essay on coleridges kubla khan as an allegorical poem

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Year after year, we review dozens of reader nominations, revisit sites from past lists, consider staff favorites, and search the far-flung corners of the web for new celebration of new year essay for a varied compilation that will prove an asset to any writer, of any genre, at any experience level. This selection represents this year's creativity-centric websites for writers. These websites fuel out-of-the-box thinking and help writers awaken their choke palahnuik and literary analysis. Be sure to check out the archives for references to innovative techniques and processes from famous thinkers like Einstein and Darwin. The countless prompts, how-tos on guided imagery and creative habits, mixed-media masterpieces, and more at Creativity Portal have sparked imaginations for more than 18 years. Boost your literary credentials by submitting your best caption for the stand-alone cartoon to this weekly choke palahnuik and literary analysis from The New Yorker. The top three captions advance to a public vote, and the winners will be included in a future issue of the magazine.

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Essay on coleridges kubla khan as an allegorical poem

His flashing eyes, his floating hair! Weave a circle round him thrice, And close your eyes with holy dread For he on honey-dew hath fed, And drunk the milk of Paradise. Select any word below to get its definition in the context of the poem. The words are listed in the order in which they appear in the poem. Teachers and parents! Struggling with distance learning? Our Teacher Editions can help. LitCharts Teacher Editions.

Teach your students to analyze literature like LitCharts does. Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts. The original text plus a side-by-side modern translation of every Shakespeare play.

Sign Up. Already have an account? Sign in. From the creators of SparkNotes, something better. Literature Poetry Lit Terms Shakescleare. With respect to the wailing woman, [her] love must be forever unrequited in order to perpetuate the relentless quest for fulfillment. As critic Dorothy F. The reason for the incantatory quality of the entire lyric is symbolically set forth in this line [26], and its significance pointed, i.

This vestige, resulting from a break in the equilibrium between Man and Nature, is analogous to the frustration Coleridge expressed when being unable to capture his whole dream vision on paper. Through this allegory, it can thus be said that the use of natural imagery in Kubla Khan as reflective of the creative process is much more than a mere analogy: it is an embodiment of a purely Romantic philosophy.

The caverns of imagination, mysterious and unexplored, reveal themselves spontaneously in an ordered and artificial paradise, created by men. When an inconvenient person from Pardock or savage soldiers from the Jin dynasty destroy this harmony, all that is left is an incomplete manuscript or the ruins of a marble palace scattered around a small Chinese farming town.

Bloom, Harold. Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Biographia Literaria. ElecBook, Stephen Greenblatt. Norton,

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So twice five miles of fertile ground With walls and towers were girdled round; And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills, Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree; And here were forests ancient as the hills, Enfolding sunny spots of greenery. But oh! A savage place! And mid these dancing rocks at once and ever It flung up momently the sacred river. Five miles meandering with a mazy motion Through wood and dale the sacred river ran, Then reached the caverns measureless to man, And sank in tumult to a lifeless ocean;.

The shadow of the dome of pleasure Floated midway on the waves; Where was heard the mingled measure From the fountain and the caves. It was a miracle of rare device, A sunny pleasure-dome with caves of ice! And all who heard should see them there, And all should cry, Beware!

His flashing eyes, his floating hair! Weave a circle round him thrice, And close your eyes with holy dread For he on honey-dew hath fed, And drunk the milk of Paradise. Select any word below to get its definition in the context of the poem. The words are listed in the order in which they appear in the poem. Teachers and parents!

Struggling with distance learning? Our Teacher Editions can help. LitCharts Teacher Editions. This difference can also be seen in this play. In Waiting for Godot physical time is sometimes taken seriously and sometimes it is ridiculed or condemned. Estragon once succeeds in confusing Vladimir about the passage of time as well as about the day of week.

In the same sentence the tramps speak of a million years ago and in the nineties. We have no reason to be certain that the second description is anyone factual than the first. Doubts about time make the tramps doubtful about their existence and identity. One tramp claims to be of the part, it is doubted by the other. Their own identity and existence in time is also questionable. One day seems to have elapsed between the first act and the second, yet it becomes extremely difficult to differentiate this day with the previous by any important physical evidence.

The play Waiting for Godot has all the traits of existentialism both Vladimir and Estragon represent the man in general who is facing the problems of his existence in this world. They are interdependent like all other man. Hope for salvation is the subject of play and is the problem faced by the whole human race. Representing the man in general, the two tramps realize the futility of their exercise and we note that they are merely filling up the hours with the pointless activity.

Hence their waiting is mechanical and deals with problem of existentialism. To conclude we say that the whole picture shows a pretty hopelessness. Neither time nor existence, neither reality nor memory or the past have any meaning or significance. Acts are meaningless, time does not flow consecutively, memory seems deceptive, existence is an impression or perhaps a dream and happiness is extremely and affliction is crystal clear through the situation of two tramps.

They are on the point of becoming hollow philosophies of existence but demand no other equipment in an audience than the bond of common perception. Discuss Eliot's Murder in the cathedral as a Christian history drama. After his joining the Anglo-Catholic church, T. Eliot was commissioned to write a play to be enacted at the Canterbury festival in Eliot chose the chronicle material of the murder of Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury, by King Henry the Second's men in the Canterbury cathedral in Eliot transformed the historical conflict between the King and the Archbishop, between the secular head of England and her ecclesiastical head, into a Christian martyrdom play, chiefly modelled on the medieval Morality drama, a play in the verse medium that attempts to reinforce the liturgical origins of drama in England.

In the first part of his play Eliot highlights the temptations of Becket by the Four Tempters, and this episode is clearly reminiscent of the temptations of Christ himself. In the second part, Becket resigns his will to the Will of God, and calmly surrenders his head before the swords of the Four Knights as sent by King Henry for the Archbishop's assassination.

The intermediate section in prose shows the preparation of the Archbishop as he delivers his sermon on martyrdom. Eliot's play foregrounds the theme of Christian martyrdom as Becket realizes that by being killed within the premises of the Canterbury cathedral at the hands of the Knights, he is going to become the champion of God, to vindicate the preordained glory of a martyr to his faith. The murder of Becket is the sacrificial death of a martyr, a re-enactment of the martyrdom of Christ, a validation of Dante's famous note in Paradiso:"en la sua voluntate e nostra pace in His Will is our peace ".

Discuss the theme in George Eliot's Middlemarch. Subtitled A Study of Provincial Life, George Eliot's novel Middlemarch, published in eight books or installments between and , is also a study in human nature; a portrait of several memorable characters, the first of whom is Dorothea Brooke; and a historical reflection from the vantage point of the early s on the three years culminating in the passage of the first Reform Bill in By the time she was writing this novel, Eliot was already a well-established and highly respected author.

This novel reflects that exposure and demonstrates the breadth of her reading in English and other languages. Each chapter begins with an epigram a concise, often satirical poem or witty expression that is related to the text, sometimes ironically.

Some of the epigraphs are attributed to other writers and were taken from a wide range of sources, while the unsigned ones were written by the author herself. Middlemarch Summary Prelude. In the Prelude to Middlemarch, Eliot tells a story about Saint Teresa of Avila 82 , a Spanish mystic and founder of religious communities.

In the story, the child Teresa and her little brother leave their village in search of martyrdom, but their uncles intercept them and turn them back. This story introduces one central idea in the novel: young people may envision lofty goals that later circumstances or forces beyond their control prevent them from reaching.

Eliot writes: "Many Theresas have been born who found for themselves no epic life perhaps only a life of mistakes, the offspring of a certain spiritual grandeur ill-matched with the meanness of opportunity. The Prelude introduces the "foundress of nothing" who cries after "an unattained goodness," her high intentions thwarted by immediate obstacles.

The suggestion is that the would-be saint of this novel is Dorothea Brooke, since Book I focuses on her. Book I: Miss Brooke Like its title, this installment, the first of eight books in the novel, focuses on nineteen-year-old Dorothea Brooke, who aspires to improve the world and ponders how to begin.

She and her younger sister, Celia, orphaned a few years earlier, live with their bachelor uncle and guardian, Mr. Brooke, at his home Tipton Grange. In the first chapter, the sisters examine their mother's jewelry, Celia eager to wear it, Dorothea having no interest in adornment. This scene introduces the theme of inheritance and how differently people react to it. The solicitous baronet, Sir James Chettem, courts Dorothea, trying to win her favor by showing interest in her cottage plans.

Myopic in more than a physical sense, Dorothea incorrectly assumes he is interested in Celia. In this nearly fifty-year-old bookworm, Dorothea mistakenly sees a man on a grand mission, the writing of a philosophical history, a "Key to All Mythologies"; by contrast, Celia sees a moledotted, spoon-scraping old man. Mistaken in his own way, Casaubon upon hearing Dorothea's lovely voice imagines the older Brooke sister to be the perfect candidate to be a reader to relieve his tired eyes and a nurse to ease him in his declining years.

He proposes, she accepts, and Mr. Brooke admits not being able to make sense of young women. Brooke, Dorothea, and Celia visit Lowick. Dorothea is pleased with the old house but disappointed when she hears the tenant farmers are doing quite well. She regrets that "there was nothing for her to do in Lowick," a conclusion truer than she knows, since once married she finds she is also unable to assist Casaubon in fulfilling his goal.

One part of their conflictive relationship, over the eighteen months they are married, pertains to the clash between her expectation that he will indeed write the book and his habit of using research to avoid writing and to insulate himself from others. Will, a youthful lover of the arts, is also attracted to Dorothea's voice, which for him associates her with the Aeolian harp, a romantic symbol of creative inspiration.

Casaubon faults Ladislaw for not working diligently in a serious career. The wedding trip is planned for Rome. Casaubon intends to bury himself in Vatican manuscripts while Dorothea sees the sights. A dinner party at the Grange introduces other major characters. Nicholas Bulstrode, the banker who will be disgraced, pontificates that coquetry comes from the devil; his example is his niece Rosamond Vincy, who is a contrast to the unadorned Dorothea.

Tertius Lydgate, the recently arrived doctor, is rumored to be connected to a titled Northumberland family. By the time Mr. Casaubon are in Rome, Lydgate is fascinated by Rosamond Vincy. For him, being with Rosamond is like "reclining in a paradise with sweet laughs for bird-notes, and blue eyes for a heaven. Committed to the practice of medicine in this small town but also a cultivated man who likes nice things, Lydgate is seduced by her because he mistakes her refined manners for docility and her musical training as balm for him after a long day of work.

Ironically, the worldly and sexually experienced Lydgate is more mistaken than the inexperienced, provincial Rosamond. Fred Vincy and Mary Garth are related by marriage to Peter Featherstone: their aunts were Featherstone's two wives, now both deceased. The twelfth chapter in Book I, which is set at Stone Court, introduces Mary Garth, who attends her sickly and cantankerous uncle Featherstone.

It also describes the first meeting between Rosamond and Lydgate, during which, significantly, he hands her a whip. In marriage, Rosamond will take charge of Lydgate. Mary Garth is contrasted with Rosamond and Featherstone's sister, Mrs. Fred Vincy, in debt for and having talked Caleb Garth into co-signing on the loan, asks Bulstrode for a letter confirming to Featherstone that Fred has not tried to borrow money against the prospect of an inheritance from his uncle.

Featherstone gives Fred , but Fred misuses that money in a horse deal with Bambridge, and the Garths, with considerable personal hardship, are forced to pay the debt. Lydgate, now twentyseven, is assumed to be above the common physician.

Orphaned and apprenticed early, with an education in Paris financed by his uncle Sir Godwin, Lydgate aspires to scientific discovery but is hampered by what the narrator calls "spots of commonness," which lie in his prejudices, his tastes in furniture and women, and in his proud assumption "that he was better born than other country surgeons.

Reverend Tyke is elected to the newly salaried position of chaplain to the hospital over Reverend Fare brother, who has been serving in that capacity without pay for years. Lydgate breaks the tie between the two by arriving late and casting his vote last.

People take the election outcome to confirm the doctor's involvement with Mr. Bulstrode who has urged Tyke's election. In Rome alone in a museum Mrs. Casaubon accidentally meets Will. She urges her husband to write and realizes that he will not accept her help and that he is full of his own difficulty regarding his book idea.

Book III: Waiting for Death While at the horse fair, Fred contracts typhoid, and Lydgate treats him in the Vincy home, where the doctor frequently meets Rosamond and soon becomes engaged to her. Back at Lowick, Mrs. Casaubon sees the house now as shrunken and dark, this new view caused by her honeymoon insights regarding her husband. Casaubon has a fainting spell, and Lydgate tells him to shorten his hours of study.

At the end of Book III, Mary sits up with Featherstone one night during which he directs her to burn one of two wills. She refuses to do so without a witness. By morning he is dead. Casaubon, Mrs. Cadwallader, Sir James, and Celia watch the funeral from inside the rectory. Brooke joins them, apparently having arrived at Lowick in the company of Will Ladislaw who remains outside.

Will's presence in Middlemarch is news to Mrs. Casaubon who, given Casaubon's frail health, directed her uncle to write Ladislaw and urge him not to come to Lowick. Actually, Mr. Brooke has done so, but he saw no. Comment on the character of aziz from your reading of Fgosters A passage to India. Character Analysis When Dr.

Aziz is introduced to us, we don't see him. We see the bicycle he throws on the balcony, and we see the servant missing the bicycle before it hits the balcony. We know that he is "all animation" without being told exactly how he is being "animated. The opening scene is just a wind-up for the rest of the novel, as it turns out.

Impulsive, talkative, gregarious, spontaneously affectionate, Aziz is the Energizer Bunny of the story, rushing into conversations and situations without really thinking too hard about what he's saying or doing. And given the fact that he's so extroverted, it would probably be easy to assemble his profile on a dating site: widowed doctor, father of three, seeking casual relationship or companionship with attractive female.

Hobbies include riding horses, waxing nostalgic about the Mughal Empire, and reading and writing Urdu poetry. Peeves include trekking to dark and mysterious caves. But despite the fact that Aziz talks so much, or perhaps because of the fact Aziz talks so much, you might find it hard to get a handle on who he really is. His behavior can seem so contradictory. Aziz can be incredibly friendly and out-going in one moment, and suddenly turn suspicious and rather nasty the next.

For example, Aziz seems to like Fielding. Yet he's so ready to believe the rumor that Fielding had an affair with Adela and that Fielding actually plotted to keep Aziz from suing Adela so that Fielding and Adela could enjoy her money together. It's also hard to reconcile the high, romantic idealism that we see when he's contemplating his dead wife, for example, and a matter-of-factness about sexuality that can be hard to stomach, as when he makes plans to see prostitutes.

Our difficulties with Aziz may have something to do with the fact that we learn everything about Aziz through the filter of a narrative that is dotted with the racial stereotype of the "Oriental" see our discussion of Orientalism under the theme "Race". Of course, the narrative of A Passage to India isn't as racist as the Turtons or McBryde; it's enlightened enough to satirize these characters.

This is usually signaled when the narrator suddenly stops talking about Aziz the individual, and leaps to all "Orientals. Instead of Aziz just being a suspicious guy, the novel wants us to think that Aziz is naturally suspicious because he's Indian. Be that as it may, the novel represents a sincere attempt to inhabit Aziz's mind, to show the effects of living as an Indian under British rule, and to show how the racism of a Turton or Callendar prevent them from recognizing not only Aziz's innocence, but also the validity of Indians' appeal for an independent nation.

Perhaps in the end the novel gives us the tools to critically examine itself so that we might finally read Aziz's last gesture to Adela not as the illogical, inconsistent gesture of an illogical, inconsistent Oriental, but as the expression of a generous spirit.

Discuss the different types of sentences in English with examples. There are four sentence types in English. The first sentence type is the most common:. Declarative A declarative sentence "declares" or states a fact, arrangement or opinion. Declarative sentences can be either positive or negative.

A declarative sentences ends with a period. The imperative commands or sometimes requests. The imperative takes no subject as 'you' is the implied subject. The imperative form ends with either a period. The interrogative asks a question. In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb precedes the subject which is then followed by the main verb i. The interrogative form ends with a question mark? How long have you lived in France? When does the bus leave?

Do you enjoy listening to classical music? The exclamatory form emphasizes a statement either declarative or imperative with an exclamation point! Frank ate his dinner quickly. Peter and Sue visited the museum last Saturday. Are you coming to the party? Compound sentences contain two statements that are connected by a conjunction i. I wanted to come, but it was late. The company had an excellent year, so they gave everyone a bonus. I went shopping, and my wife went to her classes.

Complex sentences contain a dependent clause and at least one independent clause. The two clauses are connected by a subordinator i. My daughter, who was late for class, arrived shortly after the bell rang. That's the man who bought our house Although it was difficult, the class passed the test with excellent marks. Compound - complex sentences contain at least one dependent clause and more than one independent clause.

The clauses are connected by both conjunctions i. John, who briefly visited last month, won the prize, and he took a short vacation. Jack forgot his friend's birthday, so he sent him a card when he finally remembered. The report which Tom complied was presented to the board, but it was rejected because it was too complex. Write an essay on Bilingualism.

Education is the most important stage of a child's development, and often it is necessary to adjust styles of teaching for a child's special needs. This is particular the case of migrant children who not only have to deal with the standard issues of childhood but alongside with problems such as culture clash, learning a new language and lacks of confidence they need to adjust to their new surroundings. Bilingual education when working concurrently with ESL programs extends the boundaries of education to accommodate individual needs of the child to ensure a smooth and established transition into their new country.

In some cases, it can be conceded that children, especially teenagers develop English slower in bilingual programs than those attending ESL. It is true in many circumstances, the fastest way to learn English is to expose the child to it. However it is essential to note that education encompasses not only the subject of English, but others that are just as crucial in a child's development; they include subjects such as geography and history which relies on an understanding of a language in order for these concepts and ideas to be taught and passed successfully into the child.

It is hence indicated that the child cannot grasp the ideas and concepts of history and geography without an established language in which to describe it. Children in ESL programs especially older ones are often in a long period of time in a phase of language clash. Resulting in a situation where the new is coming in terms of the old and neither advancing toward any higher plane.

Bilingual education allows the development of the old language to accommodate the needs of other subjects while at the same time improving their new language and providing a better quality of education and confidence for the child. Bilingual education provides the child with high levels of confidence to progress through their childhood years. The child commune with those of similar origin; it is true this creates isolated sub-groups nevertheless it boosts confidence and teachers regularly encourage social interactions between groups regularly in activities such as group work and sport.

It helps students to be introduced to new cultures in a culturally. The decision however still rests dependently on the parent or guardian. ESL programs still offer great advantages such as a quicker grasp of English and a more integrated and effective introduction of the new culture.

One can suggest that ESL programs work better with young children as it avoids problems such as language clash and cultural isolation. Migrating into a new country is hard on both children and parents alike and ultimately, the choice between ESL programs and Bilingual education should be based and attuned to the child's and parents individual interests, circumstances and needs. In the United States, the term bilingual education generally refers to programs that provide support to students with limited English proficiency.

Some of these programs teach academic subjects in the students home language usually Spanish while also requiring language-minority students to take classes in English as a second language ESL. Other programs aim to teach English to language-minority students by immersing them in English-only classes. Still others are two-way, or dual-language, programs that aim for fluency in two languagesfor example, such a program might simultaneously teach Spanish to English-speaking students and English to Spanishspeaking students.

These major approaches have several variations, and districts and schools may use a combination of them. Thus, when people argue over bilingual educations effectiveness or ineffectiveness, they could be discussing different forms of bilingual education.

In public debate, however, bilingual education usually refers to transitional bilingual education TBE , which provides native-language instruction to non-English-speaking students in preparation for their eventual learning of English in mainstream classes. The goal of these programs is to help students become fluent in English. In the United States, bilingual education in its modern form began in with Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which provides federal funding to schools to help them meet the needs of children with limited English-speaking ability.

Title VII, also called the Bilingual Education Act, was born out of the civil rights movement, which, among other things, sought to strengthen economic, political, and social opportunities for minorities. The Bilingual Education Act, together with the Civil Rights Act of , was expected to help change attitudes toward immigrant groups and ease resistance to ethnic languages.

The Bilingual Education Act resulted in the implementation of TBE programs in more than half the states, particularly in districts and schools that had large immigrant most often Hispanic populations. TBE programs, in which students are instructed in their native language before being taught English, revived a trend from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, when bilingual education thrived among the early European settlers who sought to have children instructed in their mother.

In , however, bilingual education was envisioned as a way to help Spanish-speaking children who had limited or no skills in English and were doing poorly in school. Support for bilingual education Advocates of bilingual education marshal a variety of arguments in its defense. Key supporters of bilingual educationamong them academics like Kenji Hakuta of Stanford University, Colin Baker of the University of Wales, Stephen Krashen of the University of Southern California, and Jim Cummins of the University of Toronto emphasize the effectiveness of using students native language as a resource in learning a second language.

They maintain that the use of the students home language helps keep them from falling behind their fellow students while learning English. They claim that the first language serves as a bridge on learning, and that knowledge acquired in one language transfers to the other language.

This means that a child who is not fluent in English but is fluent in Spanish will learn English easily because he has already learned the foundational processes in the first language. The knowledge-transfer hypothesis rests on the premise that the process of reading is similar across languages, even though the languages and writing systems are different. When schools provide children quality education in their primary language, they give them two things: knowledge and literacy.

The knowledge that children get through their first language helps make the English they hear and read more comprehensible. Literacy developed in the primary language transfers to the second language. The reason is simple: Because we learn by reading, that is, by making sense of what is on the page, it is easier to learn to read in a language we understand. Once we can read in one language, we can read in general. Notice that Krashen uses the word quality; it is a word that practitioners of bilingual education often emphasize.

They maintain that the most effective bilingual education programs are two-way bilingual programs. Such programs aim to teach both native speakers of Spanish and native speakers of English, attending the same classes, academic subjects in both languages. The students initially receive 90 percent of instruction in Spanish and 10 percent in English, and then the amount of English increases with each grade.

Supporters of these programs point to studies, such as the one by researchers Wayne P. Thomas and Virginia Collier at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia, that document the effectiveness of two-way bilingual programs. Thomas and Collier reviewed student records from to and found that English-language learners do better academically over the long term if English is introduced slowly instead of being submerged in intensive English instruction in a.

They conclude that two-way bilingual programs are the only kinds of programs that fully close the achievement gap between Englishlanguage learners and native English-speakers over the long term. Most advocates of transitional bilingual education also believe that quality entails a long transition period, which is defined as the period during which a student is taught academics in his or her native or home language before being transferred to mainstream English-only classes.

Colin Baker of the University of Wales, who has done an extensive review of studies that measure the effectiveness of bilingual education, calls such programs stronger forms of bilingual education. To advocates, quality bilingual education further requires welltrained, accredited bilingual teachers who effectively take charge of their classes.

Finally, supporters of bilingual education maintain that effective native-language instruction requires parents consent and participation, low teacher-student ratios, adequate school facilities, administrative support, and other enabling factors. The National Association for Bilingual Education NABE , a major advocacy organization, admits there are existing bilingual education programs that do not meet the above requirements. James J. Lyons, former NABE executive director, mentions a few of them:.

Some are bilingual in name only, staffed by monolingual English-speaking teachers with no professional preparation. In a few instances, students have been assigned to bilingual education on the basis of an educationally irrelevant criterion such as surname.

In some localities, LEP [limited English proficient] students have been assigned to bilingual-education programs without the informed consent and choice of their parents. Lyons argues that the existence of such malpractices does not warrant the elimination of a whole range of effective programs and the wholesale dismissal of the bilingual education policy.

What the critics say Critics of bilingual education maintain that the best way of teaching English to nonEnglish speakers is not to instruct them in their home language but instead to immerse them in English. They often look to Canadian total French immersion, the approach adopted by Montreal, Canada, in teaching French to English-speaking, middle-class children. Under this program, native-English speakers start school entirely in French, with English introduced gradually. By the end of elementary.

The approach, which gained instant popularity, spread all throughout Canada and has become a model for other countries. Critics of bilingual education in the United States find fault with the lengthy transition period during which Spanish speakers are immersed in their mother tongue before they move to the mainstream classes where they start learning English. They say that under established rules, the transition should only take three or four years, but that this rarely happens; in many cases, children stay with the mother tongue up to seven years, which, critics maintain, amounts to wasted time and lost opportunity.

Opponents also point out the lack of bilingual teachers nationwide, which renders existing bilingual programs questionable. Susan Headden, writing in U. The paucity of qualified candidates has forced desperate superintendents to waive some credentialing requirements and recruit instructors from abroad. The result is teachers who themselves struggle with English.

Most importantly, critics of bilingual education attribute much of the 30 percent highschool dropout rate among Hispanic children to their confinement to Spanish-only classrooms. They observe that the dropout rate is highest among ethnic groups, and that it has not decreased after many years of implementing bilingual instruction. Californias Proposition It was in reaction to these deficiencies that Proposition was introduced in California in The initiative, which aimed to drastically restrict bilingual education in public schools and promote English-only instruction instead, was spearheaded by Ron C.

Unz, a wealthy Silicon Valley entrepreneur. Unz believes that English is vital to scholastic achievement, economic success, the speedy integration of immigrants into society, and the preservation of national unity. Californians approved Proposition with a 61 percent vote. According to a report by Kathleen Wilson and Jean Cowden Moore in the Ventura County Star, since the passage of Proposition local school districts in California have reduced the number of students who are learning in Spanish to just 11 percent, down by almost twothirds from After his initiative was passed, Unz went on to spearhead a campaign called English for the Children, which aims to make English the sole medium of instruction in public schools.

Unzs campaign has won a few victories outside of California. Denver and Chicago have increased the amount of English instruction and limited TBE programs to three years. In Arizona, inspired by Californias example and helped by Unzs resources, ended bilingual education. In Massachusetts approved a similar initiative against bilingual education. On the national level, various bills have been, albeit unsuccessfully, introduced in Congress either to end, reform, or restrict the.

Indefinite research leads to politicization With restraints on bilingual education gaining momentum, the debate has become more intense. In the above-mentioned states that have legislated on the issue, both the pro-bilingual education camp and the pro- English camp have wooed politicians and advocacy organizations and raised large sums of money to support their cause. Listening to the arguments of the two sides, it is easy to see that both have some valid points.

However, research on the effectiveness of bilingual education, which should provide objective evidence to decide the issue, has not clearly determined which approaches work best. The relevant research over the past twenty years has been ambivalent: There is a substantial body of research that points to bilingual educations effectiveness, but there is also evidence indicating that English immersion is effective and that TBE programs may inhibit scholastic achievement.

Professor of education Colin Baker attributes the contradictory research to the differing political agendas of those who favor and oppose bilingual education, which may influence the work of research institutions and individual researchers. Without a final word on the subject, the debate between advocates and critics of bilingual education has become politicized.

Many times, discussions have been conducted under the sponsorship of special-interest groups. Often, decisions have been made depending on who is in power in Washington, in the state capital, or the district. Bilingual education has been discussed alongside such volatile issues as nationalism, racism, immigration, and adoption of English as the official language of the United States as well as minority rights, cultural diversity, and the goals of education itself.

Lobby groups and ethnic activists Many supporters of bilingual education view the opposition to it as part of a nationwide movement to make English the official language of the United States and to restrict the use of ethnic languages.

Advocates name two major organizations as the nemesis of bilingual educationU. English and English Firstboth of which advocate for the legislation of English as a national language and the adoption of government limits on the use of other languages.

English was founded by [U.

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Within the context of poetic creation, this duality parallels two abstractions fundamental to the creative process. The dome, in its controlled and order character, parallels the meticulous execution and construction perceived in the act of writing poetry: The Poet, in his ideal form, attempts to build an artificial paradise of his own upon the page—analogous to the Edenic qualities of Xanadu—and, in an unadulterated framework can control every element of his work, such as the meter or rhyme.

The river travels symbolically from passion through order to chaos, from birth through life to death. As the river sinks into the realm of death, it is possible to hear in the tumult the prophecies of war. With respect to the wailing woman, [her] love must be forever unrequited in order to perpetuate the relentless quest for fulfillment. As critic Dorothy F. The reason for the incantatory quality of the entire lyric is symbolically set forth in this line [26], and its significance pointed, i.

This vestige, resulting from a break in the equilibrium between Man and Nature, is analogous to the frustration Coleridge expressed when being unable to capture his whole dream vision on paper. Through this allegory, it can thus be said that the use of natural imagery in Kubla Khan as reflective of the creative process is much more than a mere analogy: it is an embodiment of a purely Romantic philosophy.

The caverns of imagination, mysterious and unexplored, reveal themselves spontaneously in an ordered and artificial paradise, created by men. When an inconvenient person from Pardock or savage soldiers from the Jin dynasty destroy this harmony, all that is left is an incomplete manuscript or the ruins of a marble palace scattered around a small Chinese farming town. Bloom, Harold. Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. This line perhaps encompasses the whole love of the lover.

Somehow the line acts as a balm to the stressful event maybe. Such is the intensity his conviction that may be. Or maybe this line in a way sanctifies the whole act. His strong faith in his conviction exudes a feeling of satisfaction and consummation as well on the part of the lover. But seen in another light the speakers lust for precedence over other forces in Porphyria's life evidently leads to her fatal end.

On the instantaneous realization of Porphyria's love, the speaker's requited passion and rational mind still stand separate to some extent. However, it is not long before his heated desire to keep her "Perfectly pure and good" 37 lead him to find "A thing to do" The narrator's being situated above social law, if but only once, proves to be so stunningly empowering that he loses rational ability to decipher anything but a self-centered whim.

The complacency of Browning's speaker in carrying out his murderous deed ironically reflects the complacency of society towards the sexual, aesthetic, and sensual pleasures of life. However, Browning's presenting the reader with an unreliable narrator serves only to intensify the psychological effects of his unrequited love, and says nothing for the supposed convictions and yearnings of Porphyria.

While Porphyria finds her way to the speaker through the symbolically oppressive weather of the outside world, the speaker kills her upon realizing not only societys restrictions on their relationship, and maybe also his belief of Porphyria's own unwillingness to love him fully but for the present moment. Browning presents the justifiability of the murder only through the stricken eyes of the narrator; while the poet points to social confines as the cause of the speaker's insanity, he does not discount the narrators moral responsibility for the deed.

The next actions that follow this act also amplify these notions. He opened the lids of her eyes and saw them as laugh as freshly and sweetly as they were before. Such was the intensity of his love for her that he could not see any change that the violent blow of death had brought on her, but does this at nay stage justify the murder.

Calmly he untied the firm hold of her tresses around her neck and passionately kissed her on her cheek. It is evident that the social barriers had made his love hinge on madness. For him that moment is forever when Porphyria was his own. But under all these charges of insanity, the intensity of his love is undeniable as he propped his darlings head on his shoulder and as they sat in that calm he realizes that may be this was what Porphyria wanted too and so both had the love they wanted such was the union that not even the heavens had not said a word.

Thus in freezing the moment and liberating the two of them from social structures, Browning distorts the deed to a point where it appears to be a divine event foreseen even by God. In the moment of Porphyria's death, the existence of her heated love for the speaker.

Browning presents the viewpoint of a speaker educated in the divine workings of an ultimate force, yet the long-stifled yearnings of an unjustly socialized man color the intensity of the situation. In Brownings dramatic monologue, God's hand of judgment shifts away from the murderer himself and onto the culture that first inhibited the speaker's rational thought.

Brownings characterization of a nameless speaker in "Porphyria's Lover" forms an unexpectedly conclusive response towards the sensual numbness of Victorian society. While the suggested insanity of the speaker would traditionally indicate the narrators unreliability in a moral sense, Browning constructs the isolated scene such that the lovers emotional internalization is not only understandable, but divinely justified. The musings and actions of this unreliable narrator serve to illustrate the consequence of societys confines in a shockingly violent release.

Through naturally flowing language, this poetic account of burning emotion within a setting of tranquil domesticity presents the all-consuming power of human sensuality in its bleakest attempt to override social structures. Examine waiting for Godot as an existential play. Waiting for Godot is an existentialist play because it has clear tints of existentialism in it. If we study the term existentialism we would come to know that it is a philosophical doctrine which lays stress on the existence with his concrete experience and solidities.

However, Waiting for Godot is an existentialist play for it embodies Christian existentialism. Christian existentialism stress the idea that: I God only, man may find freedom for tension. For Christian, existentialism religious leads to God, whereas according to the Atheistic Existentialism, it is based on the idea of Jean Paul Sartre and Martin Heidegger who state that: Man is alone in a godless universe. The comparative study of both philosophies helps us to prove Waiting for Godot as a Christian existentialistic play.

We know that man is confronting the problem of his existence as a being. He is striving for his survival and to control the bridle of the pacing time. He is struggling to save his individuality and this very idea leads to the philosophy of existentialism. The word Existentialism stands for ones awareness of ones beingness. It stands for a vital principal of life. Waiting for Godot resembles the existentialist literature because it deals not only with existence or identity but also with the momentary and the internal time.

The time mentioned in Waiting for Godot is related to mans mental condition. For instance, the major problem for the tramps is to make time pass in such a way that they are least bothered by it. Vladimir and Estragon constantly complain of the slowness of time passing and do their best to hurry it with their futile diversions.

Estragon says: Nothing happens, nobody comes, nobody goes, its awful. But we know that outside the natural time, its consequences flow on. For example, the tree has grown five or six leaves. Pozzo has grown blind and Lucky dumb. Here Estragon remarks: They all change, only we not. It should be noted that waiting the natural course of time, they think they would believe themselves from all of their problems without doing any effort.

They might die naturally and save the effort of hanging themselves. There is a distinction between the momentary and eternal time for it deals with the question of existence and identity. This difference can also be seen in this play. In Waiting for Godot physical time is sometimes taken seriously and sometimes it is ridiculed or condemned. Estragon once succeeds in confusing Vladimir about the passage of time as well as about the day of week.

In the same sentence the tramps speak of a million years ago and in the nineties. We have no reason to be certain that the second description is anyone factual than the first. Doubts about time make the tramps doubtful about their existence and identity. One tramp claims to be of the part, it is doubted by the other. Their own identity and existence in time is also questionable.

One day seems to have elapsed between the first act and the second, yet it becomes extremely difficult to differentiate this day with the previous by any important physical evidence. The play Waiting for Godot has all the traits of existentialism both Vladimir and Estragon represent the man in general who is facing the problems of his existence in this world.

They are interdependent like all other man. Hope for salvation is the subject of play and is the problem faced by the whole human race. Representing the man in general, the two tramps realize the futility of their exercise and we note that they are merely filling up the hours with the pointless activity. Hence their waiting is mechanical and deals with problem of existentialism. To conclude we say that the whole picture shows a pretty hopelessness. Neither time nor existence, neither reality nor memory or the past have any meaning or significance.

Acts are meaningless, time does not flow consecutively, memory seems deceptive, existence is an impression or perhaps a dream and happiness is extremely and affliction is crystal clear through the situation of two tramps. They are on the point of becoming hollow philosophies of existence but demand no other equipment in an audience than the bond of common perception. Discuss Eliot's Murder in the cathedral as a Christian history drama.

After his joining the Anglo-Catholic church, T. Eliot was commissioned to write a play to be enacted at the Canterbury festival in Eliot chose the chronicle material of the murder of Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury, by King Henry the Second's men in the Canterbury cathedral in Eliot transformed the historical conflict between the King and the Archbishop, between the secular head of England and her ecclesiastical head, into a Christian martyrdom play, chiefly modelled on the medieval Morality drama, a play in the verse medium that attempts to reinforce the liturgical origins of drama in England.

In the first part of his play Eliot highlights the temptations of Becket by the Four Tempters, and this episode is clearly reminiscent of the temptations of Christ himself. In the second part, Becket resigns his will to the Will of God, and calmly surrenders his head before the swords of the Four Knights as sent by King Henry for the Archbishop's assassination.

The intermediate section in prose shows the preparation of the Archbishop as he delivers his sermon on martyrdom. Eliot's play foregrounds the theme of Christian martyrdom as Becket realizes that by being killed within the premises of the Canterbury cathedral at the hands of the Knights, he is going to become the champion of God, to vindicate the preordained glory of a martyr to his faith.

The murder of Becket is the sacrificial death of a martyr, a re-enactment of the martyrdom of Christ, a validation of Dante's famous note in Paradiso:"en la sua voluntate e nostra pace in His Will is our peace ". Discuss the theme in George Eliot's Middlemarch. Subtitled A Study of Provincial Life, George Eliot's novel Middlemarch, published in eight books or installments between and , is also a study in human nature; a portrait of several memorable characters, the first of whom is Dorothea Brooke; and a historical reflection from the vantage point of the early s on the three years culminating in the passage of the first Reform Bill in By the time she was writing this novel, Eliot was already a well-established and highly respected author.

This novel reflects that exposure and demonstrates the breadth of her reading in English and other languages. Each chapter begins with an epigram a concise, often satirical poem or witty expression that is related to the text, sometimes ironically. Some of the epigraphs are attributed to other writers and were taken from a wide range of sources, while the unsigned ones were written by the author herself.

Middlemarch Summary Prelude. In the Prelude to Middlemarch, Eliot tells a story about Saint Teresa of Avila 82 , a Spanish mystic and founder of religious communities. In the story, the child Teresa and her little brother leave their village in search of martyrdom, but their uncles intercept them and turn them back. This story introduces one central idea in the novel: young people may envision lofty goals that later circumstances or forces beyond their control prevent them from reaching.

Eliot writes: "Many Theresas have been born who found for themselves no epic life perhaps only a life of mistakes, the offspring of a certain spiritual grandeur ill-matched with the meanness of opportunity. The Prelude introduces the "foundress of nothing" who cries after "an unattained goodness," her high intentions thwarted by immediate obstacles. The suggestion is that the would-be saint of this novel is Dorothea Brooke, since Book I focuses on her.

Book I: Miss Brooke Like its title, this installment, the first of eight books in the novel, focuses on nineteen-year-old Dorothea Brooke, who aspires to improve the world and ponders how to begin. She and her younger sister, Celia, orphaned a few years earlier, live with their bachelor uncle and guardian, Mr. Brooke, at his home Tipton Grange.

In the first chapter, the sisters examine their mother's jewelry, Celia eager to wear it, Dorothea having no interest in adornment. This scene introduces the theme of inheritance and how differently people react to it. The solicitous baronet, Sir James Chettem, courts Dorothea, trying to win her favor by showing interest in her cottage plans. Myopic in more than a physical sense, Dorothea incorrectly assumes he is interested in Celia.

In this nearly fifty-year-old bookworm, Dorothea mistakenly sees a man on a grand mission, the writing of a philosophical history, a "Key to All Mythologies"; by contrast, Celia sees a moledotted, spoon-scraping old man. Mistaken in his own way, Casaubon upon hearing Dorothea's lovely voice imagines the older Brooke sister to be the perfect candidate to be a reader to relieve his tired eyes and a nurse to ease him in his declining years.

He proposes, she accepts, and Mr. Brooke admits not being able to make sense of young women. Brooke, Dorothea, and Celia visit Lowick. Dorothea is pleased with the old house but disappointed when she hears the tenant farmers are doing quite well. She regrets that "there was nothing for her to do in Lowick," a conclusion truer than she knows, since once married she finds she is also unable to assist Casaubon in fulfilling his goal.

One part of their conflictive relationship, over the eighteen months they are married, pertains to the clash between her expectation that he will indeed write the book and his habit of using research to avoid writing and to insulate himself from others. Will, a youthful lover of the arts, is also attracted to Dorothea's voice, which for him associates her with the Aeolian harp, a romantic symbol of creative inspiration.

Casaubon faults Ladislaw for not working diligently in a serious career. The wedding trip is planned for Rome. Casaubon intends to bury himself in Vatican manuscripts while Dorothea sees the sights. A dinner party at the Grange introduces other major characters. Nicholas Bulstrode, the banker who will be disgraced, pontificates that coquetry comes from the devil; his example is his niece Rosamond Vincy, who is a contrast to the unadorned Dorothea.

Tertius Lydgate, the recently arrived doctor, is rumored to be connected to a titled Northumberland family. By the time Mr. Casaubon are in Rome, Lydgate is fascinated by Rosamond Vincy. For him, being with Rosamond is like "reclining in a paradise with sweet laughs for bird-notes, and blue eyes for a heaven.

Committed to the practice of medicine in this small town but also a cultivated man who likes nice things, Lydgate is seduced by her because he mistakes her refined manners for docility and her musical training as balm for him after a long day of work. Ironically, the worldly and sexually experienced Lydgate is more mistaken than the inexperienced, provincial Rosamond. Fred Vincy and Mary Garth are related by marriage to Peter Featherstone: their aunts were Featherstone's two wives, now both deceased.

The twelfth chapter in Book I, which is set at Stone Court, introduces Mary Garth, who attends her sickly and cantankerous uncle Featherstone. It also describes the first meeting between Rosamond and Lydgate, during which, significantly, he hands her a whip. In marriage, Rosamond will take charge of Lydgate. Mary Garth is contrasted with Rosamond and Featherstone's sister, Mrs. Fred Vincy, in debt for and having talked Caleb Garth into co-signing on the loan, asks Bulstrode for a letter confirming to Featherstone that Fred has not tried to borrow money against the prospect of an inheritance from his uncle.

Featherstone gives Fred , but Fred misuses that money in a horse deal with Bambridge, and the Garths, with considerable personal hardship, are forced to pay the debt. Lydgate, now twentyseven, is assumed to be above the common physician. Orphaned and apprenticed early, with an education in Paris financed by his uncle Sir Godwin, Lydgate aspires to scientific discovery but is hampered by what the narrator calls "spots of commonness," which lie in his prejudices, his tastes in furniture and women, and in his proud assumption "that he was better born than other country surgeons.

Reverend Tyke is elected to the newly salaried position of chaplain to the hospital over Reverend Fare brother, who has been serving in that capacity without pay for years. Lydgate breaks the tie between the two by arriving late and casting his vote last. People take the election outcome to confirm the doctor's involvement with Mr. Bulstrode who has urged Tyke's election. In Rome alone in a museum Mrs.

Casaubon accidentally meets Will. She urges her husband to write and realizes that he will not accept her help and that he is full of his own difficulty regarding his book idea. Book III: Waiting for Death While at the horse fair, Fred contracts typhoid, and Lydgate treats him in the Vincy home, where the doctor frequently meets Rosamond and soon becomes engaged to her. Back at Lowick, Mrs. Casaubon sees the house now as shrunken and dark, this new view caused by her honeymoon insights regarding her husband.

Casaubon has a fainting spell, and Lydgate tells him to shorten his hours of study. At the end of Book III, Mary sits up with Featherstone one night during which he directs her to burn one of two wills. She refuses to do so without a witness. By morning he is dead. Casaubon, Mrs. Cadwallader, Sir James, and Celia watch the funeral from inside the rectory. Brooke joins them, apparently having arrived at Lowick in the company of Will Ladislaw who remains outside. Will's presence in Middlemarch is news to Mrs.

Casaubon who, given Casaubon's frail health, directed her uncle to write Ladislaw and urge him not to come to Lowick. Actually, Mr. Brooke has done so, but he saw no. Comment on the character of aziz from your reading of Fgosters A passage to India. Character Analysis When Dr. Aziz is introduced to us, we don't see him. We see the bicycle he throws on the balcony, and we see the servant missing the bicycle before it hits the balcony.

We know that he is "all animation" without being told exactly how he is being "animated. The opening scene is just a wind-up for the rest of the novel, as it turns out. Impulsive, talkative, gregarious, spontaneously affectionate, Aziz is the Energizer Bunny of the story, rushing into conversations and situations without really thinking too hard about what he's saying or doing.

And given the fact that he's so extroverted, it would probably be easy to assemble his profile on a dating site: widowed doctor, father of three, seeking casual relationship or companionship with attractive female. Hobbies include riding horses, waxing nostalgic about the Mughal Empire, and reading and writing Urdu poetry. Peeves include trekking to dark and mysterious caves. But despite the fact that Aziz talks so much, or perhaps because of the fact Aziz talks so much, you might find it hard to get a handle on who he really is.

His behavior can seem so contradictory. Aziz can be incredibly friendly and out-going in one moment, and suddenly turn suspicious and rather nasty the next. For example, Aziz seems to like Fielding. Yet he's so ready to believe the rumor that Fielding had an affair with Adela and that Fielding actually plotted to keep Aziz from suing Adela so that Fielding and Adela could enjoy her money together. It's also hard to reconcile the high, romantic idealism that we see when he's contemplating his dead wife, for example, and a matter-of-factness about sexuality that can be hard to stomach, as when he makes plans to see prostitutes.

Our difficulties with Aziz may have something to do with the fact that we learn everything about Aziz through the filter of a narrative that is dotted with the racial stereotype of the "Oriental" see our discussion of Orientalism under the theme "Race". Of course, the narrative of A Passage to India isn't as racist as the Turtons or McBryde; it's enlightened enough to satirize these characters. This is usually signaled when the narrator suddenly stops talking about Aziz the individual, and leaps to all "Orientals.

Instead of Aziz just being a suspicious guy, the novel wants us to think that Aziz is naturally suspicious because he's Indian. Be that as it may, the novel represents a sincere attempt to inhabit Aziz's mind, to show the effects of living as an Indian under British rule, and to show how the racism of a Turton or Callendar prevent them from recognizing not only Aziz's innocence, but also the validity of Indians' appeal for an independent nation. Perhaps in the end the novel gives us the tools to critically examine itself so that we might finally read Aziz's last gesture to Adela not as the illogical, inconsistent gesture of an illogical, inconsistent Oriental, but as the expression of a generous spirit.

Discuss the different types of sentences in English with examples. There are four sentence types in English. The first sentence type is the most common:. Declarative A declarative sentence "declares" or states a fact, arrangement or opinion. Declarative sentences can be either positive or negative. A declarative sentences ends with a period. The imperative commands or sometimes requests.

The imperative takes no subject as 'you' is the implied subject. The imperative form ends with either a period. The interrogative asks a question. In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb precedes the subject which is then followed by the main verb i. The interrogative form ends with a question mark?

How long have you lived in France? When does the bus leave? Do you enjoy listening to classical music? The exclamatory form emphasizes a statement either declarative or imperative with an exclamation point! Frank ate his dinner quickly. Peter and Sue visited the museum last Saturday. Are you coming to the party? Compound sentences contain two statements that are connected by a conjunction i. I wanted to come, but it was late. The company had an excellent year, so they gave everyone a bonus.

I went shopping, and my wife went to her classes. Complex sentences contain a dependent clause and at least one independent clause. The two clauses are connected by a subordinator i. My daughter, who was late for class, arrived shortly after the bell rang. That's the man who bought our house Although it was difficult, the class passed the test with excellent marks.

Compound - complex sentences contain at least one dependent clause and more than one independent clause. The clauses are connected by both conjunctions i. John, who briefly visited last month, won the prize, and he took a short vacation. Jack forgot his friend's birthday, so he sent him a card when he finally remembered. The report which Tom complied was presented to the board, but it was rejected because it was too complex.

Write an essay on Bilingualism. Education is the most important stage of a child's development, and often it is necessary to adjust styles of teaching for a child's special needs. This is particular the case of migrant children who not only have to deal with the standard issues of childhood but alongside with problems such as culture clash, learning a new language and lacks of confidence they need to adjust to their new surroundings.

Bilingual education when working concurrently with ESL programs extends the boundaries of education to accommodate individual needs of the child to ensure a smooth and established transition into their new country. In some cases, it can be conceded that children, especially teenagers develop English slower in bilingual programs than those attending ESL. It is true in many circumstances, the fastest way to learn English is to expose the child to it.

However it is essential to note that education encompasses not only the subject of English, but others that are just as crucial in a child's development; they include subjects such as geography and history which relies on an understanding of a language in order for these concepts and ideas to be taught and passed successfully into the child. It is hence indicated that the child cannot grasp the ideas and concepts of history and geography without an established language in which to describe it.

Children in ESL programs especially older ones are often in a long period of time in a phase of language clash. Resulting in a situation where the new is coming in terms of the old and neither advancing toward any higher plane. Bilingual education allows the development of the old language to accommodate the needs of other subjects while at the same time improving their new language and providing a better quality of education and confidence for the child.

Bilingual education provides the child with high levels of confidence to progress through their childhood years. The child commune with those of similar origin; it is true this creates isolated sub-groups nevertheless it boosts confidence and teachers regularly encourage social interactions between groups regularly in activities such as group work and sport. It helps students to be introduced to new cultures in a culturally.

The decision however still rests dependently on the parent or guardian. ESL programs still offer great advantages such as a quicker grasp of English and a more integrated and effective introduction of the new culture. One can suggest that ESL programs work better with young children as it avoids problems such as language clash and cultural isolation.

Migrating into a new country is hard on both children and parents alike and ultimately, the choice between ESL programs and Bilingual education should be based and attuned to the child's and parents individual interests, circumstances and needs. In the United States, the term bilingual education generally refers to programs that provide support to students with limited English proficiency.

Some of these programs teach academic subjects in the students home language usually Spanish while also requiring language-minority students to take classes in English as a second language ESL. Other programs aim to teach English to language-minority students by immersing them in English-only classes.

Still others are two-way, or dual-language, programs that aim for fluency in two languagesfor example, such a program might simultaneously teach Spanish to English-speaking students and English to Spanishspeaking students. These major approaches have several variations, and districts and schools may use a combination of them. Thus, when people argue over bilingual educations effectiveness or ineffectiveness, they could be discussing different forms of bilingual education. In public debate, however, bilingual education usually refers to transitional bilingual education TBE , which provides native-language instruction to non-English-speaking students in preparation for their eventual learning of English in mainstream classes.

The goal of these programs is to help students become fluent in English. In the United States, bilingual education in its modern form began in with Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which provides federal funding to schools to help them meet the needs of children with limited English-speaking ability.

Title VII, also called the Bilingual Education Act, was born out of the civil rights movement, which, among other things, sought to strengthen economic, political, and social opportunities for minorities. The Bilingual Education Act, together with the Civil Rights Act of , was expected to help change attitudes toward immigrant groups and ease resistance to ethnic languages. The Bilingual Education Act resulted in the implementation of TBE programs in more than half the states, particularly in districts and schools that had large immigrant most often Hispanic populations.

TBE programs, in which students are instructed in their native language before being taught English, revived a trend from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, when bilingual education thrived among the early European settlers who sought to have children instructed in their mother.

In , however, bilingual education was envisioned as a way to help Spanish-speaking children who had limited or no skills in English and were doing poorly in school. Support for bilingual education Advocates of bilingual education marshal a variety of arguments in its defense. Key supporters of bilingual educationamong them academics like Kenji Hakuta of Stanford University, Colin Baker of the University of Wales, Stephen Krashen of the University of Southern California, and Jim Cummins of the University of Toronto emphasize the effectiveness of using students native language as a resource in learning a second language.

They maintain that the use of the students home language helps keep them from falling behind their fellow students while learning English. They claim that the first language serves as a bridge on learning, and that knowledge acquired in one language transfers to the other language. This means that a child who is not fluent in English but is fluent in Spanish will learn English easily because he has already learned the foundational processes in the first language.

The knowledge-transfer hypothesis rests on the premise that the process of reading is similar across languages, even though the languages and writing systems are different. When schools provide children quality education in their primary language, they give them two things: knowledge and literacy.

The knowledge that children get through their first language helps make the English they hear and read more comprehensible. Literacy developed in the primary language transfers to the second language. The reason is simple: Because we learn by reading, that is, by making sense of what is on the page, it is easier to learn to read in a language we understand.

Once we can read in one language, we can read in general. Notice that Krashen uses the word quality; it is a word that practitioners of bilingual education often emphasize. They maintain that the most effective bilingual education programs are two-way bilingual programs. Such programs aim to teach both native speakers of Spanish and native speakers of English, attending the same classes, academic subjects in both languages. The students initially receive 90 percent of instruction in Spanish and 10 percent in English, and then the amount of English increases with each grade.

Supporters of these programs point to studies, such as the one by researchers Wayne P. Thomas and Virginia Collier at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia, that document the effectiveness of two-way bilingual programs.

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Swift would write his poem, which is an embarrassing encounter with a prostitute. Swift to task over the misogynistic tones that he used to write his poem. Within his writing the reader witnesses how his mental state heavily influences the theme of overall madness of his stories. In every relationship there is always an unequal relationship with the significant other. The basic principle states that men and women have a relationship that is unequal or oppressive.

My first main point of the story that touched on feminism was when Mr. Austen feeling unconfident. In the 19th century creole culture, women were sexually oppressed under male dominion. During a climactic storm, Calixta has an emotional storm of sexual passion with Alcee. In the Creole culture, wives are expected to remain faithful and be submissive to their husbands, but their husbands could have affairs. In this short story, Calixta goes against the Creole culture and has an affair with her past lover, Alcee.

Nature is one of the most powerful and mysterious forces of the universe that influences man greatly. Philosophically considered, the universe is composed of nature and soul. It controls all the living, non-living, human, non-human, organic, inorganic and visible, invisible things. To man nature is the pure and original source of happiness. Shelley foreshadows that the creature is in a need for a female companion that would give him the love he needs.

Foreshadowing makes the story more interesting by allowing the reader to guess the events that may. Mother Nature vs. It is unknown whether or not it is true, but it is widely believed that Coleridge wrote the poem after waking up from an opium-influenced dream. He writes about a man named Kubla Khan who creates a paradise-like kingdom. The shelter is everything to man that the oceans, trees, and rivers are not.

Peace and protection. Coleridge also repeats the idea of the caverns …show more content… This poem reveals the power of imaginative poetry. Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Biographia Literaria. ElecBook, Stephen Greenblatt. Norton, Edwards, Mike. Mahony, Mary. Literature Resource Center , login. Accessed 11 Oct. Mercer, Dorothy F. JSTOR , www. Search for:. Works Cited Bloom, Harold.

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