you have 3 main missions: Figure out what you want students to learn in terms of skills. Figure out what genre you want students to write in argumentative or expository Figure out how students will select topics. One Hour: Schedule After 30 minutes of dreaming, you need to start scheduling lessons.

My scheduling follows this process: I leave a notes page in the front for reminders or things I want to work on. Here is what my scheduling process looked like:. Last Hour and a Half: Prepare Materials I am always in awe of those that have established a TeachersPayTeachers business because making materials are the longest part of the process.

If you don't use essay packets, here are some other ways to prepare your materials for students: Research folders. Advanced English 6 Packet:. Advanced English General English Writing Mindset Reflection: What do you do when you need to change a unit at the last minute? In order for students to take ownership of knowledge, they must learn to rework raw information, use details and facts, and write.

Teaching writing should involve direct, explicit comprehension instruction, effective instructional principles embedded in content, motivation and self-directed learning, and text-based collaborative learning to improve middle school and high school literacy.

Expository writing, because its organizational structure is rooted in classical rhetoric, needs to be taught. Common Core Standards. Grade Select 6 7 8. State Standards. Students read a wide range of print and nonprint texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment.

Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works. Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres to build an understanding of the many dimensions e. Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features e.

Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language e. Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes. Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions e.

Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources e. Students use a variety of technological and information resources e. Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes e. Materials and Technology. Computers with Internet access and printing capability.

Citation Machine. Why Cite Information Sources? Decide how you will schedule the seven or eight class sessions in the lesson to allow students time for independent research. If necessary, reserve time in the computer lab for Sessions 2 and 8. Decide which citation website students will use to format reference citations see Websites and bookmark it on student computers.

Schedule time for research in the school media center or the computer lab between Sessions 2 and 3. Student Objectives. Students will Formulate a clear thesis that conveys a perspective on the subject of their research Practice research skills, including evaluation of sources, paraphrasing and summarizing relevant information, and citation of sources used Logically group and sequence ideas in expository writing Organize and display information on charts, maps, and graphs.

Session 1: Research Question. Briefly discuss how this research paper works to answer the question, How does color affect mood? The example helps students clearly see how a research question leads to a literature review, which in turn leads to analysis, original research, results, and conclusion. Pass out copies of the Research Paper Scaffold. Explain to students that the procedures involved in writing a research paper follow in order, and each section of the scaffold builds upon the previous one.

Briefly describe how each section will be completed during subsequent sessions. Note: The most important strategy in using this model is that students be allowed, within the assigned topic framework, to ask their own research questions. Introduce the characteristics of a good research question. Explain that in a broad area such as political science, psychology, geography, or economics, a good question needs to focus on a particular controversy or perspective.

How has glass affected human culture? What is the history of cheerleading? Explain that students should take care not to formulate a research question so broad that it cannot be answered, or so narrow that it can be answered in a sentence or two. Note that a good question always leads to more questions.

Invite students to suggest additional questions resulting from the examples above and from the Example Research Paper Scaffold. Emphasize that good research questions are open-ended. Open-ended questions can be solved in more than one way and, depending upon interpretation, often have more than one correct answer, such as the question, Can virtue be taught? Closed questions have only one correct answer, such as, How many continents are there in the world?

Open-ended questions are implicit and evaluative, while closed questions are explicit. This question is too narrow for a five-page paper as it can be answered in just a few words. How does color affect mood? Instruct students to fill in the first section of the Research Paper Scaffold, the Research Question, before Session 2.

This task can be completed in a subsequent class session or assigned as homework. Allowing a few days for students to refine and reflect upon their research question is best practice. Explain that the next section, the Hook, should not be filled in at this time, as it will be completed using information from the literature search. Session 2: Literature Review—Search. Introduce this session by explaining that students will collect five articles that help to answer their research question.

Once they have printed out or photocopied the articles, they will use a highlighter to mark the sections in the articles that specifically address the research question. This strategy helps students focus on the research question rather than on all the other interesting—yet irrelevant—facts that they will find in the course of their research.

Point out that the five different articles may offer similar answers and evidence with regard to the research question, or they may differ. The final paper will be more interesting if it explores different perspectives.

Demonstrate the use of any relevant subscription databases that are available to students through the school, as well as any Web directories or kid-friendly search engines such as KidzSearch that you would like them to use. Remind students that their research question can provide the keywords for a targeted Internet search.

The question should also give focus to the research—without the research question to anchor them, students may go off track. Explain that information found in the articles may lead students to broaden their research question. A good literature review should be a way of opening doors to new ideas, not simply a search for the data that supports a preconceived notion. Make students aware that their online search results may include abstracts, which are brief summaries of research articles.

In many cases the full text of the articles is available only through subscription to a scholarly database. Provide examples of abstracts and scholarly articles so students can recognize that abstracts do not contain all the information found in the article, and should not be cited unless the full article has been read.

Internet articles need to be printed out, and articles from print sources need to be photocopied. Each article used on the Research Paper Scaffold needs to yield several relevant facts, so students may need to collect more than five articles to have adequate sources. Remind students to gather complete reference information for each of their sources. They may wish to photocopy the title page of books where they find information, and print out the homepage or contact page of websites.

Allow students at least a week for research. Schedule time in the school media center or the computer lab so you can supervise and assist students as they search for relevant articles. Students can also complete their research as homework. Session 3: Literature Review—Notes. Have students find the specific information in each article that helps answer their research question, and highlight the relevant passages. Check that students have correctly identified and marked relevant information before allowing them to proceed to the Literature Review section on the Research Paper Scaffold.

Instruct students to complete the Literature Review section of the Research Paper Scaffold, including the last name of the author and the publication date for each article to prepare for using APA citation style. Have students list the important facts they found in each article on the lines numbered 1—5, as shown on the Example Research Paper Scaffold.

Additional facts can be listed on the back of the handout. Remind students that if they copy directly from a text they need to put the copied material in quotation marks and note the page number of the source. Note: Students may need more research time following this session to find additional information relevant to their research question.

Explain that interesting facts that are not relevant for the literature review section can be listed in the section labeled Hook. Facts listed in the Hook section can be valuable for introducing the research paper. Use the Example Research Paper Scaffold to illustrate how to fill in the first and last lines of the Literature Review entry, which represent topic and concluding sentences.

These should be filled in only after all the relevant facts from the source have been listed, to ensure that students are basing their research on facts that are found in the data, rather than making the facts fit a preconceived idea. Then have students complete the other four sections of the Literature Review Section in the same manner.

Session 4: Analysis. Explain that in this session students will compare the information they have gathered from various sources to identify themes. Explain the process of analysis using the Example Research Paper Scaffold. Show how making a numbered list of possible themes, drawn from the different perspectives proposed in the literature, can be useful for analysis.

In the Example Research Paper Scaffold, there are four possible explanations given for the effects of color on mood. Remind students that they can refer to the Example Student Research Paper for a model of how the analysis will be used in the final research paper. Have students identify common themes and possible answers to their own research question by reviewing the topic and concluding sentences in their literature review. Students may identify only one main idea in each source, or they may find several.

Instruct students to list the ideas and summarize their similarities and differences in the space provided for Analysis on the scaffold. Return the Research Paper Scaffolds to students with comments and corrections. Note: In the finished research paper, the analysis section will be about one paragraph.

Session 5: Original Research. During this session, students formulate one or more possible answers to the research question based upon their analysis for possible testing.

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