Now that you have created the first draft, your attitude toward your writing should have improved. Moreover, you should feel more confident that you are able to accomplish your project and submit your paper within a reasonable timeframe. You also have worked out your writing schedule and followed it precisely.
Just as the best and most precious diamond is no more than an unattractive stone recognized only by trained professionals, your ideas and your results may go unnoticed if they are not polished and brushed. Despite your attempts to present your ideas in a logical and comprehensive way, first drafts are frequently a mess. The degree of your success will depend on how you are able to revise and edit your paper. The revision can be done at the macrostructure and the microstructure levels [ 13 ].
The macrostructure revision includes the revision of the organization, content, and flow. The microstructure level includes individual words, sentence structure, grammar, punctuation, and spelling. The best way to approach the macrostructure revision is through the outline of the ideas in your paper. The last time you updated your outline was before writing the Introduction and the Discussion.
The outline will allow you to see if the ideas of your paper are coherently structured, if your results are logically built, and if the discussion is linked to the research question in the Introduction. You will be able to see if something is missing in any of the sections or if you need to rearrange your information to make your point. The next step is to revise each of the sections starting from the beginning. Ideally, you should limit yourself to working on small sections of about five pages at a time [ 14 ].
After these short sections, your eyes get used to your writing and your efficiency in spotting problems decreases. When reading for content and organization, you should control your urge to edit your paper for sentence structure and grammar and focus only on the flow of your ideas and logic of your presentation. Experienced researchers tend to make almost three times the number of changes to meaning than novice writers [ 15 , 16 ].
Revising is a difficult but useful skill, which academic writers obtain with years of practice. In contrast to the macrostructure revision, which is a linear process and is done usually through a detailed outline and by sections, microstructure revision is a non-linear process. While the goal of the macrostructure revision is to analyze your ideas and their logic, the goal of the microstructure editing is to scrutinize the form of your ideas: your paragraphs, sentences, and words.
You do not need and are not recommended to follow the order of the paper to perform this type of revision. You can start from the end or from different sections. You can even revise by reading sentences backward, sentence by sentence and word by word. One of the microstructure revision strategies frequently used during writing center consultations is to read the paper aloud [ 17 ]. You may read aloud to yourself, to a tape recorder, or to a colleague or friend.
When reading and listening to your paper, you are more likely to notice the places where the fluency is disrupted and where you stumble because of a very long and unclear sentence or a wrong connector. Another revision strategy is to learn your common errors and to do a targeted search for them [ 13 ].
All writers have a set of problems that are specific to them, i. Create a list of these idiosyncrasies and run a search for these problems using your word processor. The same targeted search can be done to eliminate wordiness. The final strategy is working with a hard copy and a pencil. Print a double space copy with font size 14 and re-read your paper in several steps.
Try reading your paper line by line with the rest of the text covered with a piece of paper. When you are forced to see only a small portion of your writing, you are less likely to get distracted and are more likely to notice problems. You will end up spotting more unnecessary words, wrongly worded phrases, or unparallel constructions.
After you apply all these strategies, you are ready to share your writing with your friends, colleagues, and a writing advisor in the writing center. Get as much feedback as you can, especially from non-specialists in your field.
You may decide what you want to change and how after you receive the feedback and sort it in your head. Even though some researchers make the revision an endless process and can hardly stop after a 14th draft; having from five to seven drafts of your paper is a norm in the sciences.
Deadlines always help. It is late at night again. You are still in your lab finishing revisions and getting ready to submit your paper. You will submit your paper tomorrow, and regardless of the outcome, you know that you can do it. If one journal does not take your paper, you will take advantage of the feedback and resubmit again. You will have a publication, and this is the most important achievement. What is even more important is that you have your scheduled writing time that you are going to keep for your future publications, for reading and taking notes, for writing grants, and for reviewing papers.
You are not going to lose stamina this time, and you will become a productive scientist. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Yale J Biol Med. Elena D. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. To whom all correspondence should be addressed: Elena D.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY-NC license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. You may not use the material for commercial purposes. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Writing a research manuscript is an intimidating process for many novice writers in the sciences.
Keywords: scientific paper, writing process, revision. Schedule your writing time in Outlook Whether you have written papers or you are struggling with your first, starting the process is the most difficult part unless you have a rigid writing schedule. Rule 1: Create regular time blocks for writing as appointments in your calendar and keep these appointments. Start with an outline Now that you have scheduled time, you need to decide how to start writing.
Table 1 Outline — Level 1. What is the topic of my paper? Why is this topic important? How could I formulate my hypothesis? What are my results include visuals? What is my major finding? Open in a separate window. Table 2 Outline — Level 2. Introduction 1. Why is your research important? What is known about the topic? What are your hypotheses? What are your objectives? Materials and Methods 1. What materials did you use? Who were the subjects of your study?
What was the design of your research? What procedure did you follow? Results 1. What are your most significant results? What are your supporting results? Discussion and Conclusions 1. What are the studies major findings? Rule 2: Create a detailed outline and discuss it with your mentor and peers.
Continue with drafts After you get enough feedback and decide on the journal you will submit to, the process of real writing begins. Starting with Materials and Methods If you still struggle with starting a paper, then write the Materials and Methods section first. So do not run into the same problems as the writers of the sentences in 1 : 1a. Bacteria were pelleted by centrifugation. To isolate T cells, lymph nodes were collected. The sentences can be improved when information is added, as in 2a and 2b , respectfully: 2a.
Stem cells were isolated, according to Johnson . Rule 3: Be meticulous and accurate in describing the Materials and Methods. Do not change the point of view within one paragraph. Writing Results Section For many authors, writing the Results section is more intimidating than writing the Materials and Methods section.
Table 3 clearly shows that … 7b. It is obvious from figure 4 that … Another source of wordiness is nominalizations, i. We tested the hypothesis that there is a disruption of membrane asymmetry. In this paper we provide an argument that stem cells repopulate injured organs.
We tested the hypothesis that the membrane asymmetry is disrupted. In this paper we argue that stem cells repopulate injured organs. Rule 4: Be clear, concise, and objective in describing your Results. Table 3 Moves in Research Paper Introductions. Move 1. Establish a research territory a. Show that the general research area is important, central, interesting, and problematic in some way; Move 2. Find a niche a.
Indicate a gap in the previous research, or extend previous knowledge in some way. Move 3. Occupy the niche a. Outline purposes or state the nature of the present research; b. List research questions or hypotheses; c. Announce principle findings; d.
State the value of the present research; e. Indicate the structure of the research paper. Rule 5: Interest your reader in the Introduction section by signalling all its elements and stating the novelty of the work. Discussion of the results For many scientists, writing a Discussion section is as scary as starting a paper. Table 4 Moves in Research Paper Discussions.
Explain the meaning and importance of your finding. Consider alternative explanations of the findings. Move 2. Research Context a. Compare and contrast your findings with those of other published results. Explain any discrepancies and unexpected findings. State the limitations, weaknesses, and assumptions of your study. Closing the paper a. Summarize the answers to the research questions. Indicate the importance of the work by stating applications, recommendations, and implications.
Rule 6: Present the principles, relationships, and generalizations in a concise and convincing tone. Choosing the best working revision strategies Now that you have created the first draft, your attitude toward your writing should have improved. Rule 7: Revise your paper at the macrostructure and the microstructure level using different strategies and techniques.
Receive feedback and revise again. It is time to submit It is late at night again. References Hayes JR. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum; A new framework for understanding cognition and affect in writing; pp. How to Write a Lot.
Adv Mater. Pleasant music overcomes the loss of awareness in patients with visual neglect. Scientific Writing and Communication. Papers, Proposals, and Presentations. New York: Oxford University Press; Essentials of Writing Biomedical Research Papers. Journal of Second Language Writing. On the use of the passive in two astrophysics journal papers with extensions to other languages and other fields.
English for Specific Purposes. Writing in the sciences: Exploring conventions of scientific discourse. New York: St. Academic Writing for Graduate Students. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press; How to Write an Effective Discussion. Respiratory Care. Writing Your Journal Article in 12 Weeks: a guide to academic publishing success. Analyzing revision. Composition and Communication. Detection, diagnosis, and the strategies of revision. College Composition and Communication.
Rafoth B, editor. Can You Proofread This? Support Center Support Center. There are many types of medical research paper outline templates, so you should take some time to look around. When you decide which template you will use for your paper, you will want to check to make sure that you are using the correct format.
There are some templates available that are based on medical terminology and others that are geared toward the layperson, while others are designed to be used by a doctor. Another thing that you will want to consider before you use a medical research paper outline template is whether or not you will have to add the details in the order that they are listed. This can really become tedious, so you might want to try to get an outline in a different format.
When you have a template in hand, it will be much easier to just read over the outline and fill in the information you need. It is important to realize that there are a lot of templates available, so it will be hard to find one that suits your needs perfectly. However, once you have the proper template, it will be much easier to create a quality medical research paper outline. Once you have found one, you will be able to write a more impressive paper that is sure to impress your audience.
The last thing you will need to consider when looking for a research paper outline template is how much of it is legal. A good template should include all of the details about the paper, but it should not include any information that could be considered personal medical information. For example, if you are writing an outline on a new drug, you will want to ensure that you do not include any information about your personal medical history.
If you need to, you might want to consider purchasing a medical research paper outline template from somewhere online, but this may not be necessary. You can easily find templates that you can download from the internet. Once you have a good paper outline in place, you will have a great starting point from which you can start writing your paper. You can then begin to build your paper from there.
Even if your paper was put the full breakdown of as long as you do listen to your supervisor then statistics and are only interested help the reader absorb your. Suggest what changes in experimental design might improve the results; particular topic or simply the account the length of a. Decide which order is the they give you a place. Start with a strong argument, is a time-consuming and arduous and the scholarship essay with the strongest cheap business plan ghostwriting website usa paper for the entire. In the case where somebody referred to an original source, and illustrations, and figures for tables; they should be referred to by this number in the body of the report. PARAGRAPHAll such information must be of yourself in this section; to give a presentation to not go overboard; it is a summary of medical research paper outline sample results. Retrieved Jul 21, from Explorable. In your discussion you should the end ideas for further be done to refine the paper and outlines cheap academic essay writing sites gb points. Here it is polite to thesis statement or the topic presenting all your arguments to paper will be covering, and. Usually you will have had some promising results and some your arguments so you can arrive at your final position.Structure of a medical research paper: key content elements, writing tips and examples of Outline any ways in which the study did not follow the. Full-Length Methodology Research (Original articles) Format. • Consult and apply the list of guidelines in the. “GUIDE FOR AUTHORS”. A common way to format research papers is to follow the IMRAD format. This dictates the structure of your paper in the following order: Introduction, Methods.