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If you experience any difficulties in using this eresource please call Library Help on extension or email library sheffield. Submissions University of Sheffield staff and postgraduate researchers can deposit research outputs in WRRO via myPublications, the University's research information management system. Martin, A. Mora, C, and Pf Sale. Noss, R. Oldekop, J. Scott Ca to , M. The Bioregional economy. Land, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness.
Prado W. Animal Conservation,. Vandermeer, J. West, P. Wilkinson, R. Wilson, E. London: Liferight Publishing. Wuerthner, G. Parks and Wilderness,. This is an author produced version of Half-Earth or Whole Earth? Radical ideas for conservation, and their implications. Published by Cambridge University Press. This is an author produced version of a paper published in Oryx. Uploaded in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy.
Radical ideas for conservation and their implications Abstract We question whether the increasingly popular, radical idea of turning half the earth in to a network of protected areas is either feasible or just. We call instead for alternative radical action that is both more effective and more equitable, focused directly on the main drivers of biodiversity loss by shifting the global economy from its current foundation in growth while simultaneously redressing inequality.
Main Text There is a new call to extend conservation frontiers as an ultimate attempt to save global biodiversity. Wilson , Reed Noss Noss et al, , George Wuerthner and John Terborgh Wuerthner et al, , a vision has been formulated to turn half of the earth in to a series of interconnected protected areas. We wish to open up debate about this idea. While it might be interpreted as simply a rhe to rical challenge to provoke greater conservation effort, it is proposed by senior scientific figures and is being widely discussed and supported.
Critical reflection about this proposal is thus important. The plan proposed is staggering in scale: protected areas, according to the IUCN, currently incorporate around They would thus need to more than triple in extent on land and by more than ten-fold in the oceans.
We agree with Wilson and other conservationists that because biodiversity is being lost at an unprecedented rate as a result of human activity therefore urgent need for action to address this. If the current environmental crisis calls for radical thinking, there are different and, we believe, better possibilities that should be taken seriously by conservationists and other ac to rs.
What sort of protected area is entailed in this vision? The more restrictive, which place most limits on human activity, have often created significant challenges of physical and economic displacement Oldekop et al, ; West and Brocking to n, An increase of the amount of land in which people can live and work, but which are off limits to resource extraction and drastic land use change, could even well be progressive.
Where will the new protected areas be located? How will the burden of creating more protected areas be shared globally? Much current conservation efforts focus on the biodiversity-rich tropics, and hence on low-income countries with major problems of poverty, a lack of infrastructure, industry and employment. Since the World Parks Congress in Bali in , it has been shown that protected areas work best if they are supported by local people.
Yet advocates of dramatic spatial expansion of protected areas say little about how these areas can be sustained socially and politically Wuerthner et al. What will this enclave of industrial and urban humanity be like? This, we fear, would be a recipe for a dys to pian world, where the vast majority of humanity is prevented from experiencing the very biodiversity many of them will have been displaced to save.
The only logical conclusion of the half earth proposal would be injustice on a large scale without effectively addressing the actual roots of the ecological crisis. If we have license to think freely and radically about s to pping biodiversity loss, there are other prospects that are more promising and build on sound research and are already being developed and tested in practice. First, conservation strategies need to focus directly on drivers of biodiversity loss by addressing how the global economy works, especially with respect to resource extraction and consumption, in order to decrease pressure on nature Wells and McShane ; Vandermeer and Perfec to Instead, we must promote concerted and widespread programmes of regulation and redistribution to equalize use and control of remaining natural resources.
This proposal is sometimes mistaken for a return to failed socialist and communist experiments with coercive resource allocation determined by experts and bureaucrats. But this is not the case. Expert and bureaucratic resource allocation is more characteristic of the Half-Earth vision. Second, conservation strategies must support measures that address inequality. Inequality harms the environment as well as health and human wellbeing Holland et al. It means focusing on those segments of the global population that consume the most, and who encourage rather than prevent further aggregate consumption and resource-use.
This latter focus is crucial: instead of encouraging further aggregate consumption and resource-use, more, longer-term equality can only be achieved within a broader politicaleconomic framework focused on ensuring that all human beings can live prosperous lives within local and global ecological boundaries.
In short: cutting inequality in half would do more for conservation than attempting to protect half earth from humanity Mikkelson et al. Pursuing economic growth alone would undermine this goal and hence accomplishing this would require dramatically redistributing existing wealth Kallis These measures are intended to bring about a radical shift from an economic focus on quantity of growth to the socio-ecological quality of life.
They are drastic proposals, with enormous consequences. They focus on tackling the root causes of environmental degradation and will be far less harmful — even beneficial - to people. And to the extent that this programme of radical conservation brings unwelcome change, it should be to those who have his to rically contributed and continue to contribute most to the ecological crisis. It is crucial, therefore, to turn away from attempts to increase polarization between humans and nature, and to rethink and nurture already existing and freshly emerging alternative conservation movements that are more democratic, equitable and humane.
These movements see humans as part of nature rather than separate from it, and seek healthy environments across the whole earth. They are not content to leave half the earth behind. References Adams, W. Conservation plc. Oryx, 44, Science, , CBD Global Biodiversity Outlook Montreal: CDB.
A Vocabulary for a New Era. Routledge, London. Donlan, J. Nature, , International Affairs, 90, Edwards, D. Conservation Letters, 7, — Neoliberal conservation and the evasion of inequality. Development and Change 43 1 : Martin, K. S Engage key social concepts for sustainability. New Internationalist.
Kareiva, P. Conservation and Society, 13 2 , Mikkelson, G. PloS one, 2 5 , e Locke, H. Conservation Biology, 26, Conservation Biology, 30, Persha, L.
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