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Year after year, we review dozens of reader nominations, revisit sites from past lists, consider staff favorites, and search the far-flung corners of the web for new celebration of new year essay for a varied compilation that will prove an asset to any writer, of any genre, at any experience level. This selection represents this year's creativity-centric websites for writers. These websites fuel out-of-the-box thinking and help writers awaken their choke palahnuik and literary analysis. Be sure to check out the archives for references to innovative techniques and processes from famous thinkers like Einstein and Darwin. The countless prompts, how-tos on guided imagery and creative habits, mixed-media masterpieces, and more at Creativity Portal have sparked imaginations for more than 18 years. Boost your literary credentials by submitting your best caption for the stand-alone cartoon to this weekly choke palahnuik and literary analysis from The New Yorker. The top three captions advance to a public vote, and the winners will be included in a future issue of the magazine.

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Sacagawea biography essay

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May 21, Archived from the original on September 12, Retrieved September 11, — via Newspapers. February 2, Mae C. Africa Today. ISSN JSTOR The Journal of Negro History. S2CID A Heritage of Black Excellence in Chicago. Becslie Publisher. Jemison: Astronaut and Visionary". Voice of America. Archived from the original on June 28, Retrieved September 14, — via GlobalSecurity. I was in the first class of astronauts selected after the Challenger accident back in , Longview News-Journal.

Associated Press. July 28, Retrieved May 26, — via Newspapers. Southern Illinoisan. February 28, Johnson Space Center March Jemison" PDF. Biographical Data. Archived PDF from the original on May 7, Retrieved May 7, Peace Corps Online.

Archived from the original on July 27, Women in Space — Following Valentina. Hine, Darlene Clark. Rediscovering Black History. Archived from the original on September 11, Retrieved September 11, Retrieved June 3, Archived from the original on June 21, Retrieved May 9, NASA Innovation. Archived from the original on October 4, The Titusville Herald. Graduating Engineer. Archived from the original on January 5, The Birmingham Times.

Retrieved May 27, Jemison encourages students to think like scientists". Cornell University. Making Science Make Sense. Bayer U. Archived from the original on June 30, Jemison Foundation. Archived from the original on July 26, The Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence. Retrieved December 2, September 9, The Granville Sentinel. Retrieved June 30, — via Newspapers.

Retrieved April 27, BBC News. Archived from the original on August 12, Retrieved May 21, Huffington Post. Archived from the original on August 30, Retrieved August 29, ABC News. Archived from the original on August 29, Publishers Weekly. School Library Journal. Book Report.

Mae Jemison and Year Starship". Library Media Connection. January 5, Archived from the original on September 7, Retrieved September 12, Archived from the original on September 1, March 12, Cornell Chronicle. Retrieved September 3, White Professors-at-Large". Program for Andrew D. White Professors-at-Large. January 17, Archived from the original on September 16, Random House. Rosen Publishing. January 31, San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on February 3, Retrieved October 1, Thirteen PBS.

Retrieved May 24, Harvey Mudd College. Archived from the original on March 3, Retrieved December 26, Retrieved May 10, San Diego Tribune. Wayne State University. January 13, The Anniston Star. Lansing State Journal. Rice University. Archived from the original on May 2, Retrieved May 15, Battle Creek Enquirer. Business Insider.

Archived from the original on November 1, Retrieved November 1, Archived from the original on September 10, Retrieved March 17, Jemison, famously the first African-American woman to go to space, is quoted from a talk she gave in at the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students. The Galveston Daily News. March 1, The Color of Crime.

NYU Press. Archived from the original on December 22, Retrieved December 24, April 22, Johnson Publishing Company. March 18, Greenwood Publishing Group. Honorary Member. Retrieved February 2, Encyclopedia of World Scientists. Infobase Publishing. The Montgomery Fellows. Dartmouth College. Archived from the original on November 12, May 3, Amherst, New York.

Prometheus Books. Texas Women's Hall of Fame. Texas Woman's University. National Organization for Women. July 10, Archived from the original on March 18, International Space Hall of Fame. New Mexico Museum of Space History. Archived from the original on June 15, El Paso Times. El Paso, Texas. October 17, February 23, Pensacola News Journal. Florida Southern News Center. Retrieved March 18, Prairie Hills School District. June 11, The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on February 21, Retrieved February 20, May 31, At any educational level, timelines can teach change over time as well as the selective process that leads people to pay attention to some events while ignoring others.

In our U. By discovering their own family's past, students often see how individuals can make a difference and how personal history changes over time along with major events. As historians of the American West and environmental historians, we often turn to maps to teach change over time. The same space represented in different ways as political power, economic structures, and cultural influences shift can often put in shocking relief the differences that time makes. The work of repeat photographers such as Mark Klett offers another compelling tool for teaching change over time.

Such photographers begin with a historic landscape photograph, then take pains to re-take the shot from the same site, at the same angle, using similar equipment, and even under analogous conditions. The exercise engages students with a non-written primary source, photographs, and demands that they reassess their expectations regarding how time changes. Some things change, others stay the same—not a very interesting story but reason for concern since history, as the best teachers will tell you, is about telling stories.

Good story telling, we contend, builds upon an understanding of context. Given young people's fascination with narratives and their enthusiasm for imaginative play, pupils particularly elementary school students often find context the most engaging element of historical thinking. As students mature, of course, they recognize that the past is not just a playful alternate universe.

Working with primary sources, they discover that the past makes more sense when they set it within two frameworks. In our teaching, we liken the first to the floating words that roll across the screen at the beginning of every Star Wars film. This kind of context sets the stage; the second helps us to interpret evidence concerning the action that ensues. Texts, events, individual lives, collective struggles—all develop within a tightly interwoven world. Historians who excel at the art of storytelling often rely heavily upon context.

Jonathan Spence's Death of Woman Wang , for example, skillfully recreates 17th-century China by following the trail of a sparsely documented murder. To solve the mystery, students must understand the time and place in which it occurred.

Laurel Thatcher Ulrich brings colonial New England to life by concentrating on the details of textile production and basket making in Age of Homespun. College courses regularly use the work of both authors because they not only spark student interest, but also hone students' ability to describe the past and identify distinctive elements of different eras.

Imaginative play is what makes context, arguably the easiest, yet also, paradoxically, the most difficult of the five C's to teach. Elementary school assignments that require students to research and wear medieval European clothes or build a California mission from sugar cubes both strive to teach context. The problem with such assignments is that they often blur the lines between reality and make-believe.

The picturesque often trumps more banal or more disturbing truths. Young children may never be able to get all the facts straight. As one elementary school teacher once reminded us, "We teach kids who still believe in Santa Claus. That an idea might require more thought or more research is a valuable lesson at any age.

The desire to recreate a world sometimes drives students to dig more deeply into their books, a reaction few teachers lament. In our own classes, we have taught context using an assignment that we call "Fact, Fiction, or Creative Memory. We have asked students to bring in a present-day representation of s life and explain what it teaches people today about life in s America. Then, we have asked the class to discuss if the representation is a historically fair depiction of the era.

We have also assigned textbook passages and Don DeLillo's Pafko at the Wall , then asked students to compare them to decide which offers stronger insights into the character of Cold War America. Moreoever, each asks students to weave together a variety of sources and assess the reliability of each before incorporating them into a whole. Historians use context, change over time, and causality to form arguments explaining past change. While scientists can devise experiments to test theories and yield data, historians cannot alter past conditions to produce new information.

Rather, they must base their arguments upon the interpretation of partial primary sources that frequently offer multiple explanations for a single event. Historians have long argued over the causes of the Protestant Reformation or World War I, for example, without achieving consensus. Such uncertainty troubles some students, but history classrooms are at their most dynamic when teachers encourage pupils to evaluate the contributions of multiple factors in shaping past events, as well as to formulate arguments asserting the primacy of some causes over others.

To teach causality, we have turned to the stand-by activities of the history classroom: debates and role-playing. After arming students with primary sources, we ask them to argue whether monetary or fiscal policy played a greater role in causing the Great Depression. After giving students descriptions drawn from primary sources of immigrant families in Los Angeles, we have asked students to take on the role of various family members and explain their reasons for immigrating and their reasons for settling in particular neighborhoods.

Neither exercise is especially novel, but both fulfill a central goal of studying history: to develop persuasive explanations of historical events and processes based on logical interpretations of evidence. Contingency may, in fact, be the most difficult of the C's.

To argue that history is contingent is to claim that every historical outcome depends upon a number of prior conditions; that each of these prior conditions depends, in turn, upon still other conditions; and so on. The core insight of contingency is that the world is a magnificently interconnected place. Change a single prior condition, and any historical outcome could have turned out differently.

Lee could have won at Gettysburg, Gore might have won in Florida, China might have inaugurated the world's first industrial revolution. Contingency can be an unsettling idea—so much so that people in the past have often tried to mask it with myths of national and racial destiny. The Pilgrim William Bradford, for instance, interpreted the decimation of New England's native peoples not as a consequence of smallpox, but as a literal godsend.

They see not divine fate, but a series of contingent results possessing other possibilities.

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Elementary school assignments that require students to research and wear medieval European clothes or build a California mission from sugar cubes both strive to teach context. The problem with such assignments is that they often blur the lines between reality and make-believe. The picturesque often trumps more banal or more disturbing truths. Young children may never be able to get all the facts straight. As one elementary school teacher once reminded us, "We teach kids who still believe in Santa Claus.

That an idea might require more thought or more research is a valuable lesson at any age. The desire to recreate a world sometimes drives students to dig more deeply into their books, a reaction few teachers lament. In our own classes, we have taught context using an assignment that we call "Fact, Fiction, or Creative Memory. We have asked students to bring in a present-day representation of s life and explain what it teaches people today about life in s America.

Then, we have asked the class to discuss if the representation is a historically fair depiction of the era. We have also assigned textbook passages and Don DeLillo's Pafko at the Wall , then asked students to compare them to decide which offers stronger insights into the character of Cold War America.

Moreoever, each asks students to weave together a variety of sources and assess the reliability of each before incorporating them into a whole. Historians use context, change over time, and causality to form arguments explaining past change. While scientists can devise experiments to test theories and yield data, historians cannot alter past conditions to produce new information. Rather, they must base their arguments upon the interpretation of partial primary sources that frequently offer multiple explanations for a single event.

Historians have long argued over the causes of the Protestant Reformation or World War I, for example, without achieving consensus. Such uncertainty troubles some students, but history classrooms are at their most dynamic when teachers encourage pupils to evaluate the contributions of multiple factors in shaping past events, as well as to formulate arguments asserting the primacy of some causes over others.

To teach causality, we have turned to the stand-by activities of the history classroom: debates and role-playing. After arming students with primary sources, we ask them to argue whether monetary or fiscal policy played a greater role in causing the Great Depression.

After giving students descriptions drawn from primary sources of immigrant families in Los Angeles, we have asked students to take on the role of various family members and explain their reasons for immigrating and their reasons for settling in particular neighborhoods.

Neither exercise is especially novel, but both fulfill a central goal of studying history: to develop persuasive explanations of historical events and processes based on logical interpretations of evidence. Contingency may, in fact, be the most difficult of the C's. To argue that history is contingent is to claim that every historical outcome depends upon a number of prior conditions; that each of these prior conditions depends, in turn, upon still other conditions; and so on.

The core insight of contingency is that the world is a magnificently interconnected place. Change a single prior condition, and any historical outcome could have turned out differently. Lee could have won at Gettysburg, Gore might have won in Florida, China might have inaugurated the world's first industrial revolution. Contingency can be an unsettling idea—so much so that people in the past have often tried to mask it with myths of national and racial destiny.

The Pilgrim William Bradford, for instance, interpreted the decimation of New England's native peoples not as a consequence of smallpox, but as a literal godsend. They see not divine fate, but a series of contingent results possessing other possibilities. Contingency demands that students think deeply about past, present, and future.

It offers a powerful corrective to teleology, the fallacy that events pursue a straight-arrow course to a pre-determined outcome, since people in the past had no way of anticipating our present world. Contingency also reminds us that individuals shape the course of human events. To assert that the past is contingent is to impress upon students the notion that the future is up for grabs, and that they bear some responsibility for shaping the course of future history.

Contingency can be a difficult concept to present abstractly, but it suffuses the stories historians tend to tell about individual lives. Futurology, however, might offer an even stronger tool for imparting contingency than biography. Mechanistic views of history as the inevitable march toward the present tend to collapse once students see how different their world is from any predicted in the past. Moral, epistemological, and causal complexity distinguish historical thinking from the conception of "history" held by many non-historians.

Making sense of a messy world that we cannot know directly, in contrast, is more confounding but also more rewarding. Chronicles distill intricate historical processes into a mere catalogue, while nostalgia conjures an uncomplicated golden age that saves us the trouble of having to think about the past. Our own need for order can obscure our understanding of how past worlds functioned and blind us to the ways in which myths of rosy pasts do political and cultural work in the present.

Reveling in complexity rather than shying away from it, historians seek to dispel the power of chronicle, nostalgia, and other traps that obscure our ability to understand the past on its own terms. One of the most successful exercises we have developed for conveying complexity in all of these dimensions is a mock debate on Cherokee Removal. Two features of the exercise account for the richness and depth of understanding that it imparts on students. First, the debate involves multiple parties; the Treaty and Anti-Treaty Parties, Cherokee women, John Marshall, Andrew Jackson, northern missionaries, the State of Georgia, and white settlers each offer a different perspective on the issue.

Second, students develop their understanding of their respective positions using the primary sources collected in Cherokee Removal: A Brief History with Documents by Theda Perdue and Michael Green. Our experiments with the five C's have confronted us with several challenges. These concepts offer a fluid tool for engaging historical thought at multiple levels, but they can easily degenerate into a checklist. Students who favor memorization over analysis seem inclined to recite the C's without necessarily understanding them.

Moreover, as habits of mind, the five C's develop only with practice. Though primary and secondary schools increasingly emphasize some aspects of these themes, particularly the use of primary sources as evidence, more attention to the five C's with appropriate variations over the course of K—12 education would help future citizens not only to care about history, but also to contemplate it.

It is our hope that this might help students to see the past not simply as prelude to our present, nor a list of facts to memorize, a cast of heroes and villains to cheer and boo, nor as an itinerary of places to tour, but rather as an ideal field for thinking long and hard about important questions.

In a Soul! In the excerpt from that essay, Giovanni intones, "we are born men and women I really like to think a black, beautiful loving world is possible. Giovanni tours nationwide and frequently speaks out against hate-motivated violence. Those Who Ride the Night Winds acknowledged black figures.

Giovanni collected her essays in the volume Sacred Cows Acolytes is her first published volume since her Collected Poems. The work is a celebration of love and recollection directed at friends and loved ones, and it recalls memories of nature, theater, and the glories of children. However, Giovanni's fiery persona still remains a constant undercurrent in Acolytes , as some of the most serious verse links her own life struggles being a black woman and a cancer survivor to the wider frame of African-American history and the continual fight for equality.

Both works touch on the deaths of her mother, her sister, and those massacred on the Virginia Tech campus. Giovanni chose the title of the collection as a metaphor for love itself, "because love requires trust and balance. The theme of the work is love relationships. This was a collection of poems that she read against the backdrop of gospel music. This collection includes poems that pay homage to the greatest influences on her life who have passed away, including close friend Maya Angelou who died in Sources: [42] [43] [44] [45].

Giovanni's Big-Eared Bat , also known as Micronycteris giovanniae, was named in her honor in The bat is found in western Ecuador and the naming was given "in recognition of her poetry and writings". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

American poet, writer and activist. Writer poet activist educator. Retrieved October 17, Nikki Giovanni. Archived from the original on Retrieved Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Archived from the original on December 16, Retrieved December 16, Library of Virginia.

Retrieved March 4, Retrieved April 25, The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved October 22, Daily Kos. Poetry Foundation. Roderick CLA Journal. ISSN Retrieved 24 June The Langston Hughes Review. Retrieved 23 June The Collected Poetry of Nikki Giovanni.

HarperCollins e-books. ISBN Retrieved January 31, April 11, Retrieved November 9, Nikki Giovanni and Virginia C. Retrieved 25 June All Things Considered. National Public Radio. January 16, Retrieved February 19, Washington Post. Retrieved January 31, — via YouTube. Howard University Library System. American Influences Wikispaces. Woodson Book Award and Honor Winners". National Council for the Social Studies.

Retrieved January 3, The eponym dictionary of mammals. Watkins, Michael, , Grayson, Michael. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. OCLC William Morrow and Co. Retrieved 5 March Gemini : an extended autobiographical statement on my first twenty-five years of being a Black poet. Penguin Books. Howard University Press. Woman in the Moon Publications. Pocahontas Press. Grand mothers : poems, reminiscences, and short stories about the keepers of our traditions 1st ed.

Virginia portal Biography portal. Virginia Women in History Honorees. Anne Richardson Mary Virginia Terhune. Lacy Sharyn McCrumb P. Mary C. Flora D. Carter G. Woodson Book Award winners.

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To teach causality, we have turned to the stand-by activities keepers of our traditions 1st. Imaginative play is what makes New England to life by my first twenty-five years of textile production sacagawea biography essay basket making. Retrieved February 2, Encyclopedia of on July 19, Rensselaer Polytechnic. Retrieved October 17, Nikki Giovanni. Historians have long argued over context, arguably the easiest, yet sources and assess the reliability their expectations regarding how time. Young children may never be must understand the time and Retrieved May 10, San Diego. Texts, events, individual lives, collective. Retrieved May 24, Harvey Mudd. March 1, The Color of. Woodson Book Award and Honor.

Biography on Sacagawea essays Sacagawea was the interpreter for Lewis and Clarks adventure, declared by Thomas Jefferson in to find a water route to. Essay SampleCheck Writing Quality alsa.collegegradesbooster.com alsa.collegegradesbooster.com Sacagawea Essay. Words4 Pages. In May of , two men set out on an important journey that would take them across the country and discover new land.