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Year after year, we review dozens of reader nominations, revisit sites from past lists, consider staff favorites, and search the far-flung corners of the web for new celebration of new year essay for a varied compilation that will prove an asset to any writer, of any genre, at any experience level. This selection represents this year's creativity-centric websites for writers. These websites fuel out-of-the-box thinking and help writers awaken their choke palahnuik and literary analysis. Be sure to check out the archives for references to innovative techniques and processes from famous thinkers like Einstein and Darwin. The countless prompts, how-tos on guided imagery and creative habits, mixed-media masterpieces, and more at Creativity Portal have sparked imaginations for more than 18 years. Boost your literary credentials by submitting your best caption for the stand-alone cartoon to this weekly choke palahnuik and literary analysis from The New Yorker. The top three captions advance to a public vote, and the winners will be included in a future issue of the magazine.

Blog essay sudan teacher muhammad bear english research essay proposal

Blog essay sudan teacher muhammad bear

The list of Sudanese literary authors with works written in Arabic and translated into English comprises both established as well as recent male and female writers:. This short story has been called "a mix of classical traditions as well as the vernacular contexts of its location" and was first published in The Book of Khartoum.

In addition to seven books in Arabic, he has also published his poetry, novels and short stories in German translation. Another Sudanese writer of international recognition is Amir Taj al-Sir, born in He has published more than a dozen books, including poetry and nonfiction.

Ishraga Mustafa Hamid born is a poet, literary translator and human rights activist of Sudanese origin, living in Austria since Writing both in Arabic and German, her literary works encompass poetry and prose, often reflecting her own or the experiences of other migrants in Austria. Abdelaziz Baraka Sakin born has written several popular novels and collections of short stories, including al-Jango , [55] which deals with the conditions in a women's prison and won the Al-Tayeb Salih Award for Creative Writing.

Since , Baraka Sakin has lived in exile in Austria and has been invited to a number of literary festivals in France and Germany. Mansour El Souwaim , born , has released two novels and two collections of short stories. Hamed al-Nazir born , a Sudanese journalist and novelist living in Qatar , has published three acclaimed novels.

This novel and several of his stories have appeared in English translation, including in the anthology The Book of Khartoum Comma Press, as well as in Banipal magazine. Stella Gaitano, born in Khartoum of parents from southern Sudan in , has published both short stories and a novel in Arabic that have been translated into English. She grew up and studied in Khartoum, and writes stories often dealing with the harsh living conditions of people from southern Sudan, who have endured discrimination and military dictatorship , or war and displacement in the northern part of Sudan.

Rania Mamoun born is another contemporary female writer, who has written novels and short stories, translated as Thirteen Months of Sunrise. Sabah Sanhouri born , is a cultural essayist and literary author from Khartoum, who writes prose as well as poetry. In an article about Sudanese female novelists, Sawad Hussain, [69] who has translated several novels from Arabic to English, discusses the difficulties of literature by Sudanese female authors, like Amna al-Fadl, [70] Ann El Safi, [71] Rania Mamoun, Sara Al-Jack , [72] or Zeinab Belail, [73] to be translated and published in English.

In the same article, Sawad Hussain mentions a bibliography of the Sudanese novel by Nabil Ghali that lists novels published in Arabic in Sudan from to , and of them between and Modern literature for children and young adults has been written, among others, by authors and illustrators such as Abdel-Ghani Karamallah [75] and Salah El-Mur.

Another book for children called Kadisa Sudanese expression for cat was written in by Sudanese-American elementary teacher Rasha Hamid and illustrated by Sharhabil Ahmed , a well-known musician and graphic artist. In the 21st century, Sudanese comic strips and graphic storytelling have beeb enjoying a growing audience, mainly being published on social media, but also in the form of magazines or during national comic competitions. As a political cartoonist living in the Sudanese diaspora, Khalid Albaih has become known for his social and political caricatures in Arab and international online media.

The earliest records of a writer from Sudan using the English language are the memoir and other literary works of Selim Aga , born around in Taqali , a historical state in the Nuba Hills , in modern-day central Sudan. In , he published his autobiographical Incidents Connected with the Life of Selim Aga , written in "faultless idiomatic English".

Taban Lo Liyong , who was born in southern Sudan in and studied in the s in the United States, is one of Africa's well-known poets, writers of fiction and literary criticism. His nonfiction output consists of argumentative and amusing personal essays and bold literary criticism Leila Aboulela , who was born in in Cairo, Egypt, to an Egyptian mother and a Sudanese father, and grew up in Khartoum, is a Sudanese writer who lives in Scotland and writes in English.

Her poems, short stories and novels have received international acclaim [84] and have been translated into other languages, including Arabic. Jamal Mahjoub , who was born in London in of British and Sudanese parents and grew up in Khartoum, writes in English and has published a trilogy taking place in Sudan. His novel A Line in the River recounts the years from the military coup of up to the separation of South Sudan in The last 30 years have been difficult for Sudanese artists of all kinds — among them musicians and painters, but particularly writers.

The coup triggered an exodus. Inside the country, a new generation of writers has since grown up in the shadow of repression. Despite these difficulties writers have continued to work and publish, both within the country and abroad. In a climate where newspapers are regularly censored, journalists detained and print runs seized, books have remained cherished items to be passed around with reverence.

A representative of young writers of Sudanese origin, living in the worldwide Sudanese diaspora , is Safia Elhillo born , a Sudanese-American poet known for her written and spoken poetry. Her collection of poetry The January Children refers to the children born in Sudan under British occupation, whose birth date was often indiscriminately recorded as 1 January. Emtithal Mahmoud , who was born in Darfur in , moved with her parents to the United States as a child. She became known as a spoken word poet and activist for refugees.

In , she won the Individual World Poetry Slam championship and has since published her first collections of poems in English, entitled Sisters' Entrance. Through his story, he tried to bring further international attention to the plight of his people and country. Yassmin Abdel-Magied born , a Sudanese-Australian media presenter and writer , first became known for her outspoken engagement in community work and Australian media, including talks and blogs about her multicultural identity as a young Muslim woman in Australia.

In , she published her memoir called Yassmin's Story , [91] and in a novel for young adults , entitled You Must Be Layla. Based on their painful experiences of persecution , human trafficking and deplacement, a number of people from southern Sudan have published their memoirs in English.

After emigrating to the U. In a period of flourishing cultural life in Sudan from the s and up to the restrictions of many public activities by the Public Order Laws since , foreign and Sudanese theatre plays in the modern sense enjoyed a certain amount of popularity in Khartoum. In addition, Banipal literary magazine published a special issue in on Sudanese literature today.

Spencer, Mamoun Eltlib [45] and others. An outstanding Sudanese scholar and literary critic with a long list of publications on poetry or other genres, and in Arabic in general, was Abdallah al-Tayyib — His primary field of study was the Arabic language and its creative use in poetry. One of his most notable works is A Guide to Understanding Arabic Poetry , a massive opus written over thirty-five years.

Some of his collection of folk stories from Sudan and Africa have been translated into English. Through his radio programmes on literature, he contributed also to a wider appreciation of literature for people without access to written sources. Another notable scholar on language and culture in Sudan was Awn Alsharif Qasim — Among many other works, he authored the Sudanese Encyclopedia of Tribes and Genealogies in seven volumes and pages, a pioneer, state of the art series of books about place or personal names and Sudanese tribes, their roots and origins.

Several departments of the University of Khartoum , like the Faculty of Arts, the Institute of Asian and African Studies or of Islamic Studies, publish academic scholarship relating to the history and present of culture in Sudan. The list of Sudanese writers of nonfiction , as another important form of narrative writing , includes authors like Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im [] or Sadiq al-Mahdi , [] known for their contributions to such topics as Islamic thought , politics or social issues in Sudan.

Addressing Sudanese and other Arab readers, these are published in Arabic, although some publications, such as essays , academic scholarship, interviews or other journalistic texts, have also been translated into English. One of the Sudanese online magazines , focussing on Sudanese culture and the close relationships of life in Sudan and South Sudan, as well as with other East Africa n neighbours, is the bilingual Andariya Magazine.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Oral and written works of Sudanese authors. Berkley , "The Contours of Sudanese Literature", p. The Guardian, May An ethnic literature is one which is available to one ethnic group within the nation. Retrieved 20 June Oxford: Oxford University Press. International Journal of Middle East Studies. S2CID Davies, R. O'Fahey, and Anthony Appiah. The most widely known Sudanese literary works in this language are associated with Islam and its scholarship and include a large body of literature describing the lives and virtue of holy men.

These works are best known through recitations on special anniversaries associated with pious persons. The combination of oral and written literature remains of major importance to both traditional and Westernized segments of Sudanese society. The reason is that there are elements to oral traditions in these places that cannot be captured by words alone, such as gestures, dance, and the interaction between the storyteller and the audience.

According to Nwi-Akeeri, oral literature is not only a narrative, but also a social performance. Nwi-Akeeri, Mbube Research Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies. ISSN Foley writes about the continuing importance of oral traditions in human communication: "Indeed, if these final decades of the millennium have taught us anything, it must be that oral tradition never was the 'other' we accused it of being; it never was the primitive, preliminary technology of communication we thought it had to be.

Rather, if the whole truth is told, oral tradition stands out as the single most dominant communicative technology of our species, as both a historical fact and, in many areas still, a contemporary reality. Anne MacKay ed. Signs of Orality. ISBN Heroes of Arabia. Cambridge [England]: University Press. Stories from the sands of Africa. London: Longman. Modern Sudanese Poetry: An Anthology. U of Nebraska Press. Al Arabiya English. Retrieved 25 June Khartoum Star.

Retrieved 2 July Institute for War and Peace Reporting. Tydskrif vir Letterkunde. BBC News. Khartoum University Press, , p. The post-Independence novel has attempted to grant us our profound and deeply rooted historical identity, with its negative and positive sides. Retrieved 23 July The Daily Star, Lebanon. Retrieved 29 July Sudan Notes and Records. JSTOR American University in Cairo Press. Retrieved 22 January Retrieved 27 December Retrieved 22 July Retrieved 10 February Retrieved 28 June Words Without Borders.

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MY GREEN WORLD ESSAY FOR 500 WORDS

Sharkey wrote: "Along with the Tabaqat of Ibn Dayf Allah a biographical dictionary of Sudanese Muslim holy men compiled in the late eighteenth century , [4] the Funj Chronicle is the most important Arabic source for the northern riverain Sudan in the Funj era, a period when Islam was spreading widely.

Literature in contemporary Sudan is either recited orally or written in the Arabic language , with certain types also in local languages , such as poetry in the Fur language of western Sudan. These oral types of storytelling may be simply recited by individuals or by groups of persons, or they may be accompanied by singing and musical accompaniments, thus transgressing the theoretical definition of literature and music. Among the living oral traditions, there are the Ahaji folk tales and the Madih , or religious praise tales.

The first kind generally have a mythological and often local character. According to literary critic Eiman El-Nour, "they invariably have happy endings and are full of fanciful scenes and superstitions that describe the magic powers of genies and ogres. From the beginning of modern written literature, and going back to age-old oral traditions, poetry and songs have been the most popular genres in Sudan.

Poetry and songs continue to occupy a prominent role in contemporary Sudanese culture. Songs celebrating the beauty of the land, its regions and scenery have been very popular in modern music since at least the s. Before independence, poems and the lyrics of songs were often artistic expressions of nationalism and other political issues.

During more recent times of political oppression, forms of oral literature have been expressions of resistance towards the rulers of the day, and have even led to the imprisonment or exile of poets like Mahjoub Sharif — [17] or musicians like Mohammed Wardi — A traditional form of oral poetry are the songs of praise or ridicule by female singers of Western Sudan , called Hakamat.

These are women of high social standing, respected for their eloquence, intuition and decisiveness, who may both incite or vilify the men of their tribe , when engaged in feuds with other tribes. Because of this, they have recently been invited by peacebuilding initiatives in Darfur in order to exert their influence for conflict resolution or other social issues, like environmental protection. In the Sudan, as in other Third World countries, an inherent respect for the spoken word has created an awareness of the intimate links between language, literature and social reality.

This awareness of the intimate links between language and society causes the Sudanese writers' conception of literature to be more holistic than the view of his Western counterpart. It is believed that "Art" has always been in the service of man. Moreover, literary scholar Constance E. Berkley states that "Sudanese Arabic literature has links with all Arabic literature , both past and present.

At the same time, it is valid in its own right. Although there were several newspapers published in Sudan around the beginning of the 20th century, like Jaridat al-Sudan , a biweekly paper published in Arabic and English first printed in , arguably the most important newspaper in terms of impact on modern Sudanese literature was Al-Ra'id The Pioneer. This newspaper, published in Arabic, started in Khartoum , the Sudanese capital, in and presented a variety of poetry and other literary forms.

Its first editor was the well-known poet and journalist Abdul Raheem Glailati. In , the British authorities deported him to Cairo because of his article criticising the poor living conditions of Sudanese. Despite this, he later could publish a collection of revolutionary, nationalist poetry in Another important factor for the development of written literature in Sudan was the spread of modern educational institutions , like the Gordon Memorial College in Khartoum and other non-religious schools in major cities like Omdurman or Wad Madani.

Before this development, the only books available for education were those written in Arabic. Schooling in the English language also provided Sudanese intellectuals with access to English literature , translations from other Western languages and to non-fiction al publications on world-wide issues.

Apart from poetry, the most prominent literary genre in Sudan is the short story. This form of writing started in the s and was largely influenced by Arabic short stories in Egyptian newspapers. This central theme of what it means to be Sudanese is marked in more or lesser degrees by both African roots as well as by Arabic cultural influences.

In line with social and political developments in other countries at the time, stories, novels and poems dealing with social realist themes, like the conflicts between social classes were also written in Sudan. Written by the short story writer and novelist Malkat al-Dar Mohamed in the early s, it was only published after her death in Arguably the most notable Sudanese writer is Tayeb Salih — , who wrote both novels and short stories.

His most famous work, translated as Season of Migration to the North and published in , deals with the coming of age of a student returning to Sudan from England. The novel was banned in the author's native Sudan for a period of time, because of its sexual imagery, but today it is readily available. Ibrahim Ishaq — was a Sudanese novelist and short story writer, whose narrative works are mostly set in his native Darfur region of western Sudan.

From on, he published six novels and three collections of short stories , as well as academic studies about the history and literature of Africa. Through his subject-matter and elements of the local forms of language, he introduced the life and culture of Darfur to readers in other parts of the country. According to the editor and translator of The Book of Khartoum, [38] Max Shmookler, Sudanese literature of the late 20th century is characterized by an "association between estrangement ghurba and the West al-gharb " that "has run deep in Sudanese society and literature.

Examples for this contrast and estrangement can be found in Tayeb Salih's Season of Migration to the North, but also in stories about human tragedy, like the pandemic in Amir Taj al-Sir 's novel Ebola 76 or in the short story Isolation [40] by one of the youngest authors, Sabah Sanhouri.

Here we find the tension between Sudanese society as it is and how it might have been and could, perhaps, still become. This is the tension between the present state of conflict — over resources, political power, and identity — and the nostalgia for a more harmonious past, or perhaps the aspiration for a different type of future.

Other recurrent themes are the "undeniable and long history of conflict and political turbulence", [41] caused by authoritarian governments, for example in the political poems of Mahjoub Sharif, violent clashes between militias and impoverished human beings in Abdelaziz Baraka Sakin 's novels or discrimination and violence against women , told by female authors like Rania Mamoun or Stella Gaitano.

Among contemporary Sudanese poets, Mahjoub Sharif is remembered for his poems "for freedom, full with music, witty, agitating, but always didactic. Political discrimination has also affected the Sudanese Writers Union , which was founded in in order to promote freedom of expression and to bring together writers of different cultural groups. It was dissolved by the military government of Omar al-Bashir in and could only be revived from onwards.

But a short time later, these informal meetings were also banned by the government. The list of Sudanese literary authors with works written in Arabic and translated into English comprises both established as well as recent male and female writers:.

This short story has been called "a mix of classical traditions as well as the vernacular contexts of its location" and was first published in The Book of Khartoum. In addition to seven books in Arabic, he has also published his poetry, novels and short stories in German translation. Another Sudanese writer of international recognition is Amir Taj al-Sir, born in He has published more than a dozen books, including poetry and nonfiction.

Ishraga Mustafa Hamid born is a poet, literary translator and human rights activist of Sudanese origin, living in Austria since Writing both in Arabic and German, her literary works encompass poetry and prose, often reflecting her own or the experiences of other migrants in Austria.

Abdelaziz Baraka Sakin born has written several popular novels and collections of short stories, including al-Jango , [55] which deals with the conditions in a women's prison and won the Al-Tayeb Salih Award for Creative Writing. Since , Baraka Sakin has lived in exile in Austria and has been invited to a number of literary festivals in France and Germany. Mansour El Souwaim , born , has released two novels and two collections of short stories.

Hamed al-Nazir born , a Sudanese journalist and novelist living in Qatar , has published three acclaimed novels. This novel and several of his stories have appeared in English translation, including in the anthology The Book of Khartoum Comma Press, as well as in Banipal magazine. Stella Gaitano, born in Khartoum of parents from southern Sudan in , has published both short stories and a novel in Arabic that have been translated into English.

She grew up and studied in Khartoum, and writes stories often dealing with the harsh living conditions of people from southern Sudan, who have endured discrimination and military dictatorship , or war and displacement in the northern part of Sudan.

Rania Mamoun born is another contemporary female writer, who has written novels and short stories, translated as Thirteen Months of Sunrise. Sabah Sanhouri born , is a cultural essayist and literary author from Khartoum, who writes prose as well as poetry.

In an article about Sudanese female novelists, Sawad Hussain, [69] who has translated several novels from Arabic to English, discusses the difficulties of literature by Sudanese female authors, like Amna al-Fadl, [70] Ann El Safi, [71] Rania Mamoun, Sara Al-Jack , [72] or Zeinab Belail, [73] to be translated and published in English.

In the same article, Sawad Hussain mentions a bibliography of the Sudanese novel by Nabil Ghali that lists novels published in Arabic in Sudan from to , and of them between and Modern literature for children and young adults has been written, among others, by authors and illustrators such as Abdel-Ghani Karamallah [75] and Salah El-Mur. Another book for children called Kadisa Sudanese expression for cat was written in by Sudanese-American elementary teacher Rasha Hamid and illustrated by Sharhabil Ahmed , a well-known musician and graphic artist.

In the 21st century, Sudanese comic strips and graphic storytelling have beeb enjoying a growing audience, mainly being published on social media, but also in the form of magazines or during national comic competitions. As a political cartoonist living in the Sudanese diaspora, Khalid Albaih has become known for his social and political caricatures in Arab and international online media.

The earliest records of a writer from Sudan using the English language are the memoir and other literary works of Selim Aga , born around in Taqali , a historical state in the Nuba Hills , in modern-day central Sudan. In , he published his autobiographical Incidents Connected with the Life of Selim Aga , written in "faultless idiomatic English".

Taban Lo Liyong , who was born in southern Sudan in and studied in the s in the United States, is one of Africa's well-known poets, writers of fiction and literary criticism. His nonfiction output consists of argumentative and amusing personal essays and bold literary criticism Leila Aboulela , who was born in in Cairo, Egypt, to an Egyptian mother and a Sudanese father, and grew up in Khartoum, is a Sudanese writer who lives in Scotland and writes in English.

Her poems, short stories and novels have received international acclaim [84] and have been translated into other languages, including Arabic. Jamal Mahjoub , who was born in London in of British and Sudanese parents and grew up in Khartoum, writes in English and has published a trilogy taking place in Sudan.

His novel A Line in the River recounts the years from the military coup of up to the separation of South Sudan in The last 30 years have been difficult for Sudanese artists of all kinds — among them musicians and painters, but particularly writers. The coup triggered an exodus.

Inside the country, a new generation of writers has since grown up in the shadow of repression. Despite these difficulties writers have continued to work and publish, both within the country and abroad. In a climate where newspapers are regularly censored, journalists detained and print runs seized, books have remained cherished items to be passed around with reverence.

A representative of young writers of Sudanese origin, living in the worldwide Sudanese diaspora , is Safia Elhillo born , a Sudanese-American poet known for her written and spoken poetry. Her collection of poetry The January Children refers to the children born in Sudan under British occupation, whose birth date was often indiscriminately recorded as 1 January.

Emtithal Mahmoud , who was born in Darfur in , moved with her parents to the United States as a child. She became known as a spoken word poet and activist for refugees. In , she won the Individual World Poetry Slam championship and has since published her first collections of poems in English, entitled Sisters' Entrance. Through his story, he tried to bring further international attention to the plight of his people and country.

Yassmin Abdel-Magied born , a Sudanese-Australian media presenter and writer , first became known for her outspoken engagement in community work and Australian media, including talks and blogs about her multicultural identity as a young Muslim woman in Australia. In , she published her memoir called Yassmin's Story , [91] and in a novel for young adults , entitled You Must Be Layla.

Based on their painful experiences of persecution , human trafficking and deplacement, a number of people from southern Sudan have published their memoirs in English. After emigrating to the U. In a period of flourishing cultural life in Sudan from the s and up to the restrictions of many public activities by the Public Order Laws since , foreign and Sudanese theatre plays in the modern sense enjoyed a certain amount of popularity in Khartoum.

In addition, Banipal literary magazine published a special issue in on Sudanese literature today. Spencer, Mamoun Eltlib [45] and others. An outstanding Sudanese scholar and literary critic with a long list of publications on poetry or other genres, and in Arabic in general, was Abdallah al-Tayyib — His primary field of study was the Arabic language and its creative use in poetry. One of his most notable works is A Guide to Understanding Arabic Poetry , a massive opus written over thirty-five years.

Some of his collection of folk stories from Sudan and Africa have been translated into English. Through his radio programmes on literature, he contributed also to a wider appreciation of literature for people without access to written sources. Another notable scholar on language and culture in Sudan was Awn Alsharif Qasim — Among many other works, he authored the Sudanese Encyclopedia of Tribes and Genealogies in seven volumes and pages, a pioneer, state of the art series of books about place or personal names and Sudanese tribes, their roots and origins.

Several departments of the University of Khartoum , like the Faculty of Arts, the Institute of Asian and African Studies or of Islamic Studies, publish academic scholarship relating to the history and present of culture in Sudan. The list of Sudanese writers of nonfiction , as another important form of narrative writing , includes authors like Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im [] or Sadiq al-Mahdi , [] known for their contributions to such topics as Islamic thought , politics or social issues in Sudan.

Addressing Sudanese and other Arab readers, these are published in Arabic, although some publications, such as essays , academic scholarship, interviews or other journalistic texts, have also been translated into English.

One of the Sudanese online magazines , focussing on Sudanese culture and the close relationships of life in Sudan and South Sudan, as well as with other East Africa n neighbours, is the bilingual Andariya Magazine. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Oral and written works of Sudanese authors. Berkley , "The Contours of Sudanese Literature", p. The Guardian, May An ethnic literature is one which is available to one ethnic group within the nation.

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Could you have brought it? She came to live in this train car with her mother after their home in Uglehorsk, Donetsk Oblast, was destroyed by missiles. Valentina is traveling with her mother to Peru, where she hopes to meet her father and other relatives who have already made the journey. She fled South Sudan, in the midst of conflict, where the war and instability had created a severe food crisis.

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