That is why each source you use must be listed in a detailed bibliography with enough information for someone to go and find it by themselves. Your bibliography should include a minimum of three written sources of information about your topic from books, encyclopedias, and periodicals.
You may have additional information from the Web if appropriate. There are standards for documenting sources of information in research papers. Even though different journals may use a slightly different format for the bibliography, they all contain the same basic information.
The most basic information that each reference should have is the author's name, the title, the date, and the source. Different types of sources have different formatting in the bibliography. Download and print the Science Buddies Bibliography Worksheet.
Keep several copies with you and fill in the information as you do your research. When you are finished, type the information from the worksheet into a formatted bibliography using the examples listed above. Menu Project Ideas. View Site Map. Science Projects. Grade Levels. Physical Science. Earth and Environmental Science. Behavioral and Social Science. Project Guides. Key Info Make a list to keep track of ALL the books, magazines, and websites you read as you follow your background research plan.
Later this list of sources will become your bibliography. Most teachers want you to have at least three written sources of information. Write down, photocopy, or print the following information for each source you find. You can use the Science Buddies Bibliography Worksheet to help you. Volume number, Date : page numbers. Jordan, Jennifer, "Filming at the Top of the World. Volume 47, No. Compton's Multimedia Encyclopedia : Macintosh version, Compton's Newsmedia.
Author last name first. If available: publisher of medium, version, date of issue. Rollins, Fred. Number 15, February : pp. Date : If available: Edition, section and page number s. Stevenson, Rhoda. Feb : pp. SIRS, Mac. Author of message, Date. Subject of message. Electronic conference or bulletin board Online.
Ellen Block, September 15, New Winners. Teen Booklist Online. Helen Smith wellington. Updated February 28, Infoplease Staff. Homework Help? Writing Skills. Back: Use footnotes or endnotes. Next: Revise the first draft. See also:. Trending Here are the facts and trivia that people are buzzing about. Record Highest Temperatures by State.
The bibliography is organised according to the authors' last names which are arranged in alphabetical order. Bibliographical entries differ from footnotes or endnotes in a straightforward way that is easy to remember. Bibliographies end assignments, and each component of an individual entry is presented in final form, punctuated by full stops.
Bibliographical entries may vary in complexity. In general, use the following ordering systems as your guide in presenting material. Appropriate punctuation is shown. Levine, Joseph M. Ithaca : Cornell University Press, Boswell, James. The Life of Samuel Johnson. Edited by George Birkbeck Hill and L. Oxford : Clarendon Press, Soltes, Ori Z. Georgia : Art and Civilization through the Ages. London: Philip Wilson, Holloway, John. London : Chapman Hall, The Great Gatsby. New York: Scribner, Reprinted with preface and notes by Matthew J.
New York: Collier Books, National Reconnaisance Office. Ray, William. Gold, Ann Godzins. Masterton, Mark. Nussbaum and Juha Sihvola. American Journal of Philology , no. McDougall, K. Very long URLs, such as those that occur when using an online database, can be shortened by removing the retrieval code. Grant, Linda. Retrieved on August 22, from insert full web address here. The above is just one example of citing online sources.
There are more extensive bibliographic guidelines at www. In-text citations alert readers to cited material and tell them exactly where to go and look. These citations work in conjunction with a bibliography. A signal phrase alerts the reader to the fact that you are citing another source for the information he or she is about to read.
According to one study Myers, , inexperienced auditors from a structured firm will demonstrate higher audit effectiveness in the typical audit situation than inexperienced auditors from an unstructured firm. The primary controversies surrounding the issue of accounting for stock-based compensation include whether these instruments represent an expense that should be recognized in the income statement and, if so, when they should be recognized and how they should be measured.
Martin and Duchac, , Sec. Long quotes are 40 words or longer and should be single-spaced even in double-spaced papers. The previewing sentence tells the reader what to look for in the quotes and helps the reader change gears from you to another author. Martin and Duchac reiterate the problems with stock-based compensation and accounting issues:.
While it is true these estimates generate uncertainties about value and the costs to be recognized, cost recognition should be the fundamental objective and information based on estimates can be useful just as it is with defined benefit pension plans. Given the similarities between stock based compensation and defined benefit pension costs, an expense should be recognized for employee stock options just as pension costs are recognized for defined benefit pension plans.
The FASB agreed with this assessment in their exposure draft on stock based compensation, noting that nonrecognition of employee stock option costs produces financial statements that are neither credible nor representationally faithful. Note the consistent indentation and the paragraph break inside the quote. Also note that the parenthetical citation falls outside the closing period. Sometimes, summarizing arguments from your sources can leave the reader in doubt as to whose opinion he or she is seeing.
For example:. So insert a source-reflective statement to avoid confusion. You may decide to substitute footnotes for in-text citations and a bibliography. Footnotes are thorough, like entries in the bibliography, and yet specific, like in-text citations. However, depending on the thoroughness of your use of footnotes, you may also need a bibliography. If you decide to use footnotes, you should follow the format outlined above for the information to include in your entries and should number each footnote separately 1, 2, 3, etc.
You should NOT use the same number twice, even when referencing the same document. Check out guidelines such as those in the Chicago Manual of Style or the MLA Handbook for more information about how to number your footnote entries. Skip to main content. Do I need a bibliography?
Menu Project Ideas. View Site Map. Science Projects. Grade Levels. Physical Science. Earth and Environmental Science. Behavioral and Social Science. Project Guides. Key Info Make a list to keep track of ALL the books, magazines, and websites you read as you follow your background research plan. Later this list of sources will become your bibliography.
Most teachers want you to have at least three written sources of information. Write down, photocopy, or print the following information for each source you find. You can use the Science Buddies Bibliography Worksheet to help you. Collect this information for each printed source: Collect this information for each Web Site: author name title of the publication and the title of the article if it's a magazine or encyclopedia date of publication the place of publication of a book the publishing company of a book the volume number of a magazine or printed encyclopedia the page number s author and editor names if available title of the page if available the company or organization who posted the webpage the Web address for the page called a URL the last date you looked at the page.
Overview A bibliography is a listing of the books, magazines, and Internet sources that you use in designing, carrying out, and understanding your science fair project. Examples of Bibliography Formats There are standards for documenting sources of information in research papers. Your teacher will probably tell you which set of guidelines to use.
If you include Web pages, they should be in addition to the written sources. Explore Our Science Videos. Make a Slushy! Have you included at least 3 sources of written information on your subject? Have you included complete information to identify each of your sources author's name, the title, the date, and where it was published? Have you used the proper format for each of your sources? After the title Works Cited, the last name of the author of a source should be the first thing to appear on your page.
Add a period after the name. For a source with two authors, list the author names in your citation in the order they appear on the source, not alphabetically. Follow the second name with a period. Include middle names or initials and suffixes when applicable according to the guidelines for one author as listed above. For a source with three or more authors, only type the last and first name of the first author listed in the source, followed by a comma and the phrase et al.
Williams, Beatriz, et al. All the Ways We Said Goodbye. HarperLuxe, If the organization begins with an article like a, an, or the, it should be excluded in the Works Cited entry. Use the first letter of the title when considering alphabetical order in your MLA bibliography. Include page numbers in your full citations whenever possible. This helps the reader find the information you cited more quickly than if you just cited the entire source and lends more credibility to your argument.
If you cite different pages from the same source within your paper, you should cite the entire source on your MLA bibliography instead of listing all of the page numbers you used. When including page numbers in a citation, use the abbreviation p. While URLs may change or web pages might be edited or updated, a DOI is permanent and therefore more useful in a source citation.
Butarbutar, R, et al. However, including an access date is good to include when a source does not have a publishing date, and some instructors will request that accessed dates be included for all sources. Accessed 8 Oct. Note: If you choose to list an accessed date after a DOI, the accessed date part of the citation will follow the period after the DOI and will end with a period as the end of the citation.
Written by Grace Turney , freelance writer and artist. Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style. Get Started. Certain features require a modern browser to function. Please use a different browser, like Firefox , Chrome , or Safari. Author names After the title Works Cited, the last name of the author of a source should be the first thing to appear on your page.
Examples: Rowling, J. Smith, Alexander McCall. Do not include titles such as Dr. Include suffixes such as Jr. Separate the first name and the suffix by a comma unless the suffix is a numeral. For example, to cite an author named John Smith, Jr. Sources with two authors For a source with two authors, list the author names in your citation in the order they appear on the source, not alphabetically.
Examples: Lutz, Lisa, and David Hayward. Clark, Mary Higgins, and Alafair Burke.