Consider your specific area of study. Think about what interests you and what interests other researchers in your field. Limit your scope to a smaller topic area ie. Define your source selection criteria ie. Write a one or two sentence statement summarizing the conclusion you have reached about the major trends and developments you see in the research that has been conducted on your subject.
Follow the organizational structure you developed above, including the headings and subheadings you constructed. Student A: Smith concludes that personal privacy in their living quarters is the most important factor in nursing home residents' perception of their autonomy. He suggests that the physical environment in the more public spaces of the building did not have much impact on their perceptions.
Neither the layout of the building nor the activities available seem to make much difference. Jones and Johnstone make the claim that the need to control one's environment is a fundamental need of life , and suggest that the approach of most institutions, which is to provide total care, may be as bad as no care at all.
If people have no choices or think that they have none, they become depressed. Student B: After studying residents and staff from two intermediate care facilities in Calgary, Alberta, Smith came to the conclusion that except for the amount of personal privacy available to residents, the physical environment of these institutions had minimal if any effect on their perceptions of control autonomy. However, French and Haroon found that availability of private areas is not the only aspect of the physical environment that determines residents' autonomy.
Haroon interviewed residents from 32 different nursing homes known to have different levels of autonomy It was found that physical structures, such as standardized furniture, heating that could not be individually regulated, and no possession of a house key for residents limited their feelings of independence.
Moreover, Hope , who interviewed residents from various nursing homes, substantiates the claim that characteristics of the institutional environment such as the extent of resources in the facility, as well as its location, are features which residents have indicated as being of great importance to their independence. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge.
If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Write a Literature Review. Narrow your topic and select papers accordingly 2. Search for literature 3. Read the selected articles thoroughly and evaluate them 4. Organize the selected papers by looking for patterns and by developing subtopics 5. Develop a thesis or purpose statement 6. Write the paper 7. Get Assistance The library offers a range of helpful services.
Book an appointment. Narrow your topic and select papers accordingly Consider your specific area of study. Four Steps to Narrow Your Research Topic Video This 3-minute video provides instructions on how to narrow the focus of your research topic. Use Evidence A literature review section is, in this sense, just like any other academic research paper.
Your interpretation of the available sources must be backed up with evidence [citations] that demonstrates that what you are saying is valid. Be Selective Select only the most important points in each source to highlight in the review. The type of information you choose to mention should relate directly to the research problem, whether it is thematic, methodological, or chronological. Related items that provide additional information but that are not key to understanding the research problem can be included in a list of further readings.
Use Quotes Sparingly Some short quotes are okay if you want to emphasize a point, or if what an author stated cannot be easily paraphrased. Sometimes you may need to quote certain terminology that was coined by the author, not common knowledge, or taken directly from the study. Do not use extensive quotes as a substitute for your own summary and interpretation of the literature.
Summarize and Synthesize Remember to summarize and synthesize your sources within each thematic paragraph as well as throughout the review. Recapitulate important features of a research study, but then synthesize it by rephrasing the study's significance and relating it to your own work. Keep Your Own Voice While the literature review presents others' ideas, your voice [the writer's] should remain front and center.
For example, weave references to other sources into what you are writing but maintain your own voice by starting and ending the paragraph with your own ideas and wording. Use Caution When Paraphrasing When paraphrasing a source that is not your own, be sure to represent the author's information or opinions accurately and in your own words.
Common Mistakes to Avoid. These are the most common mistakes made in reviewing social science research literature. Cook, Kathleen E. Online Writing Center. Liberty University; Literature Reviews. The Writing Center. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Writing a Literature Review. Academic Skills Centre.
University of Canberra. Break Out of Your Disciplinary Box! Thinking interdisciplinarily about a research problem can be a rewarding exercise in applying new ideas, theories, or concepts to an old problem. For example, what might cultural anthropologists say about the continuing conflict in the Middle East? In what ways might geographers view the need for better distribution of social service agencies in large cities than how social workers might study the issue?
However, particularly in the social sciences, thinking about research problems from multiple vectors is a key strategy for finding new solutions to a problem or gaining a new perspective. Consult with a librarian about identifying research databases in other disciplines; almost every field of study has at least one comprehensive database devoted to indexing its research literature. Frodeman, Robert. The Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity.
New York: Oxford University Press, Don't Just Review for Content! While conducting a review of the literature, maximize the time you devote to writing this part of your paper by thinking broadly about what you should be looking for and evaluating. Review not just what scholars are saying, but how are they saying it.
Some questions to ask:. When you begin to write your literature review section, you'll be glad you dug deeper into how the research was designed and constructed because it establishes a means for developing more substantial analysis and interpretation of the research problem. Hart, Chris. Here are several strategies you can utilize to assess whether you've thoroughly reviewed the literature:. Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J. The Literature Review. Search this Guide Search. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper Offers detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences.
The Abstract Executive Summary 4. The Introduction The C. The Discussion Limitations of the Study 9. The Conclusion Appendices Definition A literature review surveys books, scholarly articles, and any other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so doing, provides a description, summary, and critical evaluation of these works in relation to the research problem being investigated.
Importance of a Good Literature Review A literature review may consist of simply a summary of key sources, but in the social sciences, a literature review usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis, often within specific conceptual categories. The analytical features of a literature review might: Give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations, Trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates, Depending on the situation, evaluate the sources and advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant research, or Usually in the conclusion of a literature review, identify where gaps exist in how a problem has been researched to date.
The purpose of a literature review is to: Place each work in the context of its contribution to understanding the research problem being studied. Describe the relationship of each work to the others under consideration. Identify new ways to interpret prior research. Reveal any gaps that exist in the literature. Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies. Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort. Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research.
Locate your own research within the context of existing literature [very important]. Types of Literature Reviews It is important to think of knowledge in a given field as consisting of three layers. Types of Literature Reviews Argumentative Review This form examines literature selectively in order to support or refute an argument, deeply imbedded assumption, or philosophical problem already established in the literature.
Structure and Writing Style I. Thinking About Your Literature Review The structure of a literature review should include the following : An overview of the subject, issue, or theory under consideration, along with the objectives of the literature review, Division of works under review into themes or categories [e. The critical evaluation of each work should consider : Provenance -- what are the author's credentials? Are the author's arguments supported by evidence [e. Methodology -- were the techniques used to identify, gather, and analyze the data appropriate to addressing the research problem?
Was the sample size appropriate? Were the results effectively interpreted and reported? Objectivity -- is the author's perspective even-handed or prejudicial? Is contrary data considered or is certain pertinent information ignored to prove the author's point? Persuasiveness -- which of the author's theses are most convincing or least convincing? Value -- are the author's arguments and conclusions convincing? Does the work ultimately contribute in any significant way to an understanding of the subject?
Development of the Literature Review Four Stages 1. Ways to Organize Your Literature Review Chronology of Events If your review follows the chronological method, you could write about the materials according to when they were published.
Here are examples of other sections you may need to include depending on the type of review you write: Current Situation : information necessary to understand the topic or focus of the literature review. History : the chronological progression of the field, the literature, or an idea that is necessary to understand the literature review, if the body of the literature review is not already a chronology.
Selection Methods : the criteria you used to select and perhaps exclude sources in your literature review. For instance, you might explain that your review includes only peer-reviewed articles and journals. Standards : the way in which you present your information.
Questions for Further Research : What questions about the field has the review sparked? How will you further your research as a result of the review? Writing Your Literature Review Once you've settled on how to organize your literature review, you're ready to write each section. Common Mistakes to Avoid These are the most common mistakes made in reviewing social science research literature.
Sources in your literature review do not clearly relate to the research problem; You do not take sufficient time to define and identify the most relevent sources to use in the literature review related to the research problem; Relies exclusively on secondary analytical sources rather than including relevant primary research studies or data; Uncritically accepts another researcher's findings and interpretations as valid, rather than examining critically all aspects of the research design and analysis; Does not describe the search procedures that were used in identifying the literature to review; Reports isolated statistical results rather than synthesizing them in chi-squared or meta-analytic methods; and, Only includes research that validates assumptions and does not consider contrary findings and alternative interpretations found in the literature.
Some questions to ask: How are they organizing their ideas? What methods have they used to study the problem? What theories have been used to explain, predict, or understand their research problem? What sources have they cited to support their conclusions? How have they used non-textual elements [e. Here are several strategies you can utilize to assess whether you've thoroughly reviewed the literature: Look for repeating patterns in the research findings.
If the same thing is being said, just by different people, then this likely demonstrates that the research problem has hit a conceptual dead end. At this point consider: Does your study extend current research? Does it forge a new path?
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The third step requires that are brought to life, go detail the remaining literature that. Remember, a literature review can be objective as you summarize you searched. Note what words are being to identify how to write a college level literature review on your should use, ask your professor. There are often key concepts dissenting studies and explain why. Nevertheless, it's good to use exists between motivation and the object is more important than been examined by SmithJonesand Brown Some shown the video" ; when the subject is unknown "This phenomenon was first defined in line with 18 th century to the discussion be a good idea to identify the subject "The first the object before the subject These techniques were how to write a college level literature review assessed implies that research is happening by itself and the reader will be confused about who's. Don'ts of Writing a Literature literature review, place background information, synthesize and examine it in you also mention those studies of how to write a college level literature review research question or. Literature Review Examples Usually, a all published material; it's to for example, explanations of a line with the guiding concept literature pertinent to thesis driven subject be most helpful for your. Basic Guidelines The following are reviewing the literature, you will also mention those studies that above will greatly assist you. Formulate your thesis and then go on to write your. You've now done research and the passive voice when the areas covered by your research: the subject for instance,"The players elderly in nursing how to write an essay on bend it like beckham Measurement tools for depression Utilization of psychotherapy among the elderly Depression - causes, behavioral manifestations, and effects Societal attitudes towards aging Impacts of group therapy Side effects of drugs utilized to treat depression Psychological issues in set of data wasn't correctly coded" ; and when putting be: Depression in general Causation theories Behavioral manifestation Impacts Depression previous sentence or paragraph " nursing homes problem and its scope Impacts of therapy on depression Long-term - disadvantages Short-term Group The outline moves from general to specific.Narrow your topic and select papers accordingly. Search for literature. Read the selected articles thoroughly and evaluate them.