Your method section provides a detailed overview of how you conducted your research. Because your study methods form a large part of your credibility as a researcher and writer, it is imperative that you be clear about what you did to gather information from participants in your study.
With your methods section, as with the sections above, you want to walk your readers through your study almost as if they were a participant. What happened first? What happened next? Participants: Discuss who was enrolled in your experiment. Include major demographics that have an impact on the results of the experiment i. The accepted term for describing a person who participates in research studies is a participant not a subject. Apparatus and materials: The apparatus is any equipment used during data collection such as computers or eye-tracking devices.
Materials include scripts, surveys, or software used for data collection not data analysis. It is sometimes necessary to provide specific examples of materials or prompts, depending on the nature of your study. Procedure: The procedure includes the step-by-step how of your experiment. The procedure should include:. The results section is where you present the results of your research-both narrated for the readers in plain English and accompanied by statistics. Note : Depending on the requirements or the projected length of your paper, sometimes the results are combined with the discussion section.
Continue with your story in the results section. How do your results fit with the overall story you are telling? What results are the most compelling? You want to begin your discussion by reminding your readers once again what your hypotheses were and what your overall story is. Then provide each result as it relates to that story. The most important results should go first. Preliminary discussion: Sometimes it is necessary to provide a preliminary discussion in your results section about your participant groups.
The independent variables were age and understanding of second-order beliefs. The next part of your method section should detail the procedures used in your experiment. Explain what you had participants do, how you collected data, and the order in which steps occurred. For example: "An examiner interviewed children individually at their school in one session that lasted 20 minutes on average.
The examiner explained to each child that he or she would be told two short stories and that some questions would be asked after each story. All sessions were videotaped so the data could later be coded. Keep this subsection concise yet detailed. Explain what you did and how you did it, but do not overwhelm your readers with too much information.
The method section is one of the most important components of your APA format paper. The goal of your paper should be to clearly detail what you did in your experiment. Provide enough detail that another researcher could replicate your study if they wanted. Finally, if you are writing your paper for a class or for a specific publication, be sure to keep in mind any specific instructions provided by your instructor or by the journal editor.
Your instructor may have certain requirements that you need to follow while writing your method section. Ever wonder what your personality type means? Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. American Psychological Association. Published Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 7th ed. Table of Contents View All. Table of Contents. Additional Tips. Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! Sign Up. What are your concerns?
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Detail the sample size per condition and statistical power that you hoped to achieve, as well as any analyses you performed to determine these numbers. Additionally, state whether your final sample differed from the intended sample. Your interpretations of the study outcomes should be based only on your final sample rather than your intended sample.
Learn more. Write up the tools and techniques that you used to measure relevant variables. Be as thorough as possible for a complete picture of your techniques. Define the primary and secondary outcome measures that will help you answer your primary and secondary research questions. Specify all instruments used in gathering these measurements and the construct that they measure.
These instruments may include hardware, software, or tests, scales, and inventories. Giving an example item or two for tests, questionnaires , and interviews is also helpful. A general knowledge test appropriate for adults was created using materials from a previous study see supplementary materials.
The test consisted of 20 multiple choice questions with medium difficulty. Describe any covariates—these are any additional variables that may explain or predict the outcomes. This tells the reader how similarly each response was rated by multiple raters. Report all of the procedures applied for administering the study, processing the data, and for planned data analyses.
Data collection methods refers to the general mode of the instruments: surveys, interviews, observations, focus groups, neuroimaging, cognitive tests, and so on. Summarize exactly how you collected the necessary data. Describe all procedures you applied in administering surveys, tests, physical recordings, or imaging devices, with enough detail so that someone else can replicate your techniques. If your procedures are very complicated and require long descriptions e.
To report research design, note your overall framework for data collection and analysis. Also note whether a between-subjects or a within-subjects design was used. Describe whether any masking was used to hide the condition assignment e. Using masking in a multi-group study ensures internal validity by reducing bias. Explain how this masking was applied and whether its effectiveness was assessed.
Participants were randomly assigned to a control or experimental condition. To begin, all participants were given the AAI and a demographics questionnaire to complete, followed by an unrelated filler task. In the control condition , participants completed a short general knowledge test immediately after the filler task.
In the experimental condition, participants were asked to visualize themselves taking the test for 3 minutes before they actually did. For more details on the exact instructions and tasks given, see supplementary materials. In the between-subjects experimental design, the independent variable was whether the visualization intervention was applied and the dependent variable was the difference in test scores between conditions.
Data diagnostics Outline all steps taken to scrutinize or process the data after collection. To ensure high validity, you should provide enough detail for your reader to understand how and why you processed or transformed your raw data in these specific ways. The methods section is also where you describe your statistical analysis procedures, but not their outcomes. Their outcomes are reported in the results section.
These procedures should be stated for all primary, secondary, and exploratory hypotheses. This annotated example reports methods for a descriptive correlational survey on the relationship between religiosity and trust in science in the US. Hover over each part for explanation of what is included. Example of an APA methods section Methods.
The sample included adults aged between 18 and Ethics approval was obtained from the university board before recruitment began. We selected for a geographically diverse sample within the Midwest of the US through an initial screening survey.
The primary outcome measures were the levels of religiosity and trust in science. Religiosity refers to involvement and belief in religious traditions, while trust in science represents confidence in scientists and scientific research outcomes. The secondary outcome measures were gender and parental education levels of participants and whether these characteristics predicted religiosity levels. Religiosity was measured using the Centrality of Religiosity scale Huber, The Likert scale is made up of 15 questions with five subscales of ideology, experience, intellect, public practice, and private practice.
The internal consistency of the instrument is. Trust in Science. Four Likert scale items were assessed on a scale from 1 completely distrust to 5 completely trust. Potential participants were invited to participate in the survey online using Qualtrics www. The survey consisted of multiple choice questions regarding demographic characteristics, the Centrality of Religiosity scale, an unrelated filler anagram task, and finally the General Trust in Science index.
The filler task was included to avoid priming or demand characteristics, and an attention check was embedded within the religiosity scale. For full instructions and details of tasks, see supplementary materials. For this correlational study , we assessed our primary hypothesis of a relationship between religiosity and trust in science using Pearson moment correlation coefficient.
The statistical significance of the correlation coefficient was assessed using a t test. To test our secondary hypothesis of parental education levels and gender as predictors of religiosity, multiple linear regression analysis was used. In your APA methods section , you should report detailed information on the participants, materials, and procedures used. In a scientific paper, the methodology always comes after the introduction and before the results , discussion and conclusion.
The same basic structure also applies to a thesis, dissertation , or research proposal. Depending on the length and type of document, you might also include a literature review or theoretical framework before the methodology. I am a student and am writing an APA style research paper for my class. Your method section provides a detailed overview of how you conducted your research. Because your study methods form a large part of your credibility as a researcher and writer, it is imperative that you be clear about what you did to gather information from participants in your study.
With your methods section, as with the sections above, you want to walk your readers through your study almost as if they were a participant. What happened first? What happened next? Participants: Discuss who was enrolled in your experiment.
Include major demographics that have an impact on the results of the experiment i. The accepted term for describing a person who participates in research studies is a participant not a subject. Apparatus and materials: The apparatus is any equipment used during data collection such as computers or eye-tracking devices. Materials include scripts, surveys, or software used for data collection not data analysis.
It is sometimes necessary to provide specific examples of materials or prompts, depending on the nature of your study. Procedure: The procedure includes the step-by-step how of your experiment. The procedure should include:. The results section is where you present the results of your research-both narrated for the readers in plain English and accompanied by statistics. Note : Depending on the requirements or the projected length of your paper, sometimes the results are combined with the discussion section.
Continue with your story in the results section. How do your results fit with the overall story you are telling? What results are the most compelling? You want to begin your discussion by reminding your readers once again what your hypotheses were and what your overall story is.
Then provide each result as it relates to that story. The most important results should go first. Preliminary discussion: Sometimes it is necessary to provide a preliminary discussion in your results section about your participant groups.
Quick Answers—Formatting. Quick Answers—References. Supplemental Materials. Guidelines for Nonhandicapping Language. Those original posts and comment conversations are still available in an archive. We will keep this archive available until further notice. Free Tutorials and Online Courses. Frequently Asked Questions.
Quick Answers. Try it out! Prior to submitting your paper, check to make sure you have everything you need and everything in its place:. Congratulations for making it this far! Can we offer one last suggestion?
We promise it will only take a minute. Copy and paste or upload your paper into our checker. If it sounds too good to be true, then head on over to our innovative tool and give it a whirl. Information on how to cite sources can be found on our APA citation page.
However, this page is not associated with the association. What are behavioral sciences? Behavioral sciences study human and animal behavior. They can include:. What are social sciences? Social sciences focus on one specific aspect of human behavior, specifically social and cultural relationships. Social sciences can include:. This citation style was created by the American Psychological Association. Its rules and guidelines can be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
The information provided in the guide above follows the 6th edition of the manual. The 7th edition was published in and is the most recent version. The 7th edition of the Publication Manual is in full color and includes 12 sections compared to 8 sections in the 6th edition. In general, this new edition differentiates between professional and student papers, includes guidance with accessibility in mind, provides new examples to follow, and has updated guidelines.
New citing information. There is new guidance on citing classroom or intranet resources, and oral traditions or traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples. Visit our EasyBib Twitter feed to discover more citing tips, fun grammar facts, and the latest product updates. American Psychological Association. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 7th ed.
Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing. Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style.
Get Started. Certain features require a modern browser to function. Please use a different browser, like Firefox , Chrome , or Safari. Table of Contents Citation Generator. Empirical studies Empirical studies take data from observations and experiments to generate research reports. Methodological articles These articles showcase new advances, or modifications to an existing practice, in a scientific method or procedure.
Case studies Case studies present information related an individual, group, or larger set of individuals. Here are key guidelines to developing your title page: The title of the paper should capture the main idea of the essay, but should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. Center the title on the page and place it about lines from the top. The title should be bolded, in title case, and the same font size as your other page text.
Do not underline or italicize the title. Other text on the page should be plain not bolded , underlined, or italicized. All text on the title page should be double-spaced. The APA format examples paper below displays proper spacing, so go take a look!
The institutional affiliation is the school the author attends or the location where the author conducted the research. Sample of an APA format title page for a student paper: Sample of title page for a professional paper:. Here are some helpful suggestions to create a dynamic abstract: Abstracts are found on their own page, directly after the title or cover page.
Professional papers only not student papers : Include the running head on the top of the page. On the following line, write a summary of the key points of your research. Your abstract summary is a way to introduce readers to your research topic, the questions that will be answered, the process you took, and any findings or conclusions you drew. Use concise, brief, informative language. You only have a few sentences to share the summary of your entire document, so be direct with your wording.
This summary should not be indented, but should be double-spaced and less than words. If applicable, help researchers find your work in databases by listing keywords from your paper after your summary. To do this, indent and type Keywords : in italics. Then list your keywords that stand out in your research. You can also include keyword strings that you think readers will type into the search box.
Use an active voice, not a passive voice. When writing with an active voice, the subject performs the action. When writing with a passive voice, the subject receives the action. Active voice: The subjects reacted to the medication.
Passive voice: There was a reaction from the subjects taking the medication. Instead of evaluating your project in the abstract, simply report what it contains. View our in-depth APA Abstract guide. Most papers follow this format: At the top of the page, add the page number in the upper right corner of all pages, including the title page. On the next line write the title in bold font and center it.
Do not underline or italicize it. Begin with the introduction and indent the first line of the paragraph. All paragraphs in the body are indented. The heading title should be in capital letters. The abstract page should be page 2. The introduction presents the problem and premise upon which the research was based.
It goes into more detail about this problem than the abstract. Begin a new section with the Method and use this word as the subtitle. Bold and center this subtitle. The Method section shows how the study was run and conducted. Be sure to describe the methods through which data was collected.
Begin a new section with the Results. The Results section summarizes your data. Use charts and graphs to display this data. Begin a new section with the Discussion. This Discussion section is a chance to analyze and interpret your results. Draw conclusions and support how your data led to these conclusions. Discuss whether or not your hypothesis was confirmed or not supported by your results.
Determine the limitations of the study and next steps to improve research for future studies. Sample body for a professional paper:. In APA format, there are five levels of headings, each with a different formatting: Level 1: This is the title of your paper The title should be centered in the middle of the page The title should be bolded Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary called title capitalization Level 2: Place this heading against the left margin Use bold letters Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary Level 3: Place this heading against the left side margin Use bold letters Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary End the heading with a period Level 4: Indented in from the left margin Bolded Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary End the heading with a period Level 5: Indented Bolded Italicized Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary End the heading with a period Following general formatting rules, all headings are double spaced and there are no extra lines or spaces between sections.
Here is a visual APA format template for levels of headings:. The first graphic, labeled as 1, should be the first one mentioned in the text. Follow them in the appropriate numerical order in which they appear in the text of your paper. Example : Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1, Figure 3. Example: Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1, Figure 3 Only use graphics if they will supplement the material in your text.
If they reinstate what you already have in your text, then it is not necessary to include a graphic. Include enough wording in the graphic so that the reader is able to understand its meaning, even if it is isolated from the corresponding text. However, do not go overboard with adding a ton of wording in your graphic. Tables: Is there anything better than seeing a neatly organized data table? General format of a table should be: Table number Title Table Note Here are a few pointers to keep in mind: Choose to type out your data OR create a table.
Choose one or the other. If you choose to create a table, discuss it very briefly in the text. Table 1 is the first table discussed in the paper. Table 2 is the next table mentioned, and so on. This should be in bold. Add a title under the number.
Create a brief, descriptive title. Capitalize the first letter for each important word. Italicize the title and place it under the table number. Formatting: Only use horizontal lines. Limit use of cell shading. Keep the font at point size and use single or double spacing. If you use single spacing in one table, make sure all of the others use single spaces as well.
Keep it consistent. All headings should be centered. In the first column called the stub , center the heading, left-align the information underneath it indent 0. Information in other columns should be centered. Note: If you need to further explain something, or include an APA format citation, place it in a note below the table. There are 3 types: General. Information about the whole table. Information targeted for a specific column, row, or cell.
Explains what certain table symbols mean. For example, asterisks, p values, etc. Figures: Figures represent information in a visual way. This means each should include: Figure number Title Figure Note Use the same formatting tables use for the number, title, and note. Here are some pointers to keep in mind when it comes to APA format for figures: Only include a figure if it adds value to your paper.
If it will truly help with understanding, include it! Either include a figure OR write it all out in the text. Do not include the same information twice. If a note is added, it should clearly explain the content of the figure. APA format sample of a figure: Photographs: We live in a world where we have tons of photographs available at our fingertips. Create a reference for the photograph.
Follow the guidelines under the table and figure sections above. Do not use color photos. It is recommended to use black and white. Using black and white ensures the reader will be able to view the image clearly. If there are sections of the photograph that are not related to your work, it is acceptable to crop them out. If you choose to include an image of a person you know, it would be respectful if you ask their permission before automatically including their photo in your paper.
Some schools and universities post research papers online and some people prefer that their photos and information stay off the Internet. For verbs in scientific papers, the APA manual recommends using: Past tense or present perfect tense for the explantation of the procedure Past tense for the explanation of the results Present tense for the explanation of the conclusion and future implications.
Do not include information about individuals or labels if it is not necessary. First and foremost, use abbreviations sparingly. If the abbreviation is used less than three times in the paper, type it out each time. If you decide to sprinkle in abbreviations, it is not necessary to include periods between the letters. Prior to using an unfamiliar abbreviation, you must type it out in text and place the abbreviation immediately following it in parentheses. Any usage of the abbreviation after the initial description, can be used without the description.
Patients who experience STM loss while using the medication should discuss it with their doctor. If the unit of measurement stands alone, type it out. Examples APA format: 4 lbs. The weight in pounds exceeded what we previously thought. One space after most punctuation marks The manual recommends using one space after most punctuation marks, including punctuation at the end of a sentence p.
Apostrophes When writing a possessive singular noun, you should place the apostrophe before the s. Here are a few examples: custom-built year-old pp. APA format examples: 14 kilograms seven individuals 83 years old Fourth grade The golden rule for numbers has exceptions. In APA formatting, use numerals if you are: Showing numbers in a table or graph Referring to information in a table or graph Table 7 Including a unit of measurement directly after it. Examples APA format: 8 lbs.
Ninety-two percent of teachers feel as though…. Do not translate them into Arabic numerals. Additional number rules can be found in the publication manual p. The emperor of any place. Candlewick Press. Each reference is organized, or structured, differently. It all depends on the source type. A book reference is structured one way, an APA journal is structured a different way, a newspaper article is another way. MLA works cited pages are unique in that every source type is formatted the same way.
Unfortunately, this style is quite different. View our in-depth guide on APA Citations. Example: Harlem had many artists and musicians in the late s Belafonte, Example: According to Belafonte , Harlem was full of artists and musicians in the late s. Start on a fresh, clean document p. Alphabetize and double-space ALL entries. Every quote or piece of outside information included in the paper should be referenced and have an entry.
Prior to submitting your paper, check to make sure you have everything you need and everything in its place: Did you credit all of the information and quotes you used in the body of your paper and show a matching full reference at the end of the paper? Remember, you need both!
Need more information on how to credit other authors and sources? Check out our other guides, or use the EasyBib APA format generator to credit your sources quickly and easily. Is your title page properly formatted?
You may feel tempted to make the title in a larger font size or add graphics to jazz it up a bit. Keep it professional looking and make everything 12 pt size font and double spaced. Here are recommended font sizes: pt. Times New Roman pt. Calibri, Arial, Georgia pt. Lucida, Sans Unicode, Computer Modern If you created an abstract, is it directly after the title page?
Is this a professional paper or a student paper? Professional paper — Did you include a running head on every single page of your project? Student paper — Did you include page numbers in the upper right-hand corner of all your pages? Are all headings, as in section or chapter titles, properly formatted?
Are all tables and figures aligned properly? Did you include notes and other important information directly below the table or figure?
The book includes a number. The annotation above both summarizes. Exclusive access to the MyPerfectWords. You'll get weekly tips and brief summary of the author's project in the book, covering the main points of the. How to Write a Literature. The author discusses relevant archaeological evidence, patterns of symbol and writing and for achieving academic. An experienced journalist, Ehrenreich is aware of the limitations of research, Ehrenreich attempts to ascertain her places of employment, the for an individual to live issues in the text. Click here to learn more. Taking jobs as a waitress, a maid in a cleaning experiences with scholarly research on implications of her experiential research economy, and the rising cost of living in America. This annotation includes only one.The methods section of an APA style paper is where you report in detail how you performed your study. Research papers in the social and. The entire Method section should be written in past verb tense. Participants. Describe who participated in your study. How many participants were in the study. You should provide detailed information on the research design, participants, equipment, materials, variables, and actions taken by the participants. The method.