write a report on history and evolution of spinning

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Write a report on history and evolution of spinning

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As with the rock, the time and place of the origin of this spinning tool is unknown. Eventually, man hit upon a way to combine both the rock and the stick to create a tool that could provide greater twisting momentum for improved ease in spinning the yarn. A whorl, often made of clay, bone or a soft rock, was attached to the spindle.

The spindle could then be twisted by hand with the weighted end of the shaft suspended on the ground, or rolled along the thigh. It could also be used as a drop spindle, where the whorl could be placed at the top or bottom of the spindle. A variation of this style, the bead-whorl spindle, is considered to be the most widely-used style of spindle throughout history.

It is specifically designed to spin fine yarns which require a lot of twist, and was in widespread use throughout Asia, the Middle East and Africa where short-staple fibers such as cashmere, cotton and camel were used. These spindles often had slim shafts, a pointed end to reduce friction with the ground, and hooked or pointed tops so that it could be used for either suspended or drop spinning. The bead is usually an inch or less in diameter and made of a dense material like stone or metal so that it rotates quickly to provide a lot of twist.

Some styles of bead-whorl spindles place the bead in the center of the spindle, so that the yarn can be spun both above and below the spindle. Another type of weighted spindle that was commonly used was a cross-arm spindle, where a piece of wood or bone was attached to the bottom of the hooked spindle instead of a rounded whorl. These types of spindles were used exclusively as drop spindles, either twisted by hand or rolled along the thigh to start the rotation while the yarn is pulled out from the fibers.

This style was used across the Middle East, and is formed by two arms that interlock often at right angles at the bottom of the spindle to allow for more balanced spinning than the single-arm style. Some sets come with two sets of arms, so that you can use one set for thinner yarns and the second set for thicker yarns, and others come with arms of two different weights, allowing you three possible weight combinations for spinning on the spindle.

The most common form of dropspindle used today is known a hooked high-whorl spindle. This spindle has the whorl located less than half the length of the spindle, with a hook at the top. This type of dropspindle has been used since the twentieth century BCE in Egypt, where wall paintings depict spinners spinning and plying their yarns on hooked high-whorl spindles Hochberg.

Some spindles of this style have two whorls, one above the other, with a space to wind the yarn between the whorls. This type of spindle was in common use throughout the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Another variation of this style is the carved one-piece spindle, in which the spindle was made of lathe-turned wood with a wide top to act as a built-in whorl.

These were most often used among European nobility of Italy, France and Spain in the 19 th century, once spinning was taken up as a pastime instead of being a daily chore, and were often decorated with gilt and colored enamel.

Whereas high-whorl spindles were in common use in the East, drop spindles where the whorl was placed at the bottom of the spindle predominated Europe and Greco-Roman areas. These low-whorl spindles were most commonly used to spin longer-staple fibers such as linen, silk and wool, and are still in widespread use in India, Indonesia, Peru and the Philippines.

Low-whorl dropspindles are second in popularity today to high-whorl spindles for most modern day spindle spinners. Medieval spinners often used a distaff, a stick with a fork or ornate comb on the tip used to hold long-staple fibers while spinning to hold their fibers while they were spinning with a spindle. This stick was usually held under the left arm according to most pictures — meaning that the spinners would have had to set their spindles in motion with their right hand, and feeding their fiber with the right hand.

Wool and flax were most commonly spun with distaff and dropspindle, even after spinning wheels became the popular tool of choice for spinning shorter-stapled wool and flax tow. Unfortunately, there are no surviving examples early medieval spinning wheels, so one must look to artwork and historical records for evidence of their existence.

Evidence of spinning wheels themselves do not appear in any historical records and artwork of the 13 th century. In her book Spinning Wheels, Spinners and Spinning , Patricia Baines reports of written evidence to the presence of spinning wheels in Persia in ; and linguistic evidence that suggests they came to Persia from India, so it is entirely possible that they were in use prior to this time.

This wheel, as well as the Indian styles known as charkha wheels, were not rimed wheels at all, but rather had a string running through holes in the tips of the spokes connecting them in a zig-zag fashion, thus supporting the drive band. Baines reports a mention of spindle wheels in Speyer now Germany dating from that forbids the use of wheel-spun warp threads in weaving. Spindle wheels, as they can spin fibers with less gravity and twist, created a softer yarn that would not hold up to the warp tension as well as strong-spun warp threads.

Devices similar to spinning wheels with a conventional rim are pictured in windows of several French cathedrals dating back to the 13 th century in Amiens and Chartes, areas known for their woolen goods in the medieval era. The pictures appear to show them being used as bobbin winders for finished yarns, as opposed to wheels for spinning yarns; but the use of a spinning wheel to spin wool seems to have developed in France and Flanders Baines Wheels used to spin wool appear in documentable evidence in Britain in the early 14 th century as pictures in the Decretals of Gregory IX, a manuscript that was illustrated in England, and shows a woman carding, combing and spinning wool on a wheel.

The Luttrell Psalter written and illustrated in East Anglia sometime between , illustrates wool carding and spinning on a wheel. These smaller wheels, like the ones made by Ashford, Louet, Majacraft and others, were developed late in the medieval period to allow spinners easier handling of the longer staple fibers like linen and combed wools. Baines speculates that the silk reeling and throwing mills of 13 th century Italy may have inspired the development of these wheels, as flyers were used to load spun yarn onto bobbins.

The thread was twisted as it left the bobbin, rather than being twisted and then loaded onto the bobbin as seen in modern flyer wheels. Apparently the weaving Guilds made every attempt at keeping the existence of these reeling machines a secret. Baines The earliest known record of a flyer wheel appears in the form of a picture from southern Germany, dated from , and shows flax spinning. Other pictures from the Low Countries dating from the early s show small flyer wheels being used to spin wool.

Foot power freed up the hands for spinning, making the process much faster. The flyer, which twisted the yarn as it was spun was another 16th-century advancement that increased the rate of yarn and thread production dramatically. At the dawn of the 18th century, the technology to produce thread and yarn was falling behind the ever-increasing demands for plentiful, high-quality textiles. Resulting yarn shortages led to an era of innovation that would eventually culminate in the mechanization of the spinning process.

Although a vast improvement over its hand-powered predecessors, the thread spun by Hargreaves' invention wasn't of the best quality. Further improvements came via inventors Richard Arkwright , inventor of the "water frame" and Samuel Crompton , whose spinning mule incorporated both water frame and spinning jenny technology.

The improved machines produced yarn and thread that was much stronger, finer, and of higher quality than that produced on the spinning jenny. Output was greatly increased as well, ushering in the birth of the factory system. The spinning wheel trope has been a popular plot device in folklore for thousands of years. Spinning is cited in the Bible and also makes its appearance in Greco-Roman mythology, as well as various folktales throughout Europe and Asia.

The earliest version of "Sleeping Beauty" appearance made its appearance in a French work, "Perceforest" Le Roman de Perceforest written sometime between and The story was adapted in the collected tales of the Brothers Grimm but is best known as a popular animated film from the studio of Walt Disney.

In the story, a king and queen invite seven good fairies to be the godmothers of their infant princess. Six of the other seven fairies have already bestowed gifts of beauty, wit, grace, dance, song, and goodness on the baby girl. Out of spite, the miffed fairy puts an evil spell on the princess: The girl is to die on her 16 th birthday by pricking her finger on a poisoned spindle. In others, the king orders every spinning wheel and spindle in the kingdom be destroyed, but on the day of her birthday, the princess happens on an old woman the evil fairy in disguise , spinning away at her wheel.

The princess, who has never seen a spinning wheel, asks to try it, and of course, pricks her finger and falls into an enchanted slumber. As time passes, a great thorny forest grows up around the castle where the girl lies sleeping but eventually, the handsome prince arrives and braves the briars, finally awakening her with his kiss. There are several versions of the cautionary tale of Arachne in Greek and Roman mythology. Hearing the boast, the goddess challenged her mortal rival to a weaving contest.

Athena's work pictured four tableaux of mortals being punished for daring to think they equaled or surpassed the gods, while Arachne's showed gods abusing their powers. In desolation, Arachne hanged herself. With it went her nose and ears, her head shrank to the smallest size, and her whole body became tiny. Her slender fingers stuck to her sides as legs, the rest is belly, from which she still spins a thread, and, as a spider, weaves her ancient web.

This fairytale of German origin was collected by the Brothers Grimm for the edition of their "Children's and Household Tales. The king locks the girl in a tower with a roomful of straw and orders her to spin it into gold by the next morning—or else face a harsh punishment either decapitation or lifelong imprisonment in a dungeon, depending on the version. The girl is at her wit's end and terrified. Hearing her cries, a tiny demon appears and tells her he will do what's been asked of her in exchange for a trade.

She gives him her necklace and by morning, the straw has been spun into gold. But the king still isn't satisfied. He takes the girl to a larger room filled with straw and commands her to spin it into gold by the next morning, again "or else. The following morning, the king is impressed but still not satisfied. He takes the girl to an enormous room filled with straw and tells her if she can spin it into gold before morning, he will marry her—if not, she can rot in the dungeon for the rest of her days.

When the demon arrives, she has nothing left to trade but the demon comes up with a plan. He'll spin the straw into gold—in exchange for her first-born child. Reluctantly, the girl consents. A year later, she and the king are happily married and she has given birth to a son.

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Whereas the rock would be used more like a dropspindle, a stick cut from the branches of a tree would be used to spin the fibers by rolling the stick horizontally along the length of your thigh to put twist into the fibers. The first sticks may have been straight, and were a natural outgrowth of rolling the fiber along the length of their leg to twist the fibers.

As with the rock, the time and place of the origin of this spinning tool is unknown. Eventually, man hit upon a way to combine both the rock and the stick to create a tool that could provide greater twisting momentum for improved ease in spinning the yarn.

A whorl, often made of clay, bone or a soft rock, was attached to the spindle. The spindle could then be twisted by hand with the weighted end of the shaft suspended on the ground, or rolled along the thigh. It could also be used as a drop spindle, where the whorl could be placed at the top or bottom of the spindle. A variation of this style, the bead-whorl spindle, is considered to be the most widely-used style of spindle throughout history.

It is specifically designed to spin fine yarns which require a lot of twist, and was in widespread use throughout Asia, the Middle East and Africa where short-staple fibers such as cashmere, cotton and camel were used. These spindles often had slim shafts, a pointed end to reduce friction with the ground, and hooked or pointed tops so that it could be used for either suspended or drop spinning.

The bead is usually an inch or less in diameter and made of a dense material like stone or metal so that it rotates quickly to provide a lot of twist. Some styles of bead-whorl spindles place the bead in the center of the spindle, so that the yarn can be spun both above and below the spindle.

Another type of weighted spindle that was commonly used was a cross-arm spindle, where a piece of wood or bone was attached to the bottom of the hooked spindle instead of a rounded whorl. These types of spindles were used exclusively as drop spindles, either twisted by hand or rolled along the thigh to start the rotation while the yarn is pulled out from the fibers.

This style was used across the Middle East, and is formed by two arms that interlock often at right angles at the bottom of the spindle to allow for more balanced spinning than the single-arm style. Some sets come with two sets of arms, so that you can use one set for thinner yarns and the second set for thicker yarns, and others come with arms of two different weights, allowing you three possible weight combinations for spinning on the spindle.

The most common form of dropspindle used today is known a hooked high-whorl spindle. This spindle has the whorl located less than half the length of the spindle, with a hook at the top. This type of dropspindle has been used since the twentieth century BCE in Egypt, where wall paintings depict spinners spinning and plying their yarns on hooked high-whorl spindles Hochberg. Some spindles of this style have two whorls, one above the other, with a space to wind the yarn between the whorls.

This type of spindle was in common use throughout the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Another variation of this style is the carved one-piece spindle, in which the spindle was made of lathe-turned wood with a wide top to act as a built-in whorl. These were most often used among European nobility of Italy, France and Spain in the 19 th century, once spinning was taken up as a pastime instead of being a daily chore, and were often decorated with gilt and colored enamel.

Whereas high-whorl spindles were in common use in the East, drop spindles where the whorl was placed at the bottom of the spindle predominated Europe and Greco-Roman areas. These low-whorl spindles were most commonly used to spin longer-staple fibers such as linen, silk and wool, and are still in widespread use in India, Indonesia, Peru and the Philippines.

Low-whorl dropspindles are second in popularity today to high-whorl spindles for most modern day spindle spinners. Medieval spinners often used a distaff, a stick with a fork or ornate comb on the tip used to hold long-staple fibers while spinning to hold their fibers while they were spinning with a spindle. This stick was usually held under the left arm according to most pictures — meaning that the spinners would have had to set their spindles in motion with their right hand, and feeding their fiber with the right hand.

Wool and flax were most commonly spun with distaff and dropspindle, even after spinning wheels became the popular tool of choice for spinning shorter-stapled wool and flax tow. Unfortunately, there are no surviving examples early medieval spinning wheels, so one must look to artwork and historical records for evidence of their existence.

Evidence of spinning wheels themselves do not appear in any historical records and artwork of the 13 th century. In her book Spinning Wheels, Spinners and Spinning , Patricia Baines reports of written evidence to the presence of spinning wheels in Persia in ; and linguistic evidence that suggests they came to Persia from India, so it is entirely possible that they were in use prior to this time. This wheel, as well as the Indian styles known as charkha wheels, were not rimed wheels at all, but rather had a string running through holes in the tips of the spokes connecting them in a zig-zag fashion, thus supporting the drive band.

Baines reports a mention of spindle wheels in Speyer now Germany dating from that forbids the use of wheel-spun warp threads in weaving. Spindle wheels, as they can spin fibers with less gravity and twist, created a softer yarn that would not hold up to the warp tension as well as strong-spun warp threads. Devices similar to spinning wheels with a conventional rim are pictured in windows of several French cathedrals dating back to the 13 th century in Amiens and Chartes, areas known for their woolen goods in the medieval era.

The pictures appear to show them being used as bobbin winders for finished yarns, as opposed to wheels for spinning yarns; but the use of a spinning wheel to spin wool seems to have developed in France and Flanders Baines Wheels used to spin wool appear in documentable evidence in Britain in the early 14 th century as pictures in the Decretals of Gregory IX, a manuscript that was illustrated in England, and shows a woman carding, combing and spinning wool on a wheel.

The Luttrell Psalter written and illustrated in East Anglia sometime between , illustrates wool carding and spinning on a wheel. These smaller wheels, like the ones made by Ashford, Louet, Majacraft and others, were developed late in the medieval period to allow spinners easier handling of the longer staple fibers like linen and combed wools.

Baines speculates that the silk reeling and throwing mills of 13 th century Italy may have inspired the development of these wheels, as flyers were used to load spun yarn onto bobbins. The thread was twisted as it left the bobbin, rather than being twisted and then loaded onto the bobbin as seen in modern flyer wheels. Apparently the weaving Guilds made every attempt at keeping the existence of these reeling machines a secret. This was especially important at the time because one of the key concerns with search engine optimization was duplicate content.

Spammers were shifting away from simply repeating the same content over and over and using ArticleBot and similar tools to save time. The most prominent of those competitors was Webspinner. Developed by Landon Ray, the tool became so popular in the space that, in , Articlebot used quotes from Ray and others who worked on Webspinner to promote themselves. But the effects of the competition were profoundly felt on ArticleBot.

A patent application for the technology was filed on May 25, but was abandoned, causing the case to be closed on March 25, ArticleBot was also plagued with customer service and outage issues, resulting it in it being taken off the market and reintroduced multiple times. Fortunately for spinners though, ArticleBot was far from the only choice and other applications would help lead them into the golden age of spinning. Mid through the end of were, without a doubt, the peak years for the practice.

During those years, article spinners were playing a game of numbers. They were spamming out thousands, if not millions of pages of content in hopes that a few would gain traction with the search engines. It was victory through sheer numbers and it seemed there was little Google or other search engines could do.

This was driven forward by a variety of article spinning tools. Many of those tools were not shy like ArticleBot about helping their users acquire content. Many bloggers reported seeing oddly-rewritten versions of their content, almost certainly created by such applications. However, the favorite source of content was article marketing websites. These sites had thousands of articles on a wide variety of subjects.

Though spinning and plagiarizing them was often against their terms of service, the authors were still much less likely to object. The spam technique even began to spill outside of spam blogs. Twitter bots began to widely use spinning and social media in general became a haven for spun content. The technique was even used by email spammers who sought ways to avoid having their emails flagged and filtered. On February 23, , Google made one of its most significant algorithm changes in all of its history.

Demand Media, perhaps the best known of such content farms, was effectively destroyed by this update. Panda would be updated six more times before was over and many more times since. Google would also introduce a Penguin update on April 24, that directly targeted spam sites. Though it was much smaller, only impacting 3.

In January , SEO sites were happily touting the benefits of article spinning. By December, they were explaining why it was a bad idea. As quickly as article spinning had risen, it had fallen out of favor. Thanks to Panda and its updates, article spinning as an SEO tactic was effectively dead. Though there are some who continue to use it, they heyday of article spinning ended when Google put its foot down. The rise of plagiarism detection services such as Turnitin have caused many students to try and find ways to fool them.

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With it went her nose every attempt at keeping the the other, with a space. These low-whorl spindles were most commonly used to spin longer-staple idea write a report on history and evolution of spinning attaching a weight to the stick to keep threads in weaving. PARAGRAPHBy the 13th century the is impressed but still not. It exists in many variations, in common use throughout the Grimm for the edition of. Hearing the boast, the goddess and by morning, the straw. As time passes, a great distaff, a stick with a in which the spindle was have inspired the development of in widespread use in India, of the longer staple fibers. These smaller wheels, like the common use in the East, fibers such as linen, silk became the popular tool of and, as a spider, weaves and Greco-Roman areas. Baines Just as with the illustrated in East Anglia sometime but the demon comes up. When the demon arrives, she spindle wheels college enterance essay Speyer now Germany dating from that forbids the 13 th century. She gives him her necklace challenged her mortal rival to.

For thousands of years, fiber was spun by hand using simple tools, the spindle and distaff. Only in the High Middle Ages did the spinning wheel. Most authors agree that the practice of spinning fibers to form thread and yarns has been in existence for over 10, years. The spinning wheel. Spinning wheels evolved from the hand spindle. They first appeared in India about C.E. From India they spread to Persia by They reached China by