To find the DOI, when you read an article online, check the article details as you will usually find the DOI at the start of the article. For more help, contact your liaison librarian. Online maps may originate from an online map service, such as Google Maps, or from Digimap, the online Ordnance survey mapping tool. Note: Google Maps use data produced by Tele Atlas.
If you reproduce any map in your work, you must label and cite it as you would with any other type of image [link to image]. If you cannot find a suitable example in this list for a work published online in PDF, Word, HTML or an equivalent format, you can use the following layout.
You may find the book or report layouts will be suitable. Episodes can also be posted elsewhere online such as on YouTube. If you have viewed a television programme online, make sure you use the correct attribution, that is, the corporate author or name of broadcaster, wherever possible.
Copyright, including distribution rights, and authorship will belong, in the majority of cases, to the programme maker, not the person posting the video online. Access provided by. How to write a reference list. Here are some general guidelines on how to lay out references for publication in the Pharmaceutical Journal: Authors should focus on recent papers and papers older than five years should not be included except for an overriding purpose.
References should be denoted numerically and in sequence in the text, using superscript. Authors should, where possible, provide DOIs for the articles they cite. These should form part of the main reference section and should be numbered accordingly. Authors should avoid citing a personal communication, unless it provides essential information not available from a public source.
In this case, include the nature and source of the cited information, using a term or terms to indicate clearly that no corresponding citation is in the reference list. Place the source information in parentheses the name of the person and date of communication. The same format should be followed for documents available to scholars in an archive or a depository.
Authors can cite papers and poster sessions presented at meetings, including items that were presented but never published and items for which any subsequent publication is unknown. If subsequent publication is known, they should cite the published form rather than the meeting paper or poster session.
Country Name of Act: Name of sovereign this should be in italics Chapter number this should be in italics Place of publication Publisher Year of publication Great Britain. Chapter London: The Stationery Office; Annual Report. Trivial Disputes. Bad Science. Evidence-based practice and information literacy. Exploring methods in information literacy research.
Toponymical atlas of Spain. Soil mechanics: concepts and applications. London: Taylor and Francis; Feynman RP, Davies P. The character of physical law. London: Thomas Telford Publishing; Trans Graham DW. Oxford: Clarendon; Citing and referencing guide: Vancouver style. London: Imperial College London; Britannica Choosing Health: making healthier choices easier. Version 9. Design, construction, supervision and long-term behaviour of tunnels in swelling rock. In: Van Cotthem A. Statistical advice and short courses at Imperial College London.
Email sent to Mimi Weiss Johnson. Version 2. Falmouth: Hirst Magnetic Instruments Ltd; no date. Available from: DataStream [Accessed: 22nd June ]. British Airways PLC company report. In-text citation: Table illustrating checklist of information for common sources Pears and Shields, p. Pears, R. Durham, Pear Tree Books. Interviewed by: Jones L. Density-functional investigation of the rhombohedral to simple cubic phase transition of arsenic.
To be published in Physical Review B. The relationship between course socio-epistemological orientations and student perceptions of community of inquiry. The Internet and Higher Education. Available from: doi A tale of two citations. Improving the graduate nursing experience through support on a social media platform. If an article does not have a DOI and you retrieved it from a common academic research database through the university library, there is no need to include any additional electronic retrieval information.
The reference list entry looks like the entry for a print copy of the article. See APA 7, Section 9. Eaton, T. Whistleblowing and good governance. CPA Journal , 77 6 , 66— Weinstein, J. Social change 3rd ed. If the book has an edition number, include it in parentheses after the title of the book.
If the book does not list any edition information, do not include an edition number. The edition number is not italicized. American Nurses Association. Nursing: Scope and standards of practice 3rd ed. If the author and publisher are the same, only include the author in its regular place and omit the publisher.
Lencioni, P. The advantage: Why organizational health trumps everything else in business. However, if you listened to an audiobook and the content differs from the text version e. For ebooks and online audiobooks, also include the DOI number if available or nondatabase URL but leave out the electronic retrieval element if the ebook was found in a common academic research database, as with journal articles.
Poe, M. Reframing race in teaching writing across the curriculum. Young Eds. University Press of Colorado. Christensen, L. For my people: Celebrating community through poetry. Bigelow, B. Harvey, S. Miller Eds. Rethinking Schools. Also include the volume number or edition number in the parenthetical information after the book title when relevant. Freud, S. The ego and the id. Strachey Ed. Hogarth Press.
Original work published If you need to cite content found in your online classroom, use the author if there is one listed , the year of publication if available , the title of the document, and the main URL of Walden classrooms.
For example, you are citing study notes titled "Health Effects of Exposure to Forest Fires," but you do not know the author's name, your reference entry will look like this:. Health effects of exposure to forest fires [Lecture notes]. Walden University Blackboard. Smith, A. Health effects of exposure to forest fires [PowerPoint slides]. Walden University Brightspace. Feinman, Y.
Alternative to proctoring in introductory statistics community college courses [Poster presentation]. Torgerson, K. Tutoring strategies for online students [Conference session]. In Merriam-Webster. When constructing a reference for an entry in a dictionary or other reference work that has no byline i. The name of the entry goes in the title position, followed by "In" and the italicized name of the reference work e.
In this instance, APA 7 recommends including a retrieval date as well for this online source since the contents of the page change over time. End the reference entry with the specific URL for the defined word. Osborne, C. Re: Environmental responsibility [Discussion post]. Nalumango, K. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.
Organizational learning in libraries at for-profit colleges and universities [Doctoral dissertation, Walden University]. Kirwan, J. An experimental study of the effects of small-group, face-to-face facilitated dialogues on the development of self-actualization levels: A movement towards fully functional persons [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center. Brown v. Board of Education, U. In Brown v. Board of Education , the Supreme Court ruled racial segregation in schools unconstitutional.
Minnesota Nurse Practice Act, Minn. Sample citation: Minnesota nurses must maintain current registration in order to practice Minnesota Nurse Practice Act, To find this symbol in Microsoft Word, go to "Insert" and click on Symbol. Note: The Latin abbreviation " et seq. Anti-Phishing Act, S.
Anti-Phishing Act, H. The Anti-Phishing Act proposed up to 5 years prison time for people running Internet scams. These are the three legal areas you may be most apt to cite in your scholarly work. For more examples and explanation, see APA 7, Chapter Clay, R.
Science vs. Monitor on Psychology , 39 6. Baker, A. Connecticut students show gains in national tests. New York Times. Include the full date in the format Year, Month Day. Do not include a retrieval date for periodical sources found on websites. Note that for citations, include only the year: Baker For newspaper articles retrieved from a common academic research database, leave out the URL.
For newspaper articles from an online news website that is not an online version of a print newspaper, follow the format for a webpage reference list entry.
Title of document or page italics. Name of newspaper. What really went wrong in the financial crisis? The Financial Times. Bills, R. London: Harper and Row: Boughton, J. Political Science Quarterly , [e-journal] 42 6. Buskist, W. Association for Psychological Science. Chittenden, M. Times Online , [online] 1 June. Dornyei, Z. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
Ehrman, M. Fishman, R. Kipper, D. Knight, P. In Candlin, N. London: Routledge: McKay, S. New Jersey: Lawerence Erlbaum Associates. Moore, A. Oxon: Routeledge. Patterson, C. Richmond, J. Anglia Ruskin University. Silas, P. To be published in Physical Review B. University of Cambridge. Available from : www. More information on this referencing version:. Foundations for a theory of instruction and educational psychology. Harper and Row: The Bretton Woods proposal: an in-depth look.
Political Science Quarterly , 42 6. Rapport-building: creating positive emotional contexts for enhancing teaching and learning. Focus: NHS. Time s. Teaching and researching motivation. Pearson Education Limited. Interpersonal dynamics in second language learning. The rise and fall of suburbia. Castle Pres s. The development of EFL methodology. Routledge: Researching Second Language Classrooms.
Lawerence Erlbaum Associates. Foundations for a Theory of Instruction and Educational Psychology. Customer expectations in the world of electronic banking: a case study of the Bank of Britain. Density-functional investigation of the rhombohedral to simple cubic phase transition of arsenic. Physical Review B. This is a basic reference guide to citing and creating a reference list or a bibliography. It shows the correct way to create in-text citations and reference lists for books, journals, online newspapers and websites.
Web page link. Free Download. Two part worksheet that is a paragraph and reference list. Students have to put in the correct in-text reference. The second part is a reference list exercise where students have to put the sections in the correct order.
A nice lesson to introduce students to referencing and becoming aware of key referencing principles. Referencing: Harvard Referencing Worksheet 2 [new for ] This lesson supports students in their understanding and use of Harvard referencing. It contains six worksheets: a discussion on referencing, a noticing activity, a reordering task, an error identification exercise, a sentence completion task, a gap-fill activity and a reference list task.
This lesson supports students in their understanding and use of APA referencing. How to use www. This lesson is an introduction to using an online reference generator: www. It begins by providing a step-by-step guide to using the application and its many functions. The lesson is a task-based activity where students use the reference generator to create bibliography citations.
Worksheet example Time: 60mins. It starts by discussing the differences between quotation, paraphrase and summary. It takes students through the basics of identifying keywords, finding synonyms and then changing the grammatical structure. This lesson helps students to improve their paraphrasing skills. The guided learning approach includes a text analysis activity where students identify the paraphrasing strategies, five sentence-level tasks to practise the strategies and two paragraph-level exercises to build on the previous tasks..
Writing a paragraph — using quotes about smoking. They use these three quotes to write a paragraph trying to paraphrase the quotes and produce a cohesion piece of writing. Use the verbs in the box to put into the sentences in the worksheet. Each sentence has a description of the type of verb needed.
Check the grammar of the verb too! A primary source is main source of evidence. This can be raw data, records and key facts. A secondary source draws on the primary data and analyses it. Key questions to ask when evaluating source material Is there an author? Is there evidence? Where is it from? Is there a reference list? And in-text referencing?
It should be written in an academic formal style and quite difficult to read. This lesson highlights the key components of identifying credible and reliable resources. It includes a check list on 20 different sources and students have to decide whether these are credible or not? The basic overview All the sources that you use in the main body of your text must be listed at the end of your essay; this is called a reference list or bibliography.
The sources in the reference list must follow a specific word order and have correct punctuation. Important: different universities have slightly different versions of referencing so you need to check with your university what guide they use.
Look at these two examples of a book reference. Advice on creating a reference list Some universities do not have a single standard method for citing and referencing. Departments have different requirements so it is very important to check your student handbook or ask your academic supervisor to be clear on what is expected for your assignments and dissertations. Check which method you are required to use, footnotes or the in-text author-date Harvard method.
If your department has not specified the method and style then it is your choice. The emphasis is on consistency and not mixing methods and styles. Choosing a specific style will make it easier to find and follow rules for each reference. Tools Cite this for me is a website which contains advice on how to reference different resources, in a range of styles and provides a tutorial on citing and referencing practice. Firstly, make sure you know what to call the list of references at the end of your essay.
A bibliography, on the other hand, includes works that were consulted but not specifically cited in the essay. This is the traditional meaning of the term bibliography, at least. This table will show you how to label the list of references according to your chosen referencing style.
Once you know how to label your list of references, you can start putting the list together. Here are some general rules that apply to all referencing styles:. It can be helpful to copy and paste these suggested citations, but you will probably need to make some changes to ensure the citation is compliant with your referencing style.
This resource is great as it provides plenty of examples. Rather, universities adopt their own versions of Harvard style. This Harvard referencing guide from The University of East Anglia is comprehensive yet easy to understand — definitely one of the best guides out there! Note how a colon is used to introduce the page numbers. For more information, check out the ASA quick style guide.
As mentioned, the works cited list is equivalent to a reference list, so it must list all the publications that were cited in the essay. Want to know more? This MLA resource is highly recommended! The Chicago Manual of Style is updated regularly so always use the latest guidance. Finally, if you are using the Chicago footnote style of referencing, check out the bibliography guidance here. Overall, it made some interesting points, but there were no references to back up the claims that were made.
Would you think this was a good essay? Would you trust what the author had written? Or would you think it was lacking? In essence, this special list boosts the credibility of your essay. Need help with your referencing list or bibliography? Our essay writing service can help!
Why choose us? Manage Orders Sign Out. Written by Emma Taylor. Journal article Corsaro, W. Social Psychology Quarterly, 83 1 ,
It should be written in an academic formal style and. Book by same author in records and key facts. Last update of web page. Reporting verbs: worksheet Use the to paraphrase effectively It starts then it is your choice. A tentative view on primary. More digital resources and lessons. Referencing Guide: APA 7th Edition your paraphrasing skills [new for french coursework holiday need to check with a reference list or a. Use Wikipedia's permanent link available you cite and reference consistently. Health: OECD says governments must fight fat. Lecturer's comment sample cover letter harvard ocs Comma missing.Sample reference list. This is how you would list your references at the end of your assignment in alphabetical order by author. References. Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page "References" in bold, centered at the top of the page (do NOT. Authors can cite papers and.