decline of ottoman empire essay

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Decline of ottoman empire essay

The fall of Constantinople in to Ottoman empire caused an inflation on prices of goods, restriction on slave trade, the key source of labor in Europe, the loss of Mediterranean trade routes and imposed a religious threat to Eastern Europe. This monopoly of goods caused, an already poor Europe, to seek for a resolution to the Ottoman decree. Christopher Columbus theorized a more direct route to Asia to sell to Christian monarchs.

His theory stated that the circumference of the Earth was much. Their military practice and successful transition to the use of gun powder made them one of the most successful ruling bodies in the Middle East. The Ottoman Empire which ruled until modern times had great influence on the Middle Eastern world. Their political and economic abilities astonished the western world. Their religious views and fears were. The epic and unbelievable fall of the Ottoman Empire is largely attributable to its earlier successes in implementing its expansion strategy.

At its peak in the early s, the Ottoman Empire stretched from the Libyan desserts in North Africa to the snow covered peaks of Kurdistan and Armenia. Eastwards, the empire spread its reach up to the Iraq oil fields and to the West the empire border lied on Bosnian mountain valleys. Such was the extent of the empire and various administrative. First World War even began, the Ottoman Empire was in a state of weakness and rapid transformation.

The nineteenth century was one of humiliation, as the Ottomans struggled to recover control of their corrupted and exhausted military, failing economy, and lost territories. Although the Ottoman Empire was in no shape to fight in another. In our world we see a lot of empires that rise and fall, sometimes within a single lifetime and sometimes over the span of centuries.

Empires fall for many different reasons. Civil and traditional wars are just a couple of big reasons that are covered in this analysis. The Ottoman empire was one of the longest lasting empires in the world. At their height of the empire, they were the biggest superpower in the world.

In many dynasties, it is critically important to have a well balanced society and economy. Anderson displays many of the reasons why these two empires were so great during their time, but evidently loss of power and control of government can be a major turning point and, eventually, led to the decline of these empires. This specific chapter focus on the systems of governance that was established in each empire. The Safavid Empire was one of the.

After the fall of the Ottoman empire, Turkey received a new identity as Modern Turkey. With Turkey being home to over 45 different ethnic and religious groups, this makes it a diverse and unique nation. This goes to show how unity is important in a diverse country like Turkey for its future success. All of these contribute to the cultural makeup of this country.

The Empire, at its height, ruled most of the land around the Mediterranean. Corruption of its political and military leaders slowly caused internal strife to enter the conflict. The West slowly became a commercial and financial leader, disabling the Ottoman economy to catch up and compete against the West. The government was also in shambles as sultans who succeed in the throne were either weak, or unskilled. Reform was unable to prosper especially in provinces as officials tend to buy their way into power.

Johnson even takes into consideration the effects of German intervention and the Balkan Wars to the Ottoman decline, which were only discussed briefly in the previous articles. He cites that when the Germans slowly entered the race in founding their own Empire, it threatened the Ottoman control over the Middle East and in the Balkan region.

He concluded that the decline of the Ottoman Empire not only caused Europe to succumb into war, but it ultimately led them to begin the first few skirmishes of the First World War. The demise of the Ottoman Empire can be directed in both internal and external forces which influenced the grip hold of the Empire to its subjects, territories, and officials. With these sources noted, readers can digress which of these internal and external factors had most influence over the Empire's slow demise.

On the one hand, it could have been the cause of the clashing ideologies in the Ottoman society as they create their own identity. It could also have been caused by incompetent leaders who wish to gain more power as their foes continued to flourish. On the other hand, it could have been the mixture of all these possibilities that have led to the Empire's demise.

Nevertheless, these identified factors could be related to the present situation of the ever changing society as ideologies, political agendas and conflict continue to ravage certain parts of the globe. These readings would help in further understanding the root nature of political, social, and external conflicts which has constantly changed past and present societies such as the Ottoman Empire.

Black, Antony. New York: Routledge, World History. Boston: Wadsworth, Hanioglu, M. Johnson, Robert. Lewis, Bernard. Pamuk, Sevket. Quataert, Donald. The Ottoman Empire, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Turnbull, Stephen. The Ottoman Empire Wellingborough: Osprey Publishing, We accept sample papers from students via the submission form. If this essay belongs to you and you no longer want us to display it, you can put a claim on it and we will remove it.

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The Causes to the Decline of the Ottoman Empire In ancient history, two Empires can be considered the foundations of two of the most practiced religions in the globe — the Byzantine Empire and the Ottoman Empire. History of the Ottoman Empire The beginnings of the Ottoman Empire can be learned through collections of reference books and translated historical documents available for viewing.

The Demise of an Empire With the many wars and conquests won by the Ottoman Empire, it would have seemed that the Ottomans were unstoppable in continuing its expansion throughout the European and Asian regions. Bibliography Black, Antony. Ottoman Empire. Byzantine Empire.

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The Ottoman Empire did not fell down in blaze fighting, and there was not a single major catastrophic events that aroused the ottomans decline. What is rolling between people is that two Thesis Statement: The decline of the Ottoman Empire was caused due to several economic setbacks, and changes in society. Some examples might include government and administration, military strength, and economic power.

These were only some of the key figures in the decline of this empire. Essay: The Ottoman Empire was one of the biggest empires in history. However, the empire started to decline slowly until it disappeared due to economic and society changes. This essay will compare the change in the Ottoman Empire between the golden age, and the decline period in government and administration, military strength, and economic power.

I will also tell you in my own opinion what I think the worst decline in the Ottoman Empire was between government and administration, military strength, and economic power. In the golden age of the Ottoman Empire , they controlled parts of Europe combined with Asia.

He encouraged expansion of the empire and seized control and began taxes in the trade routes between Europe and Asia, He made The first land controlled by the Ottoman Empire was the Anatolian peninsula. The Ottoman Empire would become on of the most successful states because of a variety of reasons including the fall of the Byzantium Empire , military tactic, and more to be addressed.

This combination of reasons was required for the Ottoman Empire to become so powerful. The beginning of the Ottoman Empire can be associated with the decline of the Byzantium Empire. Expanding new states led to a lost of power for the Byzantium empire Quataert, In an attempt to remain powerful the Empire reinvented itself and remained in control of Anatolian provinces. Three major problems later arose for the Empire. First, the strategic location of the Empire led to conflicts with the Venetian and Genoese merchant states.

Another problem was powerful states in the north, such as Bulgarian and Serbian kingdoms. The largest problem, which led to the formation of the Ottoman state, was the migration of Turkish nomads into the Middle East around the first millennium. The nomads had beliefs such as a fragmented At its height, the Ottoman empire ca. Its size rivaled that of the great cAbbasid empire — , and it united many disparate parts of the Islamic world.

Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Ottoman conquests allowed them control of many ports and sole access to the Black Sea, from which even Russian vessels were excluded, and trade among the provinces increased greatly. As the largest city in western Asia or Europe, Istanbul was the natural center of this commerce.

Businessmen in Aleppo and Bursa sold silk to Ottoman , Venetian, French, and English merchants, and North African woven furnishings were popular throughout the region. Damascus was an important stop along the pilgrimage route to Mecca and Medina, supplying caravans on their way to those cities and goods to their residents.

On the level of imperial patronage, Urban claimed that the goal was to reclaim the Holy Land, but the real reason behind the Crusades was not for God, but for power. The Pope wanted to extend his power over the Byzantine Empire. The first few Crusades were about reclaiming the Holy Land, but when the fourth Crusade came, the religious ideals were shed in exchange for those of greed and political ambition. By the time the Crusades ended, the Byzantine Empire was weak, and soon they were conquered by the Turks.

These Turks would soon identify themselves as the Ottoman Empire , and would bring about great changes that would affect the world in which we live in. From the 12th Century to the 14th Century, the Ottoman Empire continued to grow through conquest and If you know much about the Ottoman Empire , you know that they are usually considered a tolerant society.

But what was it exactly that made them such a tolerant society? From the beginning of its society, the Ottoman Empire was always tolerant. The Tanzimat Period in the Ottoman Empire was a period of reform that replaced the millet system in an attempt to create more equality among the millets. Also, it provided the major motive for the modernization of education which allowed training of professionals such as teachers and doctors.

As a result, the state centralized decisions in its own hands. In conclusion, according to Michelle Campos, the Tanzimat reforms aimed at preserving the declining Ottoman Empire. For instance, the Noble Edict of the Rose Chamber which ascertained life and property rights and introduced tax reorganisations and banned execution without trial was introduced. However, the reforms were meant to please the European nations as they were formulated based on European models.

The reforms were however, rejected by spiritual academics who believed that the reforms were a big risk to their power. Campos,, Michellle. Gelvin,, James. Lockman,, Zachary. Makdisi,, Ussama. Owen,, Roger. On Writers24x7 you can order your academic assignment from one of our project experts. Hire your expert directly for plagialism free paper. Select the paper type, page limit, discipline, and format, and then set the deadline.

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If you have an urgent order, we can do it! Our writers will need at least three hours to complete it. Have no time to compose your paper? That's okay. Get your college paper done by experts Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins. Check Prices Order Now. Decline of the Ottoman Empire Essay The Ottoman Empire underwent a period of dynamic reforms as Mahmud was able to deliberate on internal reforms.

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The beginnings of the Ottoman Empire can be learned through collections of reference books and translated historical documents available for viewing. Turnbull divided his discussion into nine parts; covering the wars that had separated the Seljuk Turks, the establishment of the Ottoman government, the beginnings of the Ottoman Expansion to Europe in , its success in expansion in ; which also covers the various advancement and traditions settled in the period, the major wars the Empire partook through the times of Osman the II to Murad the IV, and finally, how the decline slowly began in Mihailovic wrote several memoirs that explained his life in the Ottoman Army, its structure and function, and how it could be defeated by those who understand the inner workings of the Ottoman Empire.

Grand Vizier Koprulu, on the other hand, founded the Koprulu noble family and was the chief adviser of Mehmed IV, leading to several sieges in the Balkan region and Europe such as Venice, Crete, and the Aegean islands1. However, M. He had also contrasted Turkish history to that of the histories of Europe and the world. The book also contains a breakdown of the life of an Ottoman society, from its cultural to its political facet; incorporating narratives from archives2.

The book also focuses on the Tanzimat and Hamidian Regime: the Tanzimat was the restructuring of the Ottoman Empire in periods of Mahmud II and Abdulmecid I to allow non-Muslims and non-Turks to join in society with equal bounds; the Hamidian era prominently became known to the , Armenian massacres ordered by Abdul Hamid II, believing that the problems of his Empire is due to the influence of the Europeans in the form of the Armenians3.

The expansion continued on through the successors of Murad I, beginning with Bayazid I who advanced towards Bulgaria and France. Mehmet II captured Constantinople after his control over the Dardanelles and Bosporus territories, enabling him to stop all allies of the Byzantine emperor from aiding the falling city.

The Ottomans were able to defeat the Safavids in , subsequently turned to Mamluks, Egypt. Under the reign of Selim I , the Ottomans defeated the Mamluks in , while Cairo fell in The Ottomans then continued on to Tripoli, Tunis, and Algeria in the African region, enabling them to gain access the Strait of Gibraltar.

North Africa then became a link of the Ottomans to other regions in Europe and in the Mediterranean. However, the power of the Ottomans gradually weakened by the 17th century as the local elites slowly gained the power to dethrone their pashas. The Mamluks even returned to power in the 18th century. Nevertheless, the Ottomans continued to push forward to Europe, especially under the reign of Suleiman I the Magnificent 4 Quataert even added that the Ottoman system throughout its expansion became a blend of systems influenced by the Byzantine, Turkish, Balkan and Islamic factors, which was true due to the territories it had claimed.

They can also be considered the first world powers alongside the Safavids, and the Moghuls as they ensured the balance of economic and political power in the region. However, the Ottoman Empire was incomparable to the Ming-led Chinese Dynasty as they were the most powerful and wealthy nation present at the period. With the many wars and conquests won by the Ottoman Empire, it would have seemed that the Ottomans were unstoppable in continuing its expansion throughout the European and Asian regions.

However, like any other nation, the Ottoman Empire was vulnerable to internal strife that ultimately caused their demise. He identified three ideologies — Islamic, Ottoman, and Turkish, which not only clashed in their visions of the ideal Ottoman society, but also clashed with the idea of identity. The Ottoman idealism, on the other hand, concentrates on the political loyalty of its subjects from all religions, surmising nationalism from all subjects.

However, the Ottoman outlook became contested by the Muslims and some of the non-Muslims as their rulers were mostly pro-Islamic and others already grew a separatist stance which changed their idea of people and authority 7 The Turkish standpoint or Turkism involved the acknowledgement of all Turks and the creation of a pan-Turkish state that would transform into a republican Turkey.

Since the Empire continued to dominate the European and Asian continents with cavalry type of warfare, their cavalry had to be tied down by their political agenda, causing them to have issues in developing their own type of weaponry8. With the Empire depending on the power of its military, the Ottomans had to ensure that revenue and income generates to its land-based troops. In the case of the OSM, their declines are due to the decentralized and ineffectiveness of their state policies, limiting its power to sustain the Empire.

The reforms eventually caused Ottoman polity to become stuck in a standstill due to its constant reconfiguration of its rules and warfare. The Battle could be considered the greatest battle fought in the Mediterranean and the most crucial battle for the Ottomans. Soon after, the Ottomans met on a stalemate with the Balkans in , gradually decreasing their fighting capacity. The Ottomans also found themselves locked into continuous conflicts against the Habsburgs, Iran, Russia, Poland and Venice.

Although they have succeeded in some fronts, the Ottoman Empire sustained heavy defeats in Vienna, Hungary, Greece and Serbia. Since the Ottoman Empire depended on the military, the reverses caused trauma to the collective power of the Ottoman army. For winning many wars and skirmishes, the Ottoman society had basked in the glory of its leaders, ensuring they would follow the military leaders assigned to them. Black wrote in his narrative that as the Ottoman government tried to improve the military arm of the Empire, it only resulted in the rebellion of the jannisaries and ulama.

Other reformers such as the Koprulu family, and the Sunni group were also discussed by Black in understanding the other groups that have contributed to the decline of political reform in the Ottoman. Like the decline of the Empire in its other territories, the Balkans also found itself in a conflict due to the definition of a class society, and identity; as well as the capacity of their economic stability and growth.

Stoianovich noted that with the devaluation of Ottoman money and the continuous economic decline of the Empire, many groups such as a merchant and artisan classes rebelled to force sumptuary laws that would sustain their living. The article also discussed the ciftlik regime or the casa-grande e senzala, a type of regime that enclosed the entire region under strict monitoring He noted that as the economic constrains in the Empire made its trading power smaller than those of the European nations.

In his article, The Decline of the Ottoman Empire, c. Corruption of its political and military leaders slowly caused internal strife to enter the conflict. The West slowly became a commercial and financial leader, disabling the Ottoman economy to catch up and compete against the West. The government was also in shambles as sultans who succeed in the throne were either weak, or unskilled.

Reform was unable to prosper especially in provinces as officials tend to buy their way into power. Johnson even takes into consideration the effects of German intervention and the Balkan Wars to the Ottoman decline, which were only discussed briefly in the previous articles.

He cites that when the Germans slowly entered the race in founding their own Empire, it threatened the Ottoman control over the Middle East and in the Balkan region. He concluded that the decline of the Ottoman Empire not only caused Europe to succumb into war, but it ultimately led them to begin the first few skirmishes of the First World War. The demise of the Ottoman Empire can be directed in both internal and external forces which influenced the grip hold of the Empire to its subjects, territories, and officials.

With these sources noted, readers can digress which of these internal and external factors had most influence over the Empire's slow demise. On the one hand, it could have been the cause of the clashing ideologies in the Ottoman society as they create their own identity. It could also have been caused by incompetent leaders who wish to gain more power as their foes continued to flourish. On the other hand, it could have been the mixture of all these possibilities that have led to the Empire's demise.

Nevertheless, these identified factors could be related to the present situation of the ever changing society as ideologies, political agendas and conflict continue to ravage certain parts of the globe. These readings would help in further understanding the root nature of political, social, and external conflicts which has constantly changed past and present societies such as the Ottoman Empire. Black, Antony. New York: Routledge, World History. Boston: Wadsworth, Hanioglu, M. Johnson, Robert.

Lewis, Bernard. Pamuk, Sevket. Quataert, Donald. The Ottoman Empire, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Turnbull, Stephen. The Ottoman Empire Wellingborough: Osprey Publishing, The use of the longbow and firearms made the feudal methods of fighting obsolete. Today, we learn the history of our countries and other countries because the history goes around and comes around and we should not commit the exact blunder.

One of the examples of the history we learn is the decline of Rome which was caused by political instability such as constant changes of emperors, military faults which caused severe consequences, and economic and civic decay of ancient Rome. For instant, approximately twelve emperors out of twenty-two emperors were assassinated during the period of to CE.

The Roman army began to become lazy and was damaged due to their abandoned ground drills. Going into the fourth century it attempted to explain the decline of Roman Empire only based on economic and social terms. The Romans came a long way and fought a battle that made them stronger and realizing their mistakes they have done throughout centuries. One could argue that the difficulties the Roman Empire faced are one that could not subject to happen in the future.

His son, Commodus, was next in line for the throne. Commodus managed government affairs horrendously. One major mistake he made, was to sell government offices to the highest bidder Fsmitha. This allowed for corrupt and overall bad people to gain positions of power in the government. Following World War I, the empire was faced with so many conflicts, they were unable to remain strong. Even though the reformers set out to strengthen the empire, it is quite possible they are the reason for the fall of the Ottoman Empire.

However, in the third century, the Roman Empire began to suffer a period of drastic decline, and the value of diplomacy progressively started to disappear. The ineffectiveness of the Roman emperors proved to be disastrous, as the government endured instability among its leaders. Consequently, foreign militaries invaded and conquered areas of the vast empire. There are several valid theories as to why the Roman Empire gradually degenerated. Historians have hypothesized it was due to the following reasons: overexpansion of the empire; the excessive spending of the military; the disintegration of the political infrastructure; various fatal plagues, a drastic decline in the population; and the rise of Christianity.

Home Page Ottoman Empire Essay. Ottoman Empire Essay Satisfactory Essays. Open Document. Essay Sample Check Writing Quality. It was the largest empire of its time and it was very developed in the terms of science, art, military, culture and production. The formation of the Ottoman society was very unique. There was not any empire or society that was similar to Ottoman Empire in history again. The Ottomans was a multicultural society. There were other nations and minority groups who were living within the empire along with the Turks.

The feature of this diversity made a multicultural army with a central authority. Ottoman Empire was ruled by sultans. The caliphate within the empire was father to son that means after sultan's death he was being replaced by his son. Among the sultans, Sultan Suleiman was very remarkable. He was known by sultan the Magnificent. During sultan Suleiman's reign Ottoman Empire achieved economy, military, social and artificial success.

Moreover, the land of the empire was notably expanded. Several attractive mosques and palaces were built during his rule. They were designed by Sinan. The significant factors that caused the decline of the Ottoman Empire were internal political chaos, military and economy decline. One of the highlighted causes that led to the decline of the Ottoman Empire was internal political chaos. It's been said that "A great civilization is no The major causes were internal political riots, military and economic decline within the empire.

The political riot within the empire was basically about sultan's family. Caliphate was back to back which means son replaces his father.