weber max essay in sociology bureaucracy 1946

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Weber max essay in sociology bureaucracy 1946 english a1 extended essay titles

Weber max essay in sociology bureaucracy 1946


An edition of From Max Weber; essays in sociology This edition was published in by Oxford university press in New York. Written in English — pages. Subjects Social sciences. Not in Library. From Max Weber; essays in sociology. From Max Weber: Essays in sociology , Oxford university press. Edition Notes Bibliographical references included in "Notes" p. Classifications Library of Congress H The Physical Object Pagination xi, p.

Number of pages Sociology from Apples Sociology from Amelia Newburg. Loading Related Books. May 26, Edited by Drini. January 12, Edited by November 26, April 1, His work on other religions, however, would be interrupted by his sudden death in , which prevented him from following Ancient Judaism with studies of early Christianity and Islam. Weber saw religion as one of the core forces in society. Other notable factors mentioned by Weber included the rationalism of scientific pursuit, merging observation with mathematics, science of scholarship and jurisprudence, rational systematisation and bureaucratisation of government administration and economic enterprise.

Weber also proposed a socio-evolutionary model of religious change, showing that in general, societies have moved from magic to polytheism , then to pantheism , monotheism and finally, ethical monotheism. Weber also notes that societies having more Protestants were those with a more highly developed capitalist economy. The development of the concept of the calling quickly gave to the modern entrepreneur a fabulously clear conscience — and also industrious workers; he gave to his employees as the wages of their ascetic devotion to the calling and of co-operation in his ruthless exploitation of them through capitalism the prospect of eternal salvation.

Christian religious devotion had historically been accompanied by rejection of mundane affairs, including economic pursuit. Weber abandoned research into Protestantism as his colleague Ernst Troeltsch , a professional theologian, had begun work on the book Social Teachings of the Christian Churches and Sects.

Another reason for Weber's decision was that Troeltsch's work already achieved what he desired in that area: laying the groundwork for a comparative analysis of religion and society. The phrase " work ethic " used in modern commentary is a derivative of the " Protestant ethic " discussed by Weber. It was adopted when the idea of the Protestant ethic was generalised to apply to the Japanese people, Jews and other non-Christians and thus lost its religious connotations.

The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism was Weber's second major work on the sociology of religion. Hans H. Gerth edited and translated this text into English, with an introduction by C. His work also questioned why capitalism did not develop in China. According to Weber, Confucianism and Puritanism are mutually exclusive types of rational thought , each attempting to prescribe a way of life based on religious dogma.

In this work he deals with the structure of Indian society, with the orthodox doctrines of Hinduism and the heterodox doctrines of Buddhism , with modifications brought by the influence of popular religiosity and finally with the impact of religious beliefs on the secular ethic of Indian society. Weber ended his research of society and religion in India by bringing in insights from his previous work on China to discuss similarities of the Asian belief systems.

His next work, Ancient Judaism was an attempt to prove this theory. In Ancient Judaism , his fourth major work on the sociology of religion, Weber attempted to explain the factors that resulted in the early differences between Oriental and Occidental religiosity. Weber claimed that Judaism not only fathered Christianity and Islam, but was crucial to the rise of the modern Occidental state; Judaism's influence was as important as Hellenistic and Roman cultures.

Weber's death in prevented him from following his planned analysis of Psalms , the Book of Job , Talmudic Jewry, early Christianity and Islam. The 'theodicy of fortune and misfortune' within sociology is the theory, as Weber suggested, of how "members of different social classes adopt different belief systems, or theodices, to explain their social situation. The concept of theodicy was expanded mainly with the thought of Weber and his addition of ethical considerations to the subject of religion.

There is an ethical part of religion, that includes: [98]. There is a separation of different theodicies with regard to class: "theodicies of misfortune tend to the belief that wealth and other manifestations of privilege are indications or signs of evil. In contrast, theodicies of fortune emphasise the notion that privileges are a blessing and are deserved.

Weber also distinguishes that, "the affluent embrace good fortune theodicies, which emphasise that prosperity is a blessing of God [while] theodices of misfortune emphasise that affluence is a sign of evil and that suffering in this world will be rewarded in the next. Weber defines the importance of societal class within religion by examining the difference between the two theodicies and to what class structures they apply. The concept of "work ethic" is attached to the theodicy of fortune; thus, because of the Protestant "work ethic", there was a contribution of higher class outcomes and more education among Protestants.

Another example of how this belief of religious theodicy influences class, is that those of lower status, the poor, cling to deep religiousness and faith as a way to comfort themselves and provide hope for a more prosperous future, while those of higher status cling to the sacraments or actions that prove their right of possessing greater wealth.

These two theodicies can be found in the denominational segregation within the religious community. The main division can be seen between the mainline Protestant and evangelical denominations and their relation to the class into which their particular theodicy pertains.

For example, mainline churches, with their upper class congregations "promote[d] order, stability, and conservatism, and in so doing proved to be a powerful source of legitimation of the status quo and of existing disparities in the distribution of wealth and power", because much of the wealth of the church comes from the congregation. They instead "advocated change intended to advance the cause of justice and fairness". In political sociology , one of Weber's most influential contributions is his essay " Politik als Beruf " " Politics as a Vocation " , in which he defines "the state " as an entity that possesses a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force.

Accordingly, Weber proposed that politics is the sharing of state power between various groups, whereas political leaders are those who wield this power. Weber distinguished three ideal types of political leadership aka three types of domination, legitimisation or authority : [65] [].

In his view, every historical relation between rulers and ruled contained such elements, which can be analysed on the basis of this tripartite distinction. The move towards a rational-legal structure of authority, using a bureaucratic structure, is inevitable in the end. This ties to his broader concept of rationalisation by suggesting the inevitability of a move in this direction.

Weber described many ideal types of public administration and government in his masterpiece Economy and Society His critical study of the bureaucratisation of society became one of the most enduring parts of his work. Weber listed several preconditions for the emergence of the bureaucracy, which resulted in a need for a more efficient administrative system, including: []. Development of communication and transportation technologies made more efficient administration possible and popularly requested and democratisation and rationalisation of culture resulted in demands that the new system treat everybody equally.

Weber's ideal bureaucracy is characterised by hierarchical organisation, by delineated lines of authority in a fixed area of activity, by action taken and recorded on the basis of written rules, by bureaucratic officials needing expert training, by rules being implemented neutrally and by career advancement depending on technical qualifications judged by organisations, not by individuals. The decisive reason for the advance of the bureaucratic organisation has always been its purely technical superiority over any other form of organisation.

While recognising bureaucracy as the most efficient form of organisation and even indispensable for the modern state, Weber also saw it as a threat to individual freedoms and the ongoing bureaucratisation as leading to a "polar night of icy darkness", in which increasing rationalisation of human life traps individuals in the aforementioned " iron cage " of bureaucratic, rule-based, rational control.

Weber also formulated a three-component theory of stratification , with social class, social status and political party as conceptually distinct elements. In Weber's theory, issues of honour and prestige are important. This distinction is most clearly described in Weber's essay Classes, Staende, Parties , which was first published in his book Economy and Society. All three dimensions have consequences for what Weber called " life chances " opportunities to improve one's life.

As part of his overarching effort to understand the unique development of the Western world, Weber produced a detailed general study of the city as the characteristic locus of the social and economic relations, political arrangements, and ideas that eventually came to define the West.

This resulted in a monograph, The City , which he probably compiled from research conducted in — It was published posthumously in , and, in , was incorporated into the second part of his Economy and Society , as the sixteenth chapter, "The City Non-legitimate Domination ". According to Weber, the city as a politically autonomous organisation of people living in close proximity, employed in a variety of specialised trades, and physically separated from the surrounding countryside, only fully developed in the West and to a great extent shaped its cultural evolution: [].

The origin of a rational and inner-worldly ethic is associated in the Occident with the appearance of thinkers and prophets This context consisted of the political problems engendered by the bourgeois status-group of the city, without which neither Judaism, nor Christianity, nor the development of Hellenistic thinking are conceivable.

Weber argued that Judaism, early Christianity, theology, and later the political party and modern science, were only possible in the urban context that reached a full development in the West alone. Weber regarded himself primarily as a " political economist ", [] [16] [] and all his professorial appointments were in economics, though today his contributions in that field are largely overshadowed by his role as a founder of modern sociology. As an economist, Weber belonged to the "youngest" German historical school of economics.

Weber's magnum opus Economy and Society is a collection of his essays that he was working on at the time of his death in After his death, the final organization and editing of the book fell to his widow Marianne. The final German form published in reflected very much Marianne's work and intellectual commitment. The composition includes a wide range of essays dealing with Weber's views regarding sociology, social philosophy , politics, social stratification , world religion , diplomacy, and other subjects.

Beginning in , the German jurist Johannes Winckelmann began editing and organizing the German edition of Economy and Society based on his study of the papers that Weber left at his death. English versions of the work were published as a collected volume in , as edited by Gunther Roth and Claus Wittich.

As a result of the various editions in German and English, there are differences between the organization of the different volumes. The book is typically published in a two volume set in both German and English, and is more than pages long. Though his research interests were always in line with those of the German historicists, with a strong emphasis on interpreting economic history , Weber's defence of " methodological individualism " in the social sciences represented an important break with that school and an embracing of many of the arguments that had been made against the historicists by Carl Menger , the founder of the Austrian School of economics, in the context of the academic Methodenstreit "debate over methods" of the late 19th century.

Unlike other historicists, Weber also accepted the marginal theory of value aka "marginalism" and taught it to his students. Max Weber's article has been cited as a definitive refutation of the dependence of the economic theory of value on the laws of psychophysics by Lionel Robbins , George Stigler , [] and Friedrich Hayek , though the broader issue of the relation between economics and psychology has come back into the academic debate with the development of " behavioral economics ".

Weber's best known work in economics concerned the preconditions for capitalist development, particularly the relations between religion and capitalism, which he explored in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism as well as in his other works on the sociology of religion.

Although today Weber is primarily read by sociologists and social philosophers , Weber's work did have a significant influence on Frank Knight , one of the founders of the neoclassical Chicago school of economics , who translated Weber's General Economic History into English in Weber, like his colleague Werner Sombart , regarded economic calculation and especially the double-entry bookkeeping method of business accounting, as one of the most important forms of rationalisation associated with the development of modern capitalism.

To make possible a rational use of the means of production, a system of in-kind accounting would have to determine "value" — indicators of some kind for the individual capital goods which could take over the role of the "prices" used in book valuation in modern business accounting. But it is not at all clear how such indicators could be established and in particular, verified; whether, for instance, they should vary from one production unit to the next on the basis of economic location , or whether they should be uniform for the entire economy, on the basis of "social utility", that is, of present and future consumption requirements Nothing is gained by assuming that, if only the problem of a non-monetary economy were seriously enough attacked, a suitable accounting method would be discovered or invented.

The problem is fundamental to any kind of complete socialisation. We cannot speak of a rational "planned economy" so long as in this decisive respect we have no instrument for elaborating a rational "plan". This argument against socialism was made independently, at about the same time, by Ludwig von Mises. Weber's thinking was strongly influenced by German idealism , particularly by neo-Kantianism , which he had been exposed to through Heinrich Rickert , his professorial colleague at the University of Freiburg.

Weber was also influenced by Kantian ethics , which he nonetheless came to think of as obsolete in a modern age lacking in religious certainties. In this last respect, the influence of Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophy is evident. Another major influence in Weber's life was the writings of Karl Marx and the workings of socialist thought in academia and active politics.

While Weber shares some of Marx's consternation with bureaucratic systems and maligns them as being capable of advancing their own logic to the detriment of human freedom and autonomy, Weber views conflict as perpetual and inevitable and does not host the spirit of a materially available utopia.

Though the influence of his mother's Calvinist religiosity is evident throughout Weber's life and work as he maintained a deep, lifelong interest in the study of religions, Weber was open about the fact that he was personally irreligious.

As a political economist and economic historian , Weber belonged to the "youngest" German historical school of economics , represented by academics such as Gustav von Schmoller and his student Werner Sombart. However, even though Weber's research interests were very much in line with this school, his views on methodology and the theory of value diverged significantly from those of other German historicists and were closer, in fact, to those of Carl Menger and the Austrian School , the traditional rivals of the historical school.

New research suggests that some of Weber's theories, including his interest in the sociology of Far Eastern religion and elements of his theory of disenchantment, were actually shaped by Weber's interaction with contemporary German occult figures.

However, Weber disagreed with many of George's views and never formally joined George's occult circle. The prestige of Max Weber among European social scientists would be difficult to over-estimate. He is widely considered the greatest of German sociologists and Weber's most influential work was on economic sociology , political sociology , and the sociology of religion.

But whereas Durkheim, following Comte , worked in the positivist tradition, Weber was instrumental in developing an antipositivist , hermeneutic , tradition in the social sciences. Weber presented sociology as the science of human social action ; action that he separated into traditional , affectional , value-rational and instrumental. By "action" in this definition is meant the human behaviour when and to the extent that the agent or agents see it as subjectively meaningful In neither case is the "meaning" to be thought of as somehow objectively "correct" or "true" by some metaphysical criterion.

This is the difference between the empirical sciences of action, such as sociology and history and any kind of a priori discipline, such as jurisprudence, logic, ethics, or aesthetics whose aim is to extract from their subject-matter "correct" or "valid" meaning.

In his own time, however, Weber was viewed primarily as a historian and an economist. The affinity between capitalism and Protestantism, the religious origins of the Western world, the force of charisma in religion as well as in politics, the all-embracing process of rationalisation and the bureaucratic price of progress, the role of legitimacy and of violence as the offspring of leadership, the "disenchantment" of the modern world together with the never-ending power of religion, the antagonistic relation between intellectualism and eroticism: all these are key concepts which attest to the enduring fascination of Weber's thinking.

Many of Weber's works famous today were collected, revised and published posthumously. Significant interpretations of his writings were produced by such sociological luminaries as Talcott Parsons and C. Wright Mills. Parsons in particular imparted to Weber's works a functionalist, teleological perspective; this personal interpretation has been criticised for a latent conservatism. Had Weber lived longer, the German people of today would be able to look to this example of an ' Aryan ' who would not be broken by National Socialism.

Weber's friend, the psychiatrist and existentialist philosopher Karl Jaspers , described him as "the greatest German of our era". Weber's untimely death felt to Jaspers "as if the German world had lost its heart". Weber's explanations are highly specific to the historical periods he analysed. Many scholars, however, disagree with specific claims in Weber's historical analysis. For example, the economist Joseph Schumpeter argued that capitalism did not begin with the Industrial Revolution but in 14th century Italy.

Also, the predominantly Calvinist country of Scotland did not enjoy the same economic growth as the Netherlands, England and New England. It has been pointed out that the Netherlands, which had a Calvinist majority, industrialised much later in the 19th century than predominantly Catholic Belgium, which was one of the centres of the Industrial Revolution on the European mainland. For an extensive list of Max Weber's works, see Max Weber bibliography.

Weber wrote in German. Original titles printed after his death are most likely compilations of his unfinished works of the Collected Essays Many translations are made of parts or sections of various German originals and the names of the translations often do not reveal what part of the original they contain. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. German sociologist, jurist, and political economist — For other people named Max Weber, see Max Weber disambiguation.

Erfurt , Saxony , Prussia. Munich , Bavaria , Germany. Friedrich Wilhelm University Heidelberg University. History economics sociology law. Political economics political science political philosophy. Weberian bureaucracy instrumental and value-rational action instrumental and value rationality instrumental and intrinsic value charismatic , traditional , and rational-legal authority ideal type iron cage life chances methodological individualism monopoly on violence Protestant work ethic rationalisation , secularisation , and disenchantment social action three-component stratification tripartite classification of authority Verstehen.

Economic systems. Economic theories. Related topics. Anti-capitalism Capitalist state Consumerism Crisis theory Criticism of capitalism Cronyism Culture of capitalism Evergreening Exploitation of labour Globalization History History of theory Market economy Periodizations of capitalism Perspectives on capitalism Post-capitalism Speculation Spontaneous order Venture philanthropy Wage slavery.

Main article: The Religion of China. Main article: The Religion of India. Main article: Ancient Judaism book. See also: Max Weber and German politics. Main article: Economy and Society. See: section on Weber and economics. Biography portal Society portal. Protestant Ethic , pp. Max Weber Studies. ISSN Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. Center for the Study of Language and Information. Retrieved 17 February The Cambridge Companion to Machiavelli.

Cambridge University Press. Journal of the History of Philosophy. Max Weber and His Contemporaries. The British Journal of Sociology. In Hannah Arendt in Jerusalem , edited by S. Berkeley: University of California Press. Simmel, Weber and Interpretive Sociology".

Random House. Encyclopedia of the City. ISBN History and Social Theory. Cornell University Press. Sociology 14th ed. Boston: Pearson. Roxbury Publishing. Waters and D. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan. Typescript of Chapter 1 available via Academia. Theory and Society. Max Weber and the New Century. London: Transaction Publishers. Calhoun Classical sociological theory.

Retrieved 19 March Max Weber: an introduction to his life and work. University of Chicago Press. Retrieved 24 March Retrieved 22 March Max Weber: An Intellectual Portrait. University of California Press. Pine Forge Press. Weber: Political Writings , edited by P. Lassman and R. Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press. Max Weber. Lachmann The legacy of Max Weber. Ludwig von Mises Institute. Last accessed on 18 September Based on Lengermann, P.

Boston: McGraw-Hill. The unknown Max Weber. Transaction Publishers. Weber: a short introduction. Max Weber and German Politics, — Mommsen; Michael Steinberg Hobsbawm The age of empire, — Pantheon Books. Essays in economic sociology. Princeton University Press. The New Yorker. Retrieved 25 September British Journal of Sociology. JSTOR Journal of Economic Literature. Sociation Today 4 2. University of Chicago Press, p. From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology.

London: Routledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The dividing line between success and failure: a comparison of liberalism in the Netherlands and Germany in the 19th and 20th centuries. Denhardt Theories of Public Organization. Cengage Learning. Retrieved 14 April Sociological Writings revised ed. Blunden , edited by W.

Heydebrand and A. Fischoff, edited by G. Roth and C. Principles of Public Administration: Malaysian Perspectives. Administrative Science Quarterly The postmodern significance of Max Weber's legacy: disenchanting disenchantment. Retrieved 23 March Weigert Mixed emotions: certain steps toward understanding ambivalence. SUNY Press.


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Get this from a library! From Max Weber: Essays in sociology. [Max Weber; Hans Gerth; C Wright Mills] -- An introduction to the work of the greatest German. From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology [Max Weber, H. H. Gerth, Status, Party * Bureaucracy * Sociology of Charismatic Authority * Meaning of Discipline. Disputing the generally accepted view of Weber's essays on bureaucracy, theorist in this case was Max Weber (, p. 31). This portrait of Weber as.