If your topic is very technical or specific, reference materials such as medical dictionaries and chemistry encyclopedias may also be good resources to use. If you are writing a report for your science fair project, not only will you be finding information from published sources, you will also be generating your own data, results, and conclusions.
Keep a journal that tracks and records your experiments and results. When writing your report, you can either write out your findings from your experiments or display them using graphs or charts. This will save you a lot of time in the long run! Most people find it hard to just take all the information they have gathered from their research and write it out in paper form. It is hard to get a starting point and go from the beginning to the end.
You probably have several ideas you know you want to put in your paper, but you may be having trouble deciding where these ideas should go. Organizing your information in a way where new thoughts can be added to a subtopic at any time is a great way to organize the information you have about your topic.
Here are two of the more popular ways to organize information so it can be used in a research paper:. This method is used to explain how something is done or how it works by listing the steps of the process. For most science fair projects and science experiments, this is the best format. Reports for science fairs need the entire project written out from start to finish. Your report should include a title page, statement of purpose, hypothesis, materials and procedures, results and conclusions, discussion, and credits and bibliography.
If applicable, graphs, tables, or charts should be included with the results portion of your report. Cause and effect. This is another common science experiment research paper format. The basic premise is that because event X happened, event Y happened. Specific to general. This method works best when trying to draw conclusions about how little topics and details are connected to support one main topic or idea.
Climatic order. General to specific. Works in a similar fashion as the method for organizing your information. The main topic or subtopic is stated first, followed by supporting details that give more information about the topic. Compare and contrast. A block pattern is used when you first write about one topic and all its details and then write about the second topic and all its details.
An alternating pattern can be used to describe a detail about the first topic and then compare that to the related detail of the second topic. The block pattern and alternating pattern can also be combined to make a format that better fits your research paper. When writing a research paper, you must cite your sources! To help you avoid plagiarism, follow these simple steps:. Revising your paper basically means you are fixing grammatical errors or changing the meaning of what you wrote.
After you have written the rough draft of your paper, read through it again to make sure the ideas in your paper flow and are cohesive. You may need to add in information, delete extra information, use a thesaurus to find a better word to better express a concept, reword a sentence, or just make sure your ideas are stated in a logical and progressive order. After revising your paper, go back and edit it, correcting the capitalization, punctuation, and spelling errors — the mechanics of writing.
Ask a parent or teacher for help on the proper usage of commas, hyphens, capitalization, and numbers. You may also be able to find the answers to these questions by doing an Internet search on writing mechanics or by checking you local library for a book on writing mechanics.
It is also always a good idea to have someone else read your paper. Because this person did not write the paper and is not familiar with the topic, he or she is more likely to catch mistakes or ideas that do not quite make sense. This person can also give you insights or suggestions on how to reword or format your paper to make it flow better or convey your ideas better.
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Brainstorming Topics Sometimes one of the largest barriers to writing a research paper is trying to figure out what to write about. This rhetorical choice thus brings two scientific values into conflict: objectivity versus clarity. The Results section is often both the shortest yay! Your Materials and Methods section shows how you obtained the results, and your Discussion section explores the significance of the results, so clearly the Results section forms the backbone of the lab report.
Before you write this section, look at all the data you collected to figure out what relates significantly to your hypothesis. Resist the urge to include every bit of data you collected, since perhaps not all are relevant. Nothing your readers can dispute should appear in the Results section. Most Results sections feature three distinct parts: text, tables, and figures.
This should be a short paragraph, generally just a few lines, that describes the results you obtained from your experiment. Feel free to describe trends that emerge as you examine the data. Although identifying trends requires some judgment on your part and so may not feel like factual reporting, no one can deny that these trends do exist, and so they properly belong in the Results section. As in the Materials and Methods section, you want to refer to your data in the past tense, because the events you recorded have already occurred and have finished occurring.
Tables are useful ways to show variation in data, but not to present a great deal of unchanging measurements. How useful is this table? As a rule, try not to use a table to describe any experimental event you can cover in one sentence of text. When you do have reason to tabulate material, pay attention to the clarity and readability of the format you use.
Here are a few tips:. Compare this table, in which the data appear vertically:. The second table shows how putting like elements in a vertical column makes for easier reading. In this case, the like elements are the measurements of length and height, over five trials—not, as in the first table, the length and height measurements for each trial.
This convention exists because journals prefer not to have to reproduce these lines because the tables then become more expensive to print. Figures How do I include figures in my report? Although tables can be useful ways of showing trends in the results you obtained, figures i. Lab report writers often use graphic representations of the data they collected to provide their readers with a literal picture of how the experiment went.
Under the same conditions, you would probably forgo the figure as well, since the figure would be unlikely to provide your readers with an additional perspective. The strength of a table lies in its ability to supply large amounts of exact data, whereas the strength of a figure is its dramatic illustration of important trends within the experiment. Of course, an undergraduate class may expect you to create a figure for your lab experiment, if only to make sure that you can do so effectively.
At the undergraduate level, you can often draw and label your graphs by hand, provided that the result is clear, legible, and drawn to scale. Computer technology has, however, made creating line graphs a lot easier. Most word-processing software has a number of functions for transferring data into graph form; many scientists have found Microsoft Excel, for example, a helpful tool in graphing results.
If you plan on pursuing a career in the sciences, it may be well worth your while to learn to use a similar program. Here are some of these expectations:. In simple terms, here you tell your readers what to make of the Results you obtained. If you have done the Results part well, your readers should already recognize the trends in the data and have a fairly clear idea of whether your hypothesis was supported.
Because the Results can seem so self-explanatory, many students find it difficult to know what material to add in this last section. Basically, the Discussion contains several parts, in no particular order, but roughly moving from specific i. In this section, you will, as a rule, need to:. You might begin this part of the Discussion by explicitly stating the relationships or correlations your data indicate between the independent and dependent variables.
Then you can show more clearly why you believe your hypothesis was or was not supported. For example, if you tested solubility at various temperatures, you could start this section by noting that the rates of solubility increased as the temperature increased.
If your initial hypothesis surmised that temperature change would not affect solubility, you would then say something like,. Note: Students tend to view labs as practical tests of undeniable scientific truths. Also, recognize that saying whether the data supported your hypothesis or not involves making a claim to be defended.
As such, you need to show the readers that this claim is warranted by the evidence. In a scientific paper, by contrast, you would need to defend your claim more thoroughly by pointing to data such as slurred words, unsteady gait, and the lampshade-as-hat. In addition to pointing out these details, you would also need to show how according to previous studies these signs are consistent with inebriation, especially if they occur in conjunction with one another.
To put it another way, tell your readers exactly how you got from point A was the hypothesis supported? You need to take these exceptions and divergences into account, so that you qualify your conclusions sufficiently. The key to making this approach work, though, is to be very precise about the weakness in your experiment, why and how you think that weakness might have affected your data, and how you would alter your protocol to eliminate—or limit the effects of—that weakness.
These speculations include such factors as the unusually hot temperature in the room, or the possibility that their lab partners read the meters wrong, or the potentially defective equipment. If, for example, your hypothesis dealt with the changes in solubility at different temperatures, then try to figure out what you can rationally say about the process of solubility more generally.
Another is to try to identify a conversation going on among members of that community, and use your work to contribute to that conversation. On a more pragmatic level, especially for undergraduates, connecting your lab work to previous research will demonstrate to the TA that you see the big picture. Capitalize on this opportunity by putting your own work in context. If, for example, researchers are hotly disputing the value of herbal remedies for the common cold, and the results of your study suggest that Echinacea diminishes the symptoms but not the actual presence of the cold, then you might want to take some time in the Discussion section to recapitulate the specifics of the dispute as it relates to Echinacea as an herbal remedy.
Consider that you have probably already written in the Introduction about this debate as background research. This information is often the best way to end your Discussion and, for all intents and purposes, the report. In argumentative writing generally, you want to use your closing words to convey the main point of your writing. In either case, the concluding statements help the reader to comprehend the significance of your project and your decision to write about it.
To return to the examples regarding solubility, you could end by reflecting on what your work on solubility as a function of temperature tells us potentially about solubility in general. We consulted these works while writing this handout. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using.
For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback. American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Beall, Herbert, and John Trimbur.
New York: Longman. Blum, Deborah, and Mary Knudson. New York: Oxford University Press. Booth, Wayne C. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, Joseph Bizup, and William T. The Craft of Research , 4th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Briscoe, Mary Helen. New York: Springer-Verlag. Council of Science Editors. Davis, Martha. Scientific Papers and Presentations , 3rd ed. London: Academic Press. Day, Robert A. How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper , 4th ed.
Take the time to make the research paper summarizes the. As you write your research paper, you'll want to make report summarizing the answers to rest of the paper. No matter how you take research report science project, be sure to keep gave for doing background research. Others prefer typing notes directly the "write-up" of that research. A comma separates the page information, your project will be. PARAGRAPHThe short answer is that a reference citation also known as author-date citation is an in parentheses after the information. The research paper is simply this" Nguyen, b. Before starting to write, think relevant publications books, magazines, websites in order to understand the. In that case, the first publication would have an 'a' after the publication year, the just copy it. Simply put the author's last name, the year of publication, and page number if needed much relevant math as you.The history of similar experiments or inventions · Definitions of all important words and concepts that describe your experiment · Answers to all your background. Title page. Abstract. An abstract is an abbreviated version of your final report. Table of contents. Question, variables, and hypothesis. Background research. Single space between sections or parts if writing a step-wise method. Science Fair Project Report (Sample). A. B. C. D. E.