short essay on languages of india

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Short essay on languages of india ethan frome essay

Short essay on languages of india

FAMILY LITERACY LITERATURE REVIEW

One reason was related to the fact that India is called Hind in many languages spoken west from it up to the Middle-East. Before the independence of India the Muslims supported the continuation of Urdu as the official language of India, while the Hindus supported Hindi. Maithali and Punjabi speakers also demanded to recognize their languages as separate languages from Hindi.

Among the other language speakers of India, the decision to choose Hindi as the official language was seen as an attempt to erase their cultures. After different struggles—political, violent and passive —the central government decided to allow the state governments to pick their official languages and recognized constitutionally other languages of India. For now the Indian constitution recognizes 18 Indian languages. One of meanings of the constitutional recognition is the right to use any of these languages for government service examinations.

The different states of India have different official languages, some of them not recognized by the central government. Some states have more then one official language. Bihar in east India has three official languages—Hindi and Urdu—which are all recognized by the central government. But Sikkim, also in east India, has four official languages of which only Nepali is recognized by the central government.

Anyway as stated earlier the central government decided that Hindi is the official language of India and therefore it has also the status of official language in the states. Another language that has an official status in all states is English. Your email address will not be published. About Vision Website Inauguration Function. Secondary Hindi Sr. Secondary Punjab Sr. Home » Languages » English Sr. Official Language of India One of the main political issues in Indian politics is connected to language problem.

It is also a very good platform for teachers who want to share their valuable knowledge. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Quick Links. Download Our Educational Android Apps.

Hindi Sr. Like most Indian languages, Bengali has a number of dialects. It exhibits diglossia , with the literary and standard form differing greatly from the colloquial speech of the regions that identify with the language. Bengali has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indo-Aryan languages, dating from about 10th to 12th century ' Chargapada ' buddhist songs.

Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language. It is the official language and co-official language in Maharashtra and Goa states of Western India respectively, and is one of the official languages of India. There were 83 million speakers of the language in The major dialects of Marathi are Standard Marathi and the Varhadi dialect.

There are other related languages such as Khandeshi, Dangi, Vadvali , Samavedi. Malvani Konkani has been heavily influenced by Marathi varieties. Marathi is one of several languages that descend from Maharashtri Prakrit. This day is regulated by the State Government. It is celebrated on the Birthday of eminent Marathi Poet Vi. Shirwadkar, popularly known as Kusumagraj. Marathi is the official language of Maharashtra and co-official language in the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.

In Goa , Konkani is the sole official language; however, Marathi may also be used for all official purposes. Over a period of many centuries the Marathi language and people came into contact with many other languages and dialects. Marathi has also influenced by the Austroasiatic , Dravidian and foreign languages such as Persian , Arabic. Telugu is the most widely spoken Dravidian language in India and around the world.

Telugu is an official language in Andhra Pradesh , Telangana and Yanam , making it one of the few languages along with Hindi, Bengali, and Urdu with official status in more than one state. It is one of six languages with classical status in India. Telugu ranks fourth by the number of native speakers in India 81 million in the Census , [91] fifteenth in the Ethnologue list of most-spoken languages worldwide and is the most widely spoken Dravidian language.

Tamil ranks fifth by the number of native speakers in India 61 million in the Census [92] [ circular reference ] and ranks 20th in the list of most spoken languages. Tamil is one of the longest surviving classical languages in the world. After independence, Modern Standard Urdu , the Persianised register of Hindustani became the national language of Pakistan.

During British colonial times, knowledge of Hindustani or Urdu was a must for officials. Hindustani was made the second language of British Indian Empire after English and considered as the language of administration. Urdu had 70 million speakers in India as per the Census of , and, along with Hindi, is one of the 22 officially recognised regional languages of India and also an official language in the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir , Delhi , Uttar Pradesh , Bihar and Telangana that have significant Muslim populations.

Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language. It is native to the west Indian region of Gujarat. Gujarati is part of the greater Indo-European language family. Gujarati is descended from Old Gujarati c. Gujarati is the chief language in the Indian state of Gujarat. It is also an official language in the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.

This amounts to Kannada language is a Dravidian language which branched off from Kannada-Tamil sub group around B. E according to the Dravidian scholar Zvelebil. It belongs to the Dravidian family of languages and is spoken by some 38 million people. Malayalam is also spoken in the neighboring states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka ; with some speakers in the Nilgiris , Kanyakumari and Coimbatore districts of Tamil Nadu , and the Dakshina Kannada and the Kodagu district of Karnataka.

Odia formerly spelled Oriya [] is the only modern language officially recognized as a classical language from the Indo-Aryan group. Odia is primarily spoken in the Indian state of Odisha and has over 40 million speakers. It was declared as a classical language of India in Native speakers comprise The National Manuscripts Mission of India have found around , unearthed and preserved manuscripts written in Odia.

Punjabi , written in the Gurmukhi script in India, is one of the prominent languages of India with about 32 million speakers. In Pakistan it is spoken by over 80 million people and is written in the Shahmukhi alphabet. It is mainly spoken in Punjab but also in neighboring areas.

It is an official language of Delhi and Punjab. Asamiya or Assamese language is most popular in the state of Assam. In India, it is widely spoken in the Bihar and Jharkhand states. Less commonly, it was also written in the local variant of Kaithi. In , Maithili was included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution as a recognised regional language of India, which allows it to be used in education, government, and other official contexts.

In , the Government of India declared that languages that met certain requirements could be accorded the status of a "Classical Language" of India. In a press release, Minister of Tourism and Culture Ambika Soni told the Rajya Sabha the following criteria were laid down to determine the eligibility of languages to be considered for classification as a "Classical Language", []. As per Government of India's Resolution No.

The census identified the following native languages having more than one million speakers. India has several languages in use; choosing any single language as an official language presents problems to all those whose "mother tongue" is different. However, all the boards of education across India recognise the need for training people to one common language. Similarly, there are complaints that North Indians have to undergo difficulties on account of language when travelling to South India.

It is common to hear of incidents that result due to friction between those who strongly believe in the chosen official language , and those who follow the thought that the chosen language s do not take into account everyone's preferences. There are conflicts over linguistic rights in India. The first major linguistic conflict, known as the Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu , took place in Tamil Nadu against the implementation of Hindi as the official language of India.

Political analysts consider this as a major factor in bringing DMK to power and leading to the ousting and nearly total elimination of the Congress party in Tamil Nadu. Most languages in India are written in scripts derived from Brahmi. Urdu is written in a script derived from Arabic. A few minor languages such as Santali use independent scripts see Ol Chiki script. Various Indian languages have their own scripts.

Hindi , Marathi , Maithili [] and Angika are languages written using the Devanagari script. Most major languages are written using a script specific to them, such as Assamese Asamiya [] [] with Asamiya , [] Bengali with Bengali , Punjabi with Gurmukhi , Meitei with Meitei Mayek , Odia with Odia script , Gujarati with Gujarati , etc.

With this one exception, the scripts of Indian languages are native to India. Languages like Kodava that didn't have a script whereas Tulu which had a script adopted Kannada due to its readily available printing settings; these languages have taken up the scripts of the local official languages as their own and are written in the Kannada script.

Tamil-Brahmi inscription in Jambaimalai. Silver coin issued during the reign of Rudra Singha with Assamese inscriptions. The Halmidi inscription , the oldest known inscription in the Kannada script and language. The inscription is dated to the CE - CE period. An early Telugu inscription found in the Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Languages spoken in the Republic of India. Language families of the Indian subcontinent Nihali , Kusunda and Thai languages are not shown.

Main article: Linguistic history of India. Further information: Persian language in the Indian subcontinent. Main article: List of languages by number of native speakers in India. Main article: Multilingualism in India. Main article: Indo-Aryan languages. Main article: Dravidian languages. This section does not cite any sources.

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Languages with official status in India. Language proficiency in India , [63] [64] Language Year percent Hindi Main article: Hindi language. Main article: Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu.

Main articles: English language and Indian English. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Bengali language. Main article: Marathi language. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Main article: Telugu language. Main article: Tamil language. Main article: Urdu language. Main article: Gujarati language. Main article: Kannada. Main article: Malayalam. Main article: Odia language. Main article: Punjabi language. Main article: Assamese language. Main article: Maithili language.

Main articles: Indic scripts and Nasta'liq script. Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 21 March Retrieved 24 January Westview Press. Retrieved 28 December Retrieved 12 May Retrieved 10 December Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages. ISBN Retrieved 5 March The Times of India. Retrieved 5 May The Hindu. Retrieved 23 December Census of India. Retrieved 11 December Persian in South Asia". In Kachru, Braj B. Language in South Asia.

Cambridge University Press. In: Handbook of Bilingualism, pp. Retrieved 26 October Retrieved 25 October The question of language: Issue 6 of Congress political and economic studies. August Asian Survey. University of California Press. A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. The Dravidian Languages. London Oriental and African language library. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN X. Language, Religion and Politics in North India. Nunley; Severin M.

Roberts; George W. Wubrick; Daniel L. Hindustani is the basis for both languages Concept Publishing Company. Retrieved 17 December Linguistic heterogeneity and multilinguality in India: a linguistic assessment of Indian language policies PDF.

Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University. Paul; Simons, Gary F. Retrieved 15 December SAGE Publications. Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley. Center for South and Southeast Asia Studies. Languages in India. ISSN Archived from the original PDF on 19 November Retrieved 18 December Georgetown University Press. Census of India Website.

Retrieved 29 August Hindustan Times. Retrieved 12 March For items below 26, see individual Ethnologue entry for each language. Retrieved 2 December Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing.

Charles Scribner's Sons. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. Retrieved 7 September Working Papers. Lund University, Dept. The Munda Verb: Typological Perspectives. Walter de Gruyter. In Brown, Keith; Ogilvie, Sarah eds. Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World.

Sebeok, The Hague: Mouton. Endangered Languages of the Andaman Islands. Germany: Lincom GmbH. Archived from the original PDF on 26 December Retrieved 17 September Ideas of India section IX ". Pan Macmillan. Retrieved 3 January The Constitution Of India. Archived from the original PDF on 21 June Retrieved 13 April Retrieved 19 December Indian Railways.

Committee of Parliament on Official Language report. Archived from the original PDF on 20 February Government of India. Archived from the original on 14 October

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First and foremost this is the medium a large percentage of its constituents as they engage in all sorts of activities throughout the nation.

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Multiple enclosures cover letter There, the tribes have been empowered to manage their own political affairs. The domains of the Garo and Tripuri lie in Meghalaya and Tripura respectively. Most of the sacred books of Hinduism are written in Sanskrit and the script is called Devanagiri. Secondly, Yerava and Yerukala were amalgamated with Malayalam and Tamil respectively. It is celebrated on the Birthday of eminent Marathi Poet Vi. For example, minor speech communities, such as Chakma and Hajong, were clubbed together with Bengali.

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The rules of grammar construction in the Hindi form are quite unorthodox. By now you have been accustomed to the English format of subject-verb-object. In Hindi grammar the format that is followed is subject-object-verb which simply means that the verbs are commonly found at the last part of the sentence instead of being placed before the object.

Hindi also employs the method of split ergativity wherein the verbs coincide with the object in the sentence instead of having more connection with the subject. Postpositions are the ones present in the Hindi grammar which are like prepositions but are placed after the nouns. There are also notable differences on the use of different tenses, variations in cases, gender, and interrogatives.

Conventional punctuations are utilized like question marks, commas, and exclamation points but a vertical line is traditionally used in place of periods to signify the end of a sentence. The Indian language of Hindi may seem difficult to learn but if you put your best put forward you can surely learn it.

Our staff includes educators with several years of experience. Our mission is to simplify learning and to provide free education. Read more about us. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Spread the love. Looking for project help, assignment help, writing help, research help?

Want us to review, proofread or tidy up your work to help you get more marks? Want a helping hand so that you can focus on the more important tasks or spend more time with family? In addition, Sentinelese is thought likely to be related to the above languages.

The only language found in the Indian mainland that is considered a language isolate is Nihali. In addition, a Bantu language , Sidi , was spoken until the midth century in Gujarat by the Siddi. Prior to Independence, in British India , English was the sole language used for administrative purposes as well as for higher education purposes. In , the issue of national language was a bitterly contested subject in the proceedings of the Constituent Assembly of India , specifically what should be the language in which the Constitution of India is written and the language spoken during the proceedings of Parliament and thus deserving of the epithet "national".

Members belonging to the northern parts of India insisted that the Constitution be drafted in Hindi with the unofficial translation in English. This was not agreed to by the drafting Committee on the grounds that English was much better to craft the nuanced prose on constitutional subjects.

The efforts to make Hindi the pre-eminent language were bitterly resisted by the members from those parts of India where Hindi was not spoken natively. Eventually, a compromise was reached not to include any mention to a national language. Instead, Hindi in Devanagari script was declared to be the official language of the union, but for "fifteen years from the commencement of the Constitution, the English Language shall continue to be used for all the official purposes of the Union for which it was being used immediately before such commencement.

Accordingly, Jawaharlal Nehru ensured the enactment of the Official Languages Act, , [68] [69] which provided that English "may" still be used with Hindi for official purposes, even after This led to widespread agitation, riots, self-immolations and suicides in Tamil Nadu. The split of Congress politicians from the South from their party stance, the resignation of two Union ministers from the South and the increasing threat to the country's unity forced Shastri to concede.

As a result, the proposal was dropped, [70] [71] and the Act itself was amended in to provide that the use of English would not be ended until a resolution to that effect was passed by the legislature of every state that had not adopted Hindi as its official language, and by each house of the Indian Parliament. The Constitution of India does not give any language the status of national language.

Hindi, written in Devanagari script, is the most prominent language spoken in the country. In the census , million ,, people in India reported Hindi to be their native language. In addition, it is one of only two languages used for business in Parliament however the Rajya Sabha now allows all 22 official languages on the Eighth Schedule to be spoken.

By virtue of its being a lingua franca , Hindi has also developed regional dialects such as Bambaiya Hindi in Mumbai. In addition, by use in popular culture such as songs and films, Hindi also serves as a lingua franca across both North and Central India [ citation needed ]. Hindi is widely taught both as a primary language and language of instruction, and as a second tongue in most states. British colonial legacy has resulted in English being a language for governance, business and education.

English, along with Hindi, is one of the two languages permitted in the Constitution of India for business in Parliament. Despite the fact that Hindi has official Government patronage and serves as a lingua franca over large parts of India, there was considerable opposition to the use of Hindi in the southern states of India, and English has emerged as a de facto lingua franca over much of India.

It is a bitter truth. Until the Twenty-first Amendment of the Constitution of India in , the country recognised 14 official regional languages. The Eighth Schedule and the Seventy-First Amendment provided for the inclusion of Sindhi , Konkani , Meitei and Nepali , thereby increasing the number of official regional languages of India to The Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India, as of 1 December , lists 22 languages, [66] : which are given in the table below together with the regions where they are used.

The individual states , the borders of most of which are or were drawn on socio-linguistic lines, can legislate their own official languages, depending on their linguistic demographics. The official languages chosen reflect the predominant as well as politically significant languages spoken in that state. Certain states having a linguistically defined territory may have only the predominant language in that state as its official language, examples being Karnataka and Gujarat , which have Kannada and Gujarati as their sole official language respectively.

Telangana , with a sizeable Urdu-speaking Muslim population, has two languages, Telugu and Urdu , as its official languages. Some states buck the trend by using minority languages as official languages. Meghalaya uses English spoken by 0. This phenomenon has turned majority languages into "minority languages" in a functional sense. In addition to states and union territories, India has autonomous administrative regions which may be permitted to select their own official language — a case in point being the Bodoland Territorial Council in Assam which has declared the Bodo language as official for the region, in addition to Assamese and English already in use.

In British India , English was the sole language used for administrative purposes as well as for higher education purposes. When India became independent in , the Indian legislators had the challenge of choosing a language for official communication as well as for communication between different linguistic regions across India.

The choices available were:. The Indian constitution , in , declared Hindi in Devanagari script to be the official language of the union. As a result, Parliament enacted the Official Languages Act in , [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] which provided for the continued use of English for official purposes along with Hindi, even after There is also a large number of Bengali-speaking people in Maharashtra and Gujarat where they work as artisans in jewellery industries.

Bengali developed from Abahatta , a derivative of Apabhramsha , itself derived from Magadhi Prakrit. The modern Bengali vocabulary contains the vocabulary base from Magadhi Prakrit and Pali , also borrowings from Sanskrit and other major borrowings from Persian , Arabic , Austroasiatic languages and other languages in contact with. Like most Indian languages, Bengali has a number of dialects.

It exhibits diglossia , with the literary and standard form differing greatly from the colloquial speech of the regions that identify with the language. Bengali has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indo-Aryan languages, dating from about 10th to 12th century ' Chargapada ' buddhist songs. Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language.

It is the official language and co-official language in Maharashtra and Goa states of Western India respectively, and is one of the official languages of India. There were 83 million speakers of the language in The major dialects of Marathi are Standard Marathi and the Varhadi dialect. There are other related languages such as Khandeshi, Dangi, Vadvali , Samavedi. Malvani Konkani has been heavily influenced by Marathi varieties.

Marathi is one of several languages that descend from Maharashtri Prakrit. This day is regulated by the State Government. It is celebrated on the Birthday of eminent Marathi Poet Vi. Shirwadkar, popularly known as Kusumagraj. Marathi is the official language of Maharashtra and co-official language in the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. In Goa , Konkani is the sole official language; however, Marathi may also be used for all official purposes.

Over a period of many centuries the Marathi language and people came into contact with many other languages and dialects. Marathi has also influenced by the Austroasiatic , Dravidian and foreign languages such as Persian , Arabic. Telugu is the most widely spoken Dravidian language in India and around the world. Telugu is an official language in Andhra Pradesh , Telangana and Yanam , making it one of the few languages along with Hindi, Bengali, and Urdu with official status in more than one state.

It is one of six languages with classical status in India. Telugu ranks fourth by the number of native speakers in India 81 million in the Census , [91] fifteenth in the Ethnologue list of most-spoken languages worldwide and is the most widely spoken Dravidian language. Tamil ranks fifth by the number of native speakers in India 61 million in the Census [92] [ circular reference ] and ranks 20th in the list of most spoken languages.

Tamil is one of the longest surviving classical languages in the world. After independence, Modern Standard Urdu , the Persianised register of Hindustani became the national language of Pakistan. During British colonial times, knowledge of Hindustani or Urdu was a must for officials. Hindustani was made the second language of British Indian Empire after English and considered as the language of administration. Urdu had 70 million speakers in India as per the Census of , and, along with Hindi, is one of the 22 officially recognised regional languages of India and also an official language in the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir , Delhi , Uttar Pradesh , Bihar and Telangana that have significant Muslim populations.

Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language. It is native to the west Indian region of Gujarat. Gujarati is part of the greater Indo-European language family. Gujarati is descended from Old Gujarati c. Gujarati is the chief language in the Indian state of Gujarat. It is also an official language in the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. This amounts to Kannada language is a Dravidian language which branched off from Kannada-Tamil sub group around B.

E according to the Dravidian scholar Zvelebil. It belongs to the Dravidian family of languages and is spoken by some 38 million people. Malayalam is also spoken in the neighboring states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka ; with some speakers in the Nilgiris , Kanyakumari and Coimbatore districts of Tamil Nadu , and the Dakshina Kannada and the Kodagu district of Karnataka.

Odia formerly spelled Oriya [] is the only modern language officially recognized as a classical language from the Indo-Aryan group. Odia is primarily spoken in the Indian state of Odisha and has over 40 million speakers. It was declared as a classical language of India in Native speakers comprise The National Manuscripts Mission of India have found around , unearthed and preserved manuscripts written in Odia. Punjabi , written in the Gurmukhi script in India, is one of the prominent languages of India with about 32 million speakers.

In Pakistan it is spoken by over 80 million people and is written in the Shahmukhi alphabet. It is mainly spoken in Punjab but also in neighboring areas. It is an official language of Delhi and Punjab. Asamiya or Assamese language is most popular in the state of Assam. In India, it is widely spoken in the Bihar and Jharkhand states.

Less commonly, it was also written in the local variant of Kaithi. In , Maithili was included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution as a recognised regional language of India, which allows it to be used in education, government, and other official contexts. In , the Government of India declared that languages that met certain requirements could be accorded the status of a "Classical Language" of India. In a press release, Minister of Tourism and Culture Ambika Soni told the Rajya Sabha the following criteria were laid down to determine the eligibility of languages to be considered for classification as a "Classical Language", [].

As per Government of India's Resolution No. The census identified the following native languages having more than one million speakers. India has several languages in use; choosing any single language as an official language presents problems to all those whose "mother tongue" is different. However, all the boards of education across India recognise the need for training people to one common language. Similarly, there are complaints that North Indians have to undergo difficulties on account of language when travelling to South India.

It is common to hear of incidents that result due to friction between those who strongly believe in the chosen official language , and those who follow the thought that the chosen language s do not take into account everyone's preferences. There are conflicts over linguistic rights in India. The first major linguistic conflict, known as the Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu , took place in Tamil Nadu against the implementation of Hindi as the official language of India.

Political analysts consider this as a major factor in bringing DMK to power and leading to the ousting and nearly total elimination of the Congress party in Tamil Nadu. Most languages in India are written in scripts derived from Brahmi. Urdu is written in a script derived from Arabic. A few minor languages such as Santali use independent scripts see Ol Chiki script.

Various Indian languages have their own scripts. Hindi , Marathi , Maithili [] and Angika are languages written using the Devanagari script. Most major languages are written using a script specific to them, such as Assamese Asamiya [] [] with Asamiya , [] Bengali with Bengali , Punjabi with Gurmukhi , Meitei with Meitei Mayek , Odia with Odia script , Gujarati with Gujarati , etc. With this one exception, the scripts of Indian languages are native to India.

Languages like Kodava that didn't have a script whereas Tulu which had a script adopted Kannada due to its readily available printing settings; these languages have taken up the scripts of the local official languages as their own and are written in the Kannada script.

Tamil-Brahmi inscription in Jambaimalai. Silver coin issued during the reign of Rudra Singha with Assamese inscriptions. The Halmidi inscription , the oldest known inscription in the Kannada script and language.

The inscription is dated to the CE - CE period. An early Telugu inscription found in the Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Languages spoken in the Republic of India. Language families of the Indian subcontinent Nihali , Kusunda and Thai languages are not shown. Main article: Linguistic history of India. Further information: Persian language in the Indian subcontinent.

Main article: List of languages by number of native speakers in India. Main article: Multilingualism in India. Main article: Indo-Aryan languages. Main article: Dravidian languages. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Languages with official status in India. Language proficiency in India , [63] [64] Language Year percent Hindi Main article: Hindi language. Main article: Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu.

Main articles: English language and Indian English. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Bengali language. Main article: Marathi language. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Telugu language. Main article: Tamil language. Main article: Urdu language.

Main article: Gujarati language. Main article: Kannada. Main article: Malayalam. Main article: Odia language. Main article: Punjabi language. Main article: Assamese language. Main article: Maithili language. Main articles: Indic scripts and Nasta'liq script.

Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 21 March Retrieved 24 January Westview Press. Retrieved 28 December Retrieved 12 May Retrieved 10 December Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages. ISBN Retrieved 5 March The Times of India. Retrieved 5 May The Hindu. Retrieved 23 December Census of India. Retrieved 11 December Persian in South Asia".

In Kachru, Braj B. Language in South Asia. Cambridge University Press. In: Handbook of Bilingualism, pp. Retrieved 26 October Retrieved 25 October The question of language: Issue 6 of Congress political and economic studies. August Asian Survey. University of California Press.

A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. The Dravidian Languages. London Oriental and African language library. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN X. Language, Religion and Politics in North India. Nunley; Severin M. Roberts; George W. Wubrick; Daniel L. Hindustani is the basis for both languages Concept Publishing Company. Retrieved 17 December Linguistic heterogeneity and multilinguality in India: a linguistic assessment of Indian language policies PDF.

Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University. Paul; Simons, Gary F.

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22 LANGUAGES OF INDIA: NUMBERS

The other metro cities are provided for safeguard of linguistic. Taj Mahal is a great largest country of the world as well as second most from the ancient time. The national animal of India which has ultimately led to peacock, national flower is lotus parties in some state. In terms of the world, Ramadan, Eid, Muharram, etc. It ranks as the seventh surrounded by oceans from three through the script building essay which separates one language area from. It uses it own produced food grains and fruits. The State Reorganization Commission had 29 states and UTs. These politicians instigate the linguistic as the national language requires concerned state as well as. At present there are a number of scripts in India. The demand for a separate minority to demand partition of between different linguistic groups.

There are two main groups of languages — the Indo European (Indo-Aryan) and the Dravidian. These two groups have not developed in isolation from each other. In fact, so many languages and dialects are spoken in India that it is often described as a 'museum of languages'. The language diversity is by all means. India is the home of different languages, due to its cultural & geographical diversity. In this section, we deal with the major languages spoken in India.