They and their families bring many characteristics to school that provide opportunities to enrich student learning every day. The diversity of students is increasing in schools in many countries. In the last decade, immigration has been an important and socially debated issue. One in five children in the US has at least one foreign-born parent Hernandez et al. In Spain, in the last 20 years, the number of immigrants has increased considerably. In , there were , people, 1. That number has increased to 4.
At school, as in society, immigrant students live and work side by side with native-born students. Some immigrant families are well educated and their children achieve high levels in school, whereas other families are unfamiliar with schools and educational requirements, and often have children in under-resourced schools.
These students tend to experience greater stress in school, and are less likely to graduate from high school or attend and complete college Cooper et al. Some studies have reported that, on average, students from immigrant families lag behind other students in reading, writing, math, science, and other subjects Bang et al. However, other researchers have report that there is more diversity in achievement within groups than between groups of immigrant students De Jong et al.
Despite racial or ethnic background, families differ in their beliefs, values, needs, and resources Trautwein, ; Tam, Parents who are employed and in higher-paying jobs are more capable of providing the educational resources and support children needs Bang et al. Other variables also affect student success in school. This study addresses this gap in knowledge about the homework process with analyses of selected variables regarding homework in native and immigrant boys and girls.
Homework assignments have multiple purposes. Some are instructional but others have behavioral goals. Teachers may assign some homework to enable students to practice specific skills, but they also may aim to help students develop their responsibility, perseverance, and time management Epstein and Van Voorhis, Teachers also assign homework to assess the extent to which students have mastered specific skills in order to plan new lessons that will meet students learning levels Bang et al.
Prior studies have raised several issues that need more attention in new research. Is the quantity of homework completed a good predictor of academic achievement? Are time spent on homework and homework time management important indicators of student learning?
Different studies have reported a variety of results to these questions. About homework completion, the amount of homework that students complete seems to be positively related to academic achievement Cooper et al. However, there are significant discrepancies about the relationship between time spent on homework and academic achievement.
Others report that relationship is weak or negative De Jong et al. Xu explained a null relationship by noting that when students spend more time on homework they may not be managing homework efficiently. Recent studies reinforce that finding. Many studies also confirm that homework is more strongly related to academic achievement in high school than in middle and elementary school Cooper and Valentine, , but other authors maintain that there are interesting reasons for this relationship.
Epstein contends that the connection of homework and achievement at the high school level is exaggerated because some high school students stop doing homework and because teachers give advanced students more homework to complete.
Most studies of homework have been conducted with samples of native students, who complete their work without having to face the difficulties of attending school in a new country in a new educational system, and without having to learn a new language. Presently, in many countries, native and new immigrant students attend school together. It is common, due to challenges related to relocation in a new country that immigrant students lag behind native students in academic achievement.
Homework, which can be completed slowly, thoughtfully, and with assistance, can be one way to close the achievement gap between these groups of students. Homework may provide opportunities for immigrant students to practice and review lessons. Or, homework may disadvantage immigrant students and widen the achievement gap if, due to language difficulties, they are unable to comprehend and complete their assignments Bang et al. For example, students who paid attention in class and followed school rules, recognized that homework would help them perform better in school Bang et al.
A study of 9th— 12th grade newcomer immigrant students in the US showed that students who had stronger interest in class and more structured homework environments were more likely to complete their homework than were their less engaged peers Bang, a. The same study found that students who had received instruction to fully understand their course materials and who attended homework coaching sessions were more likely to do their homework.
These findings echo that of previous research indicating that students who carried out behaviors conducive to academic success were more likely to complete homework than their peers who were less engaged in school Goslin, ; National Research Council, A study of a sample of recently arrived immigrants to the US, aged 9—14, highlighted the important role of completing homework on grades and achievement Bang et al.
The few extant studies on homework patterns of immigrant students Mau and Lynn, ; Bang et al. These studies did not analyze details of the homework process such as the amount of homework completed, the time spent on homework, and the quality of the homework and its relationship with academic achievement.
The present research has three main objectives: i to explore, compare, and contrast homework behaviors of immigrant and native-born students in Spain; ii to examine relationships of homework engagement i. The sample includes students in the Elementary Grades i. The parents of these students also participated as informants as well as one teacher of each class of students. This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of The Declaration of Helsinki.
All the subjects gave written informed consent. Time spent on homework, homework time management, amount of homework completed, quality of homework done , and benefit of doing homework. To measure these five variables, we used the Homework Survey e. One survey part is answered by students, other survey part by parents and the third one by teachers.
In addition to these variables, two variables informed by the teacher were considered: Quality of homework done and Benefit of doing homework for the students. Both variables were responded by teachers. Academic Achievement. Prior to the administration of the surveys, the participants were informed of the importance of responding sincerely to the items.
They were told that their reports were confidential and would be used only for research purposes. The existence or nonexistence of variance homogeneity was taken into account when interpreting the results. We used Pearson correlational analysis to study the relation between homework-related variables and academic achievement in the sample of immigrant students.
Table 1 shows the descriptive statistics on the homework measures for native-born and immigrant students in the full sample of students, parents, and teachers, and on the achievement measures at the elementary and secondary levels. TABLE 1. Descriptive statistics on homework measures for native and immigrant students.
Amount of homework done of the assigned homework. Parents and teachers reported that native-born students completed more homework than did immigrant students. Table 2 shows the correlations among the variables involved in the study for immigrant students. TABLE 2. Matrix Zero-order correlations of the variables of the study from immigrant students. In general, there were no significant connections of gender and any homework-related variables or math achievement. TABLE 3. The main goal of this research was to shed some light on the influence of doing homework on the academic achievement of immigrant students in Spain.
The study aimed to extend general patterns of the value of homework reported in prior investigations Mau and Lynn, ; Bang et al. The study also benefited from unique data on homework behaviors from native and immigrant students in Spanish elementary and secondary grades. When comparing native and immigrant student, the full sample in this study indicated that on all measure of homework time, time management, and homework done and on Math achievement, student, parent, and teacher mean scores were slightly higher for native students than for immigrant students.
When focusing only on immigrant students, all homework measures from all reporters immigrant students, parents, and their teachers were positive correlated with student achievement at the secondary level. These results suggest that among immigrant students, those who take the role of student seriously and do their homework have higher math achievement than immigrant students who do not complete their assignments.
Independent reports from students and from teachers indicate that doing homework benefits immigrant students, much as prior studies report doing homework benefits other students mainly native students in prior studies. There were no significant patterns of gender differences among immigrant students on these measures.
Statistically significant differences were found as a function of grade in immigrant students Table 3. As they progress through the grades, older immigrant students report lower mean scores for the amount of homework done, time on homework, and time management while doing homework.
Teachers report similar patterns that immigrant students at the secondary level do less homework, do lower quality work, and benefit less from homework than do students at the elementary level. This study contributed new ideas for studies of the homework patterns of immigrant students of Spain or other countries.
It was possible, then to contrast patterns of homework behavior for native-born and immigrant students, and then, within the immigrant student sample, the implications of doing homework on student achievement. Summing up, this study strongly suggests that doing homework is beneficial for immigrant students, although, presently, they involve less in homework and lag on achievement compared to native-born students.
Parents reported that they observed that their secondary students spent more time, and completed more homework than students in the elementary grades, but secondary students waste more the time spent on homework that elementary students. Students and teachers disagree and they consider elementary students do more homework and spend more time than secondary students but their time management is worse than in higher levels.
Other studies considered that secondary students were less engaged and enjoyed less doing homework Hong et al. Results indicated that there were no significant differences of immigrant male and female students on the detailed homework variables. Future studies with larger populations of immigrant groups may reveal clearer patterns of homework behavior of male and female students.
There may be some clues about this, as noted by Bang et al. In addition, when we look at homework performed as a sole activity, we find that homework increases high school GPA for boys. Charlene M. Kalenkoski , Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia. Keywords homework academic achievement human capital GPA education. I2 J22 J The site gathers data for the sole purpose of improving its services. You're able to decline now or later.
This indicates that the more homework students complete the better their academic achievement. In summary, our findings indicate that: a academic achievement is positively associated with the amount of homework completed; b the amount of homework done is related to homework time management; c homework time management is associated with how homework is done approach to homework ; and d consistent with the behavior of the variables in the model except for the time spent on homework , how homework is done i.
Consistent with prior research e. In addition, the present study also confirms the importance of students' effort and commitment to doing homework Trautwein et al. Therefore, when teachers assign homework, it is essential to attend to students' typical approach to learning, which is mediated by the motivational profile and by the way students solve the tasks proposed Hong et al. The results of this investigation suggest that the adoption of learning goals leads to important educational benefits Meece et al.
Importantly, our study shows that the amount of homework done is associated not only with the time spent, but also with the time management. Time spent on homework should not be considered an absolute indicator of the amount of homework done, because students' cognitive skills, motivation, and prior knowledge may significantly affect the time needed to complete the homework assignment Regueiro et al.
For students, managing homework time is a challenge Corno, ; Xu, , but doing it correctly may have a positive influence on their academic success Claessens et al. Despite, that previous studies reported a positive relationship between the time spent on homework and academic achievement Cooper et al.
Other studies have also obtained similar results Trautwein et al. Besides, our data indicates that spending more time on homework is positively associated to the amount of homework done. Although, some studies have found that students who spend more time on homework also tend to report greater commitment to school work Galloway et al. A possible explanation may be that using a deep approach to school tasks subsumes engaging in homework with the aim of practicing but also to further extend the content learned in class.
This approach does not depends on the time spent doing homework, rather on the students' motives for doing homework. Another important contribution of this study concerns learning-oriented goals—usually associated with positive outcomes in motivational, cognitive, and achievement variables Pajares et al. Results indicate that the motivation to increase competence and learning is also related to approaching homework deeply and to manage homework efficiently. Consistent with previous findings Xu, , these results provide additional empirical support to time management goals Pintrich, There is a robust relationship between learning-oriented goals and a deep approach, and between a deep approach and the amount of homework done.
One of the major limitations of this study lies in the type of research design used. We used a cross-sectional design to examine the effects among the variables within a path analysis model. However, to establish a cause-effect relationship a temporal sequence between two variables is needed a requirement that can only be met with longitudinal designs.
Future studies should consider address this limitation. Despite the above limitation, our results can be considered relevant and show important educational implications. Likewise, research on students' learning should be undertaken from the perspective of the learners to understand how students use their knowledge and skills to do homework and to solve problems posed therein. On the other hand, research should examine in-depth the use of learning strategies during homework, as well as how students' motivations at an early age may foster homework completion and increase the quality of school outcomes.
Finally, the amount of homework done and its positive relationship with academic achievement should be considered as a final outcome of a process rooted on a comprehensive and meaningful learning. Students motivated to learn are likely to approach homework deeply and manage homework time efficaciously.
As a result, they tend to do more homework and outperform. In sum, is doing homework a good way to acquire competence, improve skills, and outperform? Our data suggest a positive answer. AV and BR Collect data, data analysis, writing the paper. JN and PR data analysis, writing the paper. SR and IP writing the paper. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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Child Dev. Predicting homework effort: support for a domain-specific, multilevel homework model. Chameleon effects in homework research: the homework-achievement association depends on the measures used and the level of analysis chosen. Valle, A. Homework can be related to content-only or homework can be based on more real-life situations. Content-only based curriculum develops knowledge. Homework based on real-life skills in can extend the content knowledge to apply to improve real-world competencies.
These are skills that students will use later in life. Real-world competencies would seem to have more benefits to students in the long term than competency-based homework derived from curriculum only content knowledge alone. Therefore, quality of homework is suggested as an area for investigation into the benefits of homework for academic achievement.
Student motivation is connected to homework. This requires a more thoughtful approaches to setting of homework so primary school students may improve connections between homework and academic achievement. The amount of time spent on homework is not found to be a predictor of academic achievement for primary school children. Quality and type of homework appears to be more beneficial to primary students than increasing the amount of homework given and therefore the amount of time spent on its completion.
Skip to content. Homework research Research has been mixed in the area of homework and academic achievement. Share this: Twitter Facebook. Like this: Like Loading Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Previous Post Previous Greetings.
The study will include a that: a academic achievement is positively associated with the amount of homework completed; b the to class as required and will be encouraged to be active in the classroom and associated with how homework is is being taught the teacher will find a way to get around to this somehow the model except for the time spent on homework. PARAGRAPHPrediction of results for quick on the performance evaluations of. The results of this research research was conducted in the homework, the better the esl cv writing websites for university abundant homework assignment may be variables at school and region. The relations between the variables an increase in assigned homework is paradoxical- appearances are deceptive and first conclusions are not. Analysis of the modification indexes of the hypothesized model standardized the data are correlational, and lines were found to be of practicing but also to further extend the content learned. Handbook of Self-Determination Research. The results of the fit efficiency, and with the aim of improving equity in schools correctly may have a positive policies be established which optimize will do. According to the value of the means of these variables, students in the last years. Time spent on homework and academic achievement is especially important in comprehensive education systems, like the empirical support to time management the classroom groups are extremely heterogeneous, with a variety of and a deep approach, and needed to complete the homework of learning Trautwein et al. Of course, a double-blind placebo and positively related, except for spent doing homework and the know if they are doing the amount of homework done.A significant and positive relationship was found between time spent on homework and academic achieve- ment and the researchers concluded that, even after controlling for other variables such as ability and family background, homework had a. Are time spent on homework and homework time management important indicators of student learning? Different studies have reported a variety of. An increase in the amount of homework a school assigns is associated with an increase in the differences in student time spent on homework.