It gives the impression of being disorganized and unprepared. NOTE : A good strategy is to have a page of notes for each slide so that the act of referring to a new page helps remind you to move to the next slide. This also creates a natural pause that allows your audience to contemplate what you just presented. Strategies for creating effective notes for yourself include the following:. Creating and Using Overheads.
Writing CSU. Colorado State University; Kelly, Christine. Mastering the Art of Presenting. Academic Skills Centre. University of Canberra; Lucas, Stephen. The Art of Public Speaking. Guidelines for Oral Presentations. Oral Presentations. The Lab Report. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Speeches. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Storz, Carl et al. Oral Presentation Skills. Begin by thinking about what you want to achieve and how are you going to involve your audience in the presentation.
Introduction [may be written last]. The Body. The Conclusion. NOTE : When asking your audience if anyone has any questions, give people time to contemplate what you have said and to formulate a question. It may seem like an awkward pause to wait ten seconds or so for someone to raise their hand, but it's frustrating to have a question come to mind but be cutoff because the presenter rushed to end the talk. Nothing is more frustrating to an audience member than wanting to jot something down, but the presenter closes the slides immediately after finishing.
When delivering your presentation, keep in mind the following points to help you remain focused and ensure that everything goes as planned. Pay attention to language! Use your voice to communicate clearly. Use your body language to communicate too! Interact with the audience. Colorado State University; Enfield, N.
Your introduction should begin with something that grabs the attention of your audience, such as, an interesting statistic, a brief narrative or story, or a bold assertion, and then clearly tell the audience in a well-crafted sentence what you plan to accomplish in your presentation. Your introductory statement should be constructed so as to invite the audience to pay close attention to your message and to give the audience a clear sense of the direction in which you are about to take them.
Lucas, Stephen. A presentation is not the same as an essay. If you read your presentation as if it were an essay, your audience will probably understand very little about what you say and will lose concentration quickly. Use notes, cue cards, or overheads as prompts that emphasis key points, and speak to your audience. Include everyone by looking at them and maintaining regular eye-contact [but don't stare or glare at people]. Limit reading text to quotes or to specific points you want to emphasize.
Search this Guide Search. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper Offers detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences. The Abstract Executive Summary 4.
The Introduction The C. The Discussion Limitations of the Study 9. The Conclusion Appendices Preparing for Your Oral Presentation In some classes, writing the research paper is only part of what is required in regards to presenting your work. Oral communication is different from written communication Your audience has just one chance to hear your talk; they can't "re-read" your words if they get confused.
Think about your audience Yes, you want to demonstrate to your professor that you have conducted a good study. Create effective notes If you don't have notes to refer to as you speak, you run the risk of forgetting something important. Strategies for creating effective notes for yourself include the following: Choose a large, readable font [at least 18 point in Ariel ]; avoid using fancy text fonts or cursive text.
Use bold text, underlining, or different-colored text to highlight elements of your speech that you want to emphasize. Don't over do it, though. Only highlight the most important elements of your presentation. Leave adequate space on your notes to jot down additional thoughts or observations before and during your presentation. This is also helpful when writing down your thoughts in response to a question or to remember a multi-part question [remember to have a pen with you when you give your presentation].
Place a cue in the text of your notes to indicate when to move to the next slide, to click on a link, or to take some other action, such as, linking to a video. If appropriate, include a cue in your notes if there is a point during your presentation when you want the audience to refer to a handout.
Spell out challenging words phonetically and practice saying them ahead of time. Organizing the Content Begin by thinking about what you want to achieve and how are you going to involve your audience in the presentation. Brainstorm your topic and write a rough outline. Organize your material and draft what you want to say [see below]. Prepare your visual aids. Rehearse your presentation and practice getting the presentation completed within the time limit given by your professor.
Ask a friend to listen and time you. Begin with a question, an amusing story, a provocative statement, or anything that will engage your audience and make them think. State your purpose. The Body Present your main points one by one in a logical order.
Pause at the end of each point. Give people time to take notes, or time to think about what you are saying. Make it clear when you move to another point. If appropriate, consider using visual aids to make your presentation more interesting [e. The Conclusion Leave your audience with a clear summary of everything that you have covered.
Summarize the main points again. For example, use phrases like: "So, in conclusion Make it obvious that you have reached the end of the presentation. Thank the audience, and invite questions : "Thank you. Are there any questions? Delivering Your Presentation When delivering your presentation, keep in mind the following points to help you remain focused and ensure that everything goes as planned. Keep it simple. The aim is to communicate, not to show off your vocabulary.
Using complex words or phrases increases the chance of stumbling over a word and losing your train of thought. Emphasize the key points. Make sure people realize which are the key points of your study. Repeat them using different phrasing to help the audience remember them.
Whereas a critical review evaluates a single source, and an annotated bibliography evaluates a number of sources presented separately within a series of isolated paragraphs , a literature review connects and brings together a number of sources, often within single paragraphs - and indeed sentences.
While an annotated bibliography functions as a list, with little opportunity to connect sources, a literature review necessitates the juxtaposing, comparing and contrasting of sources. Creating an annotated bibliography is a useful step towards completing a literature review, and it is a useful note taking method. However, the literature review is one step beyond this evaluation of resources, as it is primarily concerned with examining the field.
If you are writing a systematic review, you can find useful information in this Library Guide. In a literature review, however, you will notice the synergy between analysis and synthesis as you zoom-in to closely analyse an individual source, then zoom-out to consider it in relation to the broader field.
After analysing a range of sources, you should synthesise the relevant sources, connecting, linking and positioning them against each other, in order to identify the recurring themes, trends and areas of agreement or disagreement within your research field. After reading and analysing individual sources, you have identified a key concept relating to your research topic as well as a key resource A relating to that concept.
The argument in resource A is supported by another article B , which is in turn supported by article D. However, you have also found article C, which contradicts the argument presented in resource A. One way to synthesise these texts, is to group together the texts supporting your key resource articles B and D , and explain that article C presents contradictory results.
Then, you would need to examine the methodological differences or any other possible reasons for the contradictory results. Another way of managing sources and arguments presented in them is to use a literature review matrix also called synthesis matrix. Literature review matrix is a table in which you can represent the views, ideas, or data according to thematic categories that correspond to your research project. As you fill out your matrix, you will begin to get a clearer view of how different sources are related, and recognise patterns that may not have been immediately visible before.
For example, you may see a correlation between sample sizes and types of conclusions, or between specific kinds of aims and the methods chosen to address them. Because information is arranged in thematic columns, you can get a useful overview of all aims, or all methods at a glance. You can add new columns as your understanding improves. Thus the review matrix can also be a powerful tool for synthesising the patterns you identify across literature, and for formulating your own observations.
Literature reviews exist within different types of scholarly works with varying foci and emphases. Short or miniature literature reviews can be presented in journal articles, book chapters, or coursework assignments to set the background for the research work and provide a general understanding of the research topic. However, the focus of a literature review in a graduate research thesis is to identify gaps and argue for the need for further research.
Depending on the purpose of the writer and the context in which the literature review will be presented, a selective or comprehensive approach may be taken. In the selective approach, a single or limited number of sources are reviewed e. A comprehensive approach requires the review of numerous books and articles e. Within a thesis, a literature review may appear in a single chapter — often being the first independent chapter after the introduction.
However, reviews of literature may also be dispersed across several chapters, each of which may focus on a different theme, concept, theory or method. As a result, a thesis can contain multiple reviews based upon thematic, conceptual, theoretical and methodological considerations. What is the purpose of conducting a literature review? What function does a literature review serve within a thesis? This is a cyclical process. It is usually one of the first tasks that graduate research students undertake, and one of the last to be completed.
A literature review written in the early stages of research is likely to change because you need to review and revise it from time to time and ensure it is up to date. You will probably find yourself engaging with the literature in different ways at different stages of your research.
The review you conduct in your first year helps you to refine and justify your research questions. Your written report demonstrates your familiarity with the research in your field. Reviewing and revising your literature review during the period of your research is also necessary, to keep it up to date by including reviews of the most recent relevant publications.
You will also need to revisit your literature review in the final stages of your research to relate your own findings to what other scholars have previously found in your area. At this stage you may need to explore fields that were not included in your preliminary review.
After selecting a topic to investigate, you will begin to locate and read sources. Then you will analyse, evaluate and synthesise the texts before organising them into a logical structure that you will use to write your literature review.
This is a cyclical, iterative process in that you will return to find and read more sources and incorporate them into your synthesis. While many of the general considerations outlined in this module are pertinent to all research, there are some particular things to consider when writing a literature review within your discipline. In the following sections, you will find additional information and advice for writing a literature review within specific disciplinary areas.
Practice-based research often leads to the production of a creative artifact, a body of work or a performance, as well as an accompanying exegetical text. If you are writing a literature review as part of a practice-based exegesis, the content within this module will be relevant to you.
With a focus on creative practice, your research may not necessarily be guided by an explicit research question or a gap that your research aims to address. This involves identifying and discussing the key concepts, ideas and theories that are relevant to your research. Humanities theses are generally divided into chapters which each deal with an aspect of the research problem. There is usually also a short literature review in the introduction, to situate and justify the study, but often further appropriate research literature is integrated into each chapter.
You can see an example of where literature is dealt with in the annotated humanities example on the Thesis structure page. In disciplines which use footnotes for referencing, some of the literature analysis is carried on in the footnotes, in parallel to the main argument in the text above, as can be seen in the example below, from a history thesis. This is reflected in scholarship that deals with predestination.
The content will look slightly different in each case, but the process of conducting a literature review follows the same steps. Writing literature reviews is a particularly important skill if you want to apply for graduate school or pursue a career in research.
Before you begin searching for literature, you need a clearly defined topic. If you are writing the literature review section of a dissertation or research paper, you will search for literature related to your research problem and questions.
If you are writing a literature review as a stand-alone assignment, you will have to choose a focus and develop a central question to direct your search. Unlike a dissertation research question, this question has to be answerable without collecting original data. You should be able to answer it based only on a review of existing publications. Start by creating a list of keywords related to your research question.
You can add to this list if you discover new keywords in the process of your literature search. Use your keywords to begin searching for sources. Some useful databases to search for journals and articles include:. Read the abstract to find out whether an article is relevant to your question.
When you find a useful book or article, you can check the bibliography to find other relevant sources. To identify the most important publications on your topic, take note of recurring citations. If the same authors, books or articles keep appearing in your reading, make sure to seek them out. Scribbr Plagiarism Checker. Make sure the sources you use are credible , and make sure you read any landmark studies and major theories in your field of research.
You can find out how many times an article has been cited on Google Scholar—a high citation count means the article has been influential in the field, and should certainly be included in your literature review. The scope of your review will depend on your topic and discipline: in the sciences you usually only review recent literature, but in the humanities you might take a long historical perspective for example, to trace how a concept has changed in meaning over time.
As you read, you should also begin the writing process. Take notes that you can later incorporate into the text of your literature review. It is important to keep track of your sources with citations to avoid plagiarism.
It can be helpful to make an annotated bibliography , where you compile full citation information and write a paragraph of summary and analysis for each source. This helps you remember what you read and saves time later in the process. Want to check your literature review for plagiarism?
Based on your reading and notes, you can look for:. This step will help you work out the structure of your literature review and if applicable show how your own research will contribute to existing knowledge. There are various approaches to organizing the body of a literature review.
You should have a rough idea of your strategy before you start writing. Depending on the length of your literature review, you can combine several of these strategies for example, your overall structure might be thematic, but each theme is discussed chronologically. The simplest approach is to trace the development of the topic over time. However, if you choose this strategy, be careful to avoid simply listing and summarizing sources in order.
Try to analyze patterns, turning points and key debates that have shaped the direction of the field. Give your interpretation of how and why certain developments occurred. If you have found some recurring central themes, you can organize your literature review into subsections that address different aspects of the topic. For example, if you are reviewing literature about inequalities in migrant health outcomes, key themes might include healthcare policy, language barriers, cultural attitudes, legal status, and economic access.
If you draw your sources from different disciplines or fields that use a variety of research methods , you might want to compare the results and conclusions that emerge from different approaches. For example:. A literature review is often the foundation for a theoretical framework. You can use it to discuss various theories, models, and definitions of key concepts. You might argue for the relevance of a specific theoretical approach, or combine various theoretical concepts to create a framework for your research.
Like any other academic text , your literature review should have an introduction , a main body, and a conclusion. What you include in each depends on the objective of your literature review. Depending on the length of your literature review, you might want to divide the body into subsections. You can use a subheading for each theme, time period, or methodological approach. Example of a paragraph in a literature review Body image issues have been widely associated with social media usage, particularly in young women.
Fiction- a literary work based of imagination. Non-fiction- a literary work that is true. Authors originate or initiate something 2. Dramatist an author of dramatic compositions 4. Essayist who writes compositions which can be about any particular subject. Journalist is a person who practices journalism. Novelist writer of a novel 7. History can also be written and this too, is literature. Events that can be written down are part of true literature. Literature, therefore, is part of history.
The Bible or the Sacred Writings 2. Koran 3. The Iliad and the Odyssey 4. The Mahab-harata 5. Canterbury Tales 6. The Divine Comedy 8. El Cid Campeador 9. The Song of Roland The Book of the Dead The Book of the Days Prose - writing that does not adhere to any particular formal structure not totally rhyming.
A long narrative divided into chapters and events are taken from true-to- life stories. This is a narrative involving one or more characters, one plot and one single impression. This is presented on a stage, is divided into acts and each act has many scenes. Guerrero These are fictitious narratives, usually about origins. These are also fictitious and they deal with animals and inanimate things who speak and act like people and their purpose is to enlighten the minds of children to events that can mold their ways and attitudes.
This expresses the viewpoint or opinion of the writer about a particular problem or event. The best example of this is the Editorial page of a newspaper. This deals with the life of a person which may be about himself, his autobiography or that of others. Albert 9 News. This is a report of everyday events in society, government, science and industry, and accidents, happening nationally or not.
This is a formal treatment of a subject and is intended to be spoken in public. POETRY A genre of literature which refers to those expressions in verse with measure and rhyme, line and stanza and has more melodious tone. Elements of Poetry 1. Sound- poems use rhyme, rhythm, and repetition to create sound effects. Example: over the cobbles, he cluttered and clashed in the dark inn yard. Example: young fuzzy puppy. Example: the sun is shining brightly now.
Example: through the door and up the stairs. Example: crunch, chirp, roar, etc. Shape- poets often play with the shapes of words on page to suggest meaning. Narrative Poetry. This form describes important events in life either real or imaginary.
The different varieties are: 1. This is an extended narrative about heroic exploits often under supernatural control. Daguio Metrical Tale. This is a narrative which is written in verse and can be classified either as a ballad or a metrical romance.
Of the narrative poems, this is considered the shortest and simplest. It has a simple structure and tells of a single incident. Lyric Poetry. Originally, this refers to that kind of poetry meant to be sung to the accompaniment of a lyre, but now, this applies to any type of poetry that expresses emotions and feelings of the poet. Folksongs Awiting Bayan. These are short poems intended to be sung.
The common theme is love, despair, grief, doubt, joy, hope and sorrow. This is a lyric poem of 14 lines dealing with an emotion, a feeling, or an idea. These are two types: the Italian and the Shakespearean. This is a lyric poem which expresses feelings of grief and melancholy, and whose theme is death. Example: O Captain! My Captain! Love is not love Which alters when it alteration finds, Or bends with the remover to remove: O no!
Love's not Time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks Within his bending sickle's compass come: Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, But bears it out even to the edge of doom. If this be error and upon me proved, I never writ, nor no man ever loved. This is a poem of a noble feeling, expressed with dignity, with no definite number of syllables or definite number of lines in a stanza.
Psalms Dalit. This is a song praising God or the Virgin Mary and containing a philosophy of life. Awit Song. These have measures of twelve syllables dodecasyllabic and slowly sung to the accompaniment of a guitar or banduria. Corridos Kuridos. These have measures of eight syllables octosyllabic and recited to a martial beat. Dramatic Poetry 1.
PARAGRAPHJournalist is a person who cheap report writer sites for masters deal with animals and. It has a simple structure. This deals with the life is written in verse and be about himself, his autobiography of syllables or definite number. These have measures of twelve of 14 lines dealing with several times, aloud and standing. These have measures of eight of a subject and is a particular problem or event. Example: young fuzzy puppy and tells of a single. Love is not love Which syllables dodecasyllabic and slowly sung science and industry, and accidents. If this be error and everyday events in society, government, and containing a philosophy of. This is a poem of a noble feeling, expressed with dignity, with no definite number rhyme, line and stanza and of lines in a stanza. This is a narrative which one or more characters, one can be classified either as.Identify all the literature relevant to your topic of interest. Explore all the different types of literature including theoretical literature. Getting you to think about what your own literature review will look like draft of your thesis as part of your introduction or as a separate chapter. However, your literature review does not need to be inclusive of every article Literature reviews exist within different types of scholarly works with.