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Year after year, we review dozens of reader nominations, revisit sites from past lists, consider staff favorites, and search the far-flung corners of the web for new celebration of new year essay for a varied compilation that will prove an asset to any writer, of any genre, at any experience level. This selection represents this year's creativity-centric websites for writers. These websites fuel out-of-the-box thinking and help writers awaken their choke palahnuik and literary analysis. Be sure to check out the archives for references to innovative techniques and processes from famous thinkers like Einstein and Darwin. The countless prompts, how-tos on guided imagery and creative habits, mixed-media masterpieces, and more at Creativity Portal have sparked imaginations for more than 18 years. Boost your literary credentials by submitting your best caption for the stand-alone cartoon to this weekly choke palahnuik and literary analysis from The New Yorker. The top three captions advance to a public vote, and the winners will be included in a future issue of the magazine.

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Research paper slang


The Library of Congress now archives it. Its pages were saved to the Internet Archive more than 12, times between May 25, , and October 4, , with a steady increase over time. Privacy Policy Contact Us You may unsubscribe at any time by clicking on the provided link on any marketing message. The stakes are increasing as well. Urban Dictionary is being used to determine the acceptability of vanity plate names in some U. More serious is the continued tradition of dictionary use in legal cases , where the interpretation of a single word can have grave consequences.

Whatever we might think of its vulgarity, Urban Dictionary is useful. It allows researchers to track terms that are too recent or too niche to appear in establishment dictionaries, and to determine how people are using English online. For example, one paper by communication expert Jean E. And Urban Dictionary is regularly cited as a source in linguistics research, such as a paper by Natasha Shrikant on Indian American students. McCulloch finds Urban Dictionary useful for mapping chronology, due to the datestamps attached to definitions, especially for the period in the early s, before social media sites became behemoths.

Derek Denis, a linguistics researcher at the University of Toronto, agrees that the datestamp function is useful. The other key aspect, he points out, is the use of Urban Dictionary to unearth indexical meanings, or the social meanings of words.

For him, the first example that comes to mind is the interjection eh. Urban Dictionary, unlike more formal dictionaries, mentions the Canadian association early and often. In other words, some Urban Dictionary contributors appear to be conservatively guarding a notion of a pure print version of English, even though language purists consider the site itself to be a key source of corruption. Are its contributors just pranking would-be scholars attempting to use the site for anything other than gleeful entertainment?

Well, surely some are trying to. Researchers may need to tread carefully, particularly given that young men are overrepresented on the site. Newer websites and social media platforms may be even more responsive to language trends, possibly leaving Urban Dictionary in a middle ground: not as immediate as Twitter, not as specific as Know Your Meme, not as respected as Merriam-Webster, not as credible as Wikipedia, and not as popular as Reddit.

JSTOR is a digital library for scholars, researchers, and students. By: Christine Ro. November 13, December 16, Share Tweet Email Print. Have a correction or comment about this article? By contrast, SL is more credible than non-SL. In our previous study, we observed that compared with advertisements that used SL, those that used internet slang attracted more attention Liu et al. Furthermore, electroencephalography studies have demonstrated that the cognitive processing of internet slang yields a significant N component and may involve creative thinking Zhao et al.

Internet slang is often used in combination with SL. For example, communication in SL is occasionally interspersed with some internet slang terms to increase the attractiveness. Accordingly, internet slang is used in everyday life in the form of an embedded language. We applied code-switching theory in this research because the use of internet slang in advertising results in a similar situation as that of using code-switching.

First, internet slang differs from SL because of its salient features, such as creative use of punctuation e. This distinctive style enables audiences to distinguish internet slang from SL when embedded in advertisements. For example, a study Zhao et al.

Second, the language schema of internet slang is different from that of SL. Internet slang is heavily used by young people in computer-mediated communications and is usually perceived as creative, interesting, and pop culture-related Tagliamonte, However, for adults who mainly speak SL, internet slang is viewed as informal and extremely difficult to understand Jones and Schieffelin, Thus, examining the use of internet slang in advertising from the perspective of code-switching is reasonable.

The Markedness Model Myers-Scotton, has been used to explain the code-switching direction effect Luna and Peracchio, b. In regard to code-switching, the Markedness Model suggests that individuals will switch languages or insert other-language elements into their speech so as to communicate certain meanings or group memberships. Luna and Peracchio b further explained that a marked element is recognized by the parties involved in the exchange as communicating a specific intended meaning.

Scholars have argued that in a code-switching situation, the language schema of the words embedded in a message is activated because such words are more salient or marked compared with the matrix language. For example, Luna and Peracchio a found that the language schema of Spanish, a minority language in the United States, can be activated when Spanish words are embedded in an ad slogan written in English and vice versa. We propose that internet slang and SL may have similar code-switching effects when they are mix-used in advertisements.

Therefore, this research involved conducting two studies to investigate whether code-switching effects occur between internet slang and SL, although internet slang is a variant of SL instead of a foreign language. We believe that when internet slang is embedded in SL, the novelty of advertisements can provide a refreshing change for the audience and thus more likely garner their attention.

Using eye movement tracking, we aimed to study the advertising effects produced by the use of internet slang as an embedded language, determine whether the use of internet slang as an embedded language can attract more attention, and explore whether this can generate positive advertising effects in terms of product evaluation and brand awareness. H1 : Embedded internet slang EIL vs. SL in advertisements results in an increased number of fixations and fixation time.

Consumers may prefer different advertisements for various types of products, such as those that are functional or hedonic Drolet et al. Luxury brands are typically associated with social status, prestige Han et al. Consequently, the purchase of luxury goods requires advertisements that resonate with the identity of consumers and thus attract their attention.

Moreover, overusing internet slang may result in frivolous feeling that would compromise the high quality which luxury goods state. Therefore, whether the use of EIL in advertisements for luxury and necessity goods generates different advertising effects is a subject that merits investigation. Moreover, there is a relative lack of empirical research on advertisements and on the effects of EIL and SL in advertisements for necessity and luxury goods.

In this study, eye tracking was the primary means of measurement employed. We used eye tracking because its superior signal-to-noise ratio relative to brain imaging renders it more suitable for the study of attention when individuals evaluate various types of products and make a choice. We also intended to test whether overusing internet slang in advertisements compromises the persuasive effect of the advertisements. Therefore, we designed another type of advertisement that comprised several internet slang words with embedded standard language ESL.

ESL was designed to overuse internet slang. These hypotheses are outlined as follows:. H2 : EIL in advertisements of luxury goods vs. H3a : EIL vs. SL in advertisements of necessity goods results in increased product evaluation, brand awareness, and attitude toward advertisements.

H3b : EIL vs. SL in advertisements of luxury goods makes no significant difference in brand awareness, product evaluation, and attitude toward advertisements. H4 : ESL vs. SL in advertisements of luxury goods results in decreased product evaluation, brand awareness, and attitude toward advertisements. Before conducting formal experiments, we first performed a pilot study on advertising language screening and advertising copy evaluation.

The pilot study served two purposes. The first purpose was to confirm that the three language versions SL, ESL, and EIL used in subsequent studies would not exhibit semantic differences; accordingly, we could exclude alternative explanations of semantics. The second purpose was to ensure that the products and advertisements selected would not exhibit any distinct appeal. To compile a list of internet slang words, we applied our screening process to select the 20 most searched terms in China on Baidu.

The primary criteria established for this process were as follows: the term must be well known; its usage must be widespread; and it must not have negative connotations, rendering it suitable for the design of an advertising copy. The designed advertising copy covered necessity goods, such as mineral water, toothpaste, cooking oil, towels, and shampoo, and luxury goods, such as watches, cars, perfume, jewelry, and leather items.

To exclude the influence of prior knowledge, all brands of products used in the advertisements were fabricated and not similar to any real brand, for excluding the influence of prior knowledge. We first divided the advertising language into 10 groups for various products; each group contained three types of advertising language. The participants were 30 undergraduate students from the Shenzhen University. The results indicated that there were no significant semantic differences between the three versions of advertising language, signifying that our study would not be affected by semantic differences.

We recruited an additional group of 30 participants for the pilot study, all of whom were young people including university students and new employees. Concurrently, to avoid other differences caused by the copy used, manipulative variables were used to rate the responses regarding the rational and emotional appeal of the same 30 advertisements.

Resnik and Stern proposed a standard definition of rational appeal based on 11 classification criteria: price, quality, characteristics, ingredients, purchase time and location, means of promotion, trial, function, packaging, guarantees, and novelty Resnik and Stern, Sciulli and Lisa proposed an emotional appeal scale comprising the following items: happiness, fear, joy, anger, interest, disgust, sadness, surprise, and numerous other emotional experiences.

Therefore, these classification criteria were adopted in the pilot study. To measure advertising appeal, we selected four items quality, ingredients, guarantees, and novelty from the rational appeal scale and four items happiness, interest, disgust, and sadness from the emotional appeal scale. The participants were asked to evaluate these items for the 30 advertisements.

For all statistical analyses performed using SPSS version For the formal experiment, we selected the copy according to the ratings received in the pilot experiment. Therefore, the advertisements in three languages for both necessity goods and luxury goods did not differ in terms of rational and emotional appeal scores.

The experimental materials were thus suitable for formal experimental study to explore the effect of advertising language versions on product evaluation, brand awareness, and attitude toward advertisements. In total, healthy volunteers 71 female individuals; mean age: A 2 product type: necessity goods vs. All participants were right-handed, had normal vision with or without correction , reported no history of affective disorders or neurological diseases, and did not regularly use medication.

All participants provided written informed consent before the experiment, and the study protocol was approved by the Local Ethics Committee of Shenzhen University. All methods were conducted in accordance with the approved protocol. This system has outstanding capturing and contract capabilities, can rapidly and accurately compensate for head movement, and can provide instant feedback during the tracking process.

Thus, this system met the requirements of this experiment. After the initiation of the experiment, the screen displayed an advertising copy that was viewed by the participants. Three types of languages were used for the advertisements, namely SL, SL embedded with internet slang, and internet slang embedded with SL. As illustrated in Figure 1 , each advertisement contained five short sentences. Each advertisement was presented for 12 s to the participants.

The study sequence was counterbalanced. Figures on the advertisement copy with embedded language were then compared and adjusted to ensure that SL was embedded with internet slang and vice versa , that the corresponding regions of interest ROIs of each figure were the same, and that brand names were placed in the same location. After the eye movement experiment, the participants answered a questionnaire on the advertising copy. Experimental stimuli were divided into three ROIs Figure 1.

An ROI is a specific region presented to participants for visual stimulation. To perform an intergroup comparison, the selected ROI for the same types of products was same placement of the embedded and non-embedded languages within the ROI. We selected three commonly used measures to evaluate attention to advertisements: fixation time Wedel and Pieters, ; Rayner et al.

Fixation time is the length of time a participant spends viewing the target zone, and it represents the amount of information they have processed in the zone. The longer the time is, the deeper the information processing in a specific area is.

The number of fixations is a measure of the frequency of fixation in a zone by a participant; it represents the amount of information the participant has processed in the zone. The higher the number of fixations is, the greater the attention paid to the information in a specific zone is. The pupil diameter measures the size of the pupil; it represents the level of interest a participant shows in a specific zone. When the pupil diameter is enlarged, it implies the participant is viewing a zone that interests him or her.

Because arousal plays a vital role in cognitive tasks Schimmack and Derryberry, ; Dresler et al. According to Massar et al. Post-hoc tests for multiple comparisons were corrected using the Bonferroni method. Significant interactions were analyzed through simple-effect models. Regarding the product type, the fixation time on necessity goods was shorter than that on luxury goods. All means and SDs are presented in Table 1.

Figure 2. Number of fixations and fixation time for standard language SL , embedded standard language ESL , and embedded internet slang EIL for necessity goods and luxury goods in study 1. Table 1. Regarding the product type, the number of fixations on necessity goods was lower than that on luxury goods. The fixation time on necessity goods was shorter than that on luxury goods.

These results suggest that EIL attracts more attention to brand and product names. All means and SDs are shown in Table 1. Concerning the product type, the number of fixations on necessity goods was lower than that on luxury goods. All means and SDs are listed in Table 1.

A total of healthy volunteers female individuals, mean age: All participants provided written informed consent before the experiment, and the study protocol was approved by the Local Ethics Committee of the Shenzhen University.

The products and advertising copy employed in this experiment were the same as those used in study 1. We created an online survey on WJX, 1 a widely used online survey platform in China, to measure all the variables for experiments. Online surveys are usually subject to concerns such as an insufficient amount of time spent on questions and multiple questionnaires being completed by the same individual. The WJX survey platform avoids these problems by setting a minimum duration required to complete a questionnaire and by preventing users with the same IP address or device from participating multiple times.

We combined the scales developed by Gardner et al. Brand awareness is based on the brand equity model Keller, and includes both brand recognition and brand recall. Brand recognition refers to aided brand awareness, whereas brand recall refers to unaided brand awareness. To measure product evaluation, Dodds et al.

Finally, the following measures of product evaluation were used: perceived product quality quality, reliability, and durability , perceived product value cost effectiveness, acceptability, and value for money , and purchase intent purchase intent and considering purchase. The control variables in our study were as follows: 1 familiarity with internet slang, 2 attitude toward the internet slang, 3 product preferences, and 4 arousal.

All means and SDs are presented in Table 2. Figure 3. Brand awareness, product evaluation, and attitude toward advertisements for necessity goods and luxury goods in study 2. Table 2. All means and SDs are shown in Table 2. These results suggest that the advertisements that used EIL performed better than those that used ESL and SL regarding brand awareness, product evaluation, and attitudes toward advertisements.

Figure 4. Mediation of language type to brand awareness through attitudes toward advertisements. Our results reveal that EIL advertisements had higher ratings on brand awareness, product evaluation, and attitudes toward advertisements than SL and ESL advertisements did. This indicates that the excessive use of internet slang may have a negative effect on brand and product evaluation.

For luxury goods, internet slang did not generate a positive effect on brand awareness compared with SL. Changes in languages used in advertising can affect the market value of corporations. Advertisements that focus on consumer recognition and use modern internet slang may exert a positive effect on both a firm and its product s. We argue that the effect of internet slang on advertisement is complex; it depends on the types of products and the embedding style.

Our findings indicate that advertisements with internet slang are not always attractive, and the excessive use of internet slang may have a negative effect on brand and product evaluation. According to Ahn et al. Code-switching refers to the insertion of linguistic elements of one language into another language Grosjean, An example of code-switching is inserting an English word into a Korean sentence Ahn et al.

However, most studies examining the effect of code-switching on processing ads have been undertaken in the United States by focusing on the mixed use of Spanish and English languages Luna and Peracchio, a , b ; Bishop and Peterson, Ahn et al. Our study was undertaken in the China market. Chinese language is a character-based writing system as well as a meaning-based writing system, whereas English is a sound-based writing system and an alphabetic writing system Cook and Bassetti, Our results indicate that code-switching effects occur not only in a sound-based and alphabetic writing system but also in a character-based and meaning-based writing system.

Therefore, these findings extend the external validation of code-switching theory. Furthermore, in this study, we investigated SL Mandarin and its variant internet slang , and the results demonstrate that code-switching theory is also effective to SL and its variant. Specifically, the validation of code-switching is further extended because previous research has mainly focused on the mixed use of two different languages Bishop and Peterson, ; Ahn et al.

Finally, by empirically investigating the role of code-switching in advertising effectiveness, the findings of this study provide theoretical and practical implications regarding the code-switching approach for researchers and advertisers. SL and internet slang have distinct characteristics. When advertisements use SL, a feeling of standardization and strictness is induced Vignovic and Thompson, ; by contrast, when advertisements use internet slang, consumers identify the signals sent by the language, such as novelty or trendiness Collot and Belmore, ; Crystal, , with their own personalities, making them feel closer to the brand and generating a more favorable emotional experience.

Therefore, compared with advertisements in SL, advertisements embedded with internet slang highlight the fun and fresh characteristics of such slang; consequently, people form more positive attitudes toward such advertisements. Liu et al. Thus, different effects are exerted depending on how advertising language is presented.

Exciting advertisements evoke positive emotions from consumers, and the consumers associate these with the product Eunsun et al. Internet slang is generally considered to be humorous, fun, and exciting Collot and Belmore, A novel advertising language that is creative can attract more attention, which is in line with the findings of our previous study.

The novelty, humor, and fun characteristics of internet slang are evident when EIL appears in advertisements Pieters et al. Peng et al. A possible explanation for these results is that consumers have to spend more resources on processing internet slang. The results of our eye-tracking experiments support this supposition, and we discovered that EIL vs. SL in advertisements results in an increased number of fixations and a longer fixation time.

The eye-catching ability of internet slang is attributable to its higher amount of information and greater association for consumers, which thus signifies that internet slang requires more time to process. A recent ERP study on internet slang indicated that the information processing fluency of internet slang is much lower than that of SL Zhao et al. This finding is also supported by our eye-tracking experiments; more attention is paid to internet slang.

The reason for this outcome requires elucidation. This outcome can be explained by the novelty of internet slang, which originates from pop culture. Previous research suggested that internet slang is considered novel and innovative Hagtvedt and Patrick, This is because internet slang is generally created in a creative and innovative manner.

Thus, since its creation, internet slang has been accepted and spread rapidly and extensively Liu et al. Furthermore, Zhao et al. The innovativeness of language has a crucial advertising effect Eisend, This thus explains our finding that internet slang used in advertisements had positive effects on product evaluation, brand awareness, and attitude toward advertisements. Necessity goods are indispensable for the daily lives of consumers and are extremely practical Chen and Wang, ; consumers purchase such goods to fulfill their daily needs.

Necessity goods are relatively cheap, are only slightly affected by information, and do not require extra information processing on the part of the consumer. Consumers can easily develop brand loyalty toward necessity goods in a way that transforms into habitual purchasing behavior Monle and Tuen-Ho, These findings indicate that the excessive use of internet slang advertising copy in ESL does not increase audience attention to brands of luxury goods.

Luxury goods are subject to a high perceived risk; thus, information must be processed more carefully. In contrast to the level of information processing necessary for necessity goods, information on luxury goods requires in-depth processing. When a product becomes a luxury good, the use of SL in advertisements prompts consumers to associate the advertised products with high quality because SL is associated with high value and credibility Lin and Wang, and serves as the principal language with rigor and reliability Yip and Matthews, Therefore, appropriately embedding internet slang can increase attention to a brand.

However, the use of inappropriate internet slang would not achieve positive advertising effects. Our study indicates that because of its high levels of creativity and timeliness, internet slang may temporarily increase audience attention to advertising language, but it cannot produce the same effect on higher status products such as luxury goods. Furthermore, an excessive use of internet slang may cause the audience to feel frivolous, which damages the trust consumers have in a brand or product.

For example, a highly trusted advertising language generates better results Kronrod et al. The second experiment also showed that in terms of brand awareness and product evaluation, advertising copies in ESL had the lowest scores; the conventional use of SL for advertising copies can thus yield superior performance compared with the extensive use of internet slang for advertising copies. The rapid spread of internet platforms means that internet slang can become a social buzzword under certain circumstances Sun et al.

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This study aimed to understand how a group of high school students n , studying in a Turkish vocational-technical state school, perceived the use of slang in daily life. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire and an interview protocol. The questionnaire data were analysed using Independent Samples t-Test and frequenciesdescriptive statistics.

The researchers determined the repeated themes in the interview data, and these were used as the supporting source of information to answer the research questions. The findings indicated that male and female student groups differed in their perception of slang. It was found that while male students mostly used slang to show that they belonged to a group, female students thought that it was a habit.

The female students' answers showed that they also tended to think about their group when they used slang. For both groups, efforts for fitting in with the social group played an important role. Female students also reported being more affected by social media. It was found that there was a relationship between the male students' slang use habit and the educational background of their fathers. The students, whose fathers were more educated, did not use slang words as frequently as the ones whose fathers had less education.

Those students, whose fathers had sent longer time in the education system tended to blame their peers. However, others whose fathers had spent less time in the education system tended to blame their family environment and social media. Mechanisms of semantic change: the case of Cantonese slang This paper examines the mechanisms of semantic change in the creation of ten Cantonese slang words. It demonstrates with synchronic evidence that metaphorisation, metonymisation and inter subjectification are three principal driving It demonstrates with synchronic evidence that metaphorisation, metonymisation and inter subjectification are three principal driving forces behind the shift in meaning.

It is argued that Traugott and Dasher's Invited Inferencing Theory of Semantic Change IITSC , initially proposed for and widely used in the context of grammati-calisation, is equally useful for the study of neologisms-in this case, the relatively recent slang expressions in Cantonese. These monosyllabic lexemes are shown to have followed the same unidirectional pathway of semantic change-that is, the shift from non-subjective meaning to encoded inter subjective meaning-outlined in their model of semantic change.

The main object of the research was to find out the meaning of The main object of the research was to find out the meaning of English slangs found in the Ant Man Movie and classify them depending on its characteristics of English Slangs types. This research used a qualitative method. In Classifying the English Slangs, researchers used theory from Coleman that classifying English slangs into seven; English Slang changes in meaning, English Slang changes in function, English Slang change in form, English Slang created by abbreviation, English Slang changes in spelling, Slangs loans and Slangs from imitating sound.

Through this research, researchers found forty English Slangs in the Ant Man Movie; fourteen English Slangs created by changes in meaning, two English Slangs created by changes in, twelve English Slangs created by changes, five English Slangs created by abbreviation, seven English Slangs created by changes in spelling, four English Slangs loans, and two English Slangs are from sound.

English slangs are non-register language. It is more acceptable in daily life because it is fresher and simple in use. Since the German language seems to have quite a few terms what could be translated by The first collection of German slang the language of tramps, thieves and traders can be found in the book called Liber vagatorum which was published first in Pforzheim in Since then many lexicographers, students and slang researchers have compiled word lists or extensive dictionaries and analyzed both youth slang and some special slang varieties cf.

It can be stated that German slang has borrowed a considerable number of terms from foreign languages such as Gipsy, Yiddish and of course English. In recent decades youth slang in Germany has changed in many ways. The Gipsy and Yiddish influence has declined, the English influence has increased significantly. The vocabulary of the various special slang varieties called Szenesprachen has been influenced by American English even more than general slang. First of all this paper concentrates on German cant, German youth slang and on the slang of bigger German-speaking towns such as Berlin and Vienna while other special German slang varieties eg.

Language is an area of existence in general terms and the social power and vassal masses wish their existence to be more permanent in this area. In this sense, language which is accepted as an area of struggle may become not only a In this sense, language which is accepted as an area of struggle may become not only a cultural means of domination, but also a focus of resistance.

As a matter of fact, when examining slang in terms of vassal masses, it is assessed as an area of cultural struggle and a way of expression for some identities that are ignored. Just like in language, it is possible to see a power struggle over humor. In this context, humor is interpreted as one of the most effective ways of criticizing social inequalities and exploitation.

Masses get a relative satisfaction by revealing criticism that they cannot express directly, more easily via humor. On the other hand, they create their own resistance methods by caricaturing the discourses of the power with humorous methods.

At this point, language is a very important tool. Reversing dominant discourses via language is among the most important cultural defense strategies of society. Slang culture at this plane is one of the simplest indicators of the area of struggle in language. On the other hand, slang is closely associated with humor because it mostly consists of humorous elements. Absurd slang, which is particularly used in humorous publications and comics, forms an idiocratic language and displays a semantically opponent appearance.

Being a flexible and expandable form, absurd slang is linguistically rich and is specific to masses. In sum, comics in mainstream humor magazines literally reveal language practices deep down in society, in terms of slang elements they reflect. The use of slang terms in comics is aimed to provide a relatively implicit meaning especially by changing words in impolite statements, omitting vowels from these words, leaving the statement elliptical and using initials regarding the slang statement only.

Comics, in which humor and slang are used together, add a new dimension to the humor culture and a new context to the meaning. Revealing a linguistic resistance culture; slang comes into existence especially in comics magazines. In line with social conditions, humor remains between order and institutional conflicts.

The power of humor normally arises from pointing out deficiencies in the established order rather than obeying the order. In this respect, humor has to be opponent. From this point of view, it cannot be asserted that humor basically aims to make people laugh. In sum, humor culture allows to entertain people and also add a massive appearance to the social resistance. To sum up, comics have two basic aspects; one of them is to laugh and the other one to resist present social relations.

For laughing, it is sufficient to express oddness and crookedness and give them together with linguistic possibilities. The most functional method to achieve it is slang. Creating an expression that is more identical with street culture via slang will make humorous statements more integrated with masses. In this study examining the correlation between humor and slang in comics on the basis of popular humor magazines such as Penguen, Leman, and Uykusuz, the discourse analysis method was used.

It was endeavored to reveal the discoursive depth of statements and their humorous relations by discussing the semantic infrastructure of findings acquired from the issues randomly selected from the afore-mentioned magazines via a sample analysis. The slang use in comics involved in humor magazines Penguen, Uykusuz, and Leman, which were chosen as sample, creates a humorous meaning by supporting humorous texts.

This is because slang idioms in the oral culture, which are not encountered so frequently, are reflected in written. Thus, reading unordinary statements is something attractive for comics readers and comics with slang content are more catchy. The statements that are not welcomed in society are usually censored in the comics examined.

In this context, vowels are omitted from the slang words and replaced by various punctuation marks or consonants in the words are either repeated or combined with another consonant. Such preferences which can also be assessed as self-censorship, are commonly used in comics. In the comics examined, slang terms like straight, dabbler, old chap, buddy, bastard, my boy, idiot, maniac and loser are written as they are and no visual censorship is applied.

This is because these usages do not contain an intense slang in semantic sense. Additionally, such statements are commonly used by people and are more acceptable. On the other hand, usages like ash and a. When examining the slang statements used in the language of the analyzed comics in terms of discourse, it was remarkable that majority of them have a masculine language. This is mainly because illustrators in the comics world usually consist of men and it is inevitable that they naturally use a male-dominant discourse in their language.

Giving weekly slang exercises to students so that they can practice more at home. Students should learn by heart some basic forms of slang for native speakers often use slang a lot when making conversations. Besides being taught at class, students need to provide reasonable time for self-studying at home. Since the English language contains a rich amount of slang words and phrases, what they learn at school is never enough. Students should be aware that there is a large volume of slang they encounters through the media such as television, film and press, which invariably increase their references points so besides self-studying from materials given by teacher, students should learn more about slang by watching these materials from abroad sources.

In a nutshell, this research mentions a review of slang, to be more specific it shows readers a glimpse into slangs definition together with its classifications and word-formations. Besides introducing slang to readers, this research also discusses about some implications for slang teaching and learning in the Faculty of English, HNUE. I hope that when readersespecially students- finish reading this research paper they will have a new thought and perception of slang learning as well as they will realize the importance of slang when making conversations with native speakers.

In my last speech, I hope that I have made readers somehow feel satisfied with my research paper even though it has some mistakes and limitations and from that I express my desire to carry out another further research with more original and plenteous ideas to solve the limitations of this paper as well as providing readers more useful information and knowledge. Home run. Read these sentences and figure out the meaning of slang provided: 5.

Yo, hommie. Dis paper hella full of biggie words I dunt catch What is the meaning of hella here? Many B. Verb to be C. Very, extremely. I have run out of bread. Can you lend me so that I can afford today? What is the meaning of bread here? Food B. Drink C. Do you have any suggestion to improve the English learners ability of listening about slang?

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Search inside document. Hayakawa, Language in Action, of everyday life. Home run B. Heavy water C. Do- right D. Daydream 2. Placekick B. All-nighter C. Baby-sit D. Hometown C. Org-man D. Lab Which is NOT slang in these words?

Blow off 4. Bro B. Chill out B. Brunch C. Buel D. Hommie Read these sentences and figure out the meaning of slang provided: 5. Very, extremely D. Have 6. Cake D. Money 7. By which factors can you figure out the meaning of slang?

Context B. Structural clues C. List or series D. Contrast 8. Marta Rosa Hasianna Siahaan. Allison Mcconaughy. Aileen Mae Amurao. Doina Dona. Yohanes Eko Portable. Jaime Jones. Nino Nina Avaliani. Marie Tan. Emmanuel Tartagal. Afif Kurniawan. Adarsh Choudhary. Hayatun Safuraa.

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