outline for a research paper on prostitution

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Outline for a research paper on prostitution mla citing research papers

Outline for a research paper on prostitution


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In areas where people, for example, may need money, they may look at selling sex for money as a way to supplement their income, and you have this where students may look for ways to make money for books and bills, not realizing the dangers that are associated with it. For example, women who go into escort services, dancing on stage at at bars, may initially do so to pay for school or bills, or they may get into pornography and this may have ties to selling sex for money.

The dangers with sex for money include sexually transmitted diseases, robberies, thefts, dealing with drugs, alcohol, substance abuse, physical abuse, and even death. For some people, mainly women, who get into this type of profession, there are high dangers associated with it, including the risk of sexually transmitted diseases. For some women, for example, who develop a drug habit, they may get involved in more risque versions of sex to get money to support their habits, and this risky activity can lead to a sexually transmitted disease, like AIDS, or even worse, they could die from being with someone who was violent and on drugs, as well.

Sex as a profession is legal in states like Nevada, where people have actually set up areas where women can still work and make money selling their bodies for profit. It's unfortunate to hear this because it demoralizes women, and yet if you look at their approach to it, they look at it as embracing the body and being paid for it. In areas like Las Vegas, there is a very grey area between what is considered tasty, vs what is considered exploitation.

So you may find that there is a heavy instance of prostitution, as well at human trafficking, and in the same token, you have women who dance nightly on stage nude in live burlesque type shows, where this is favored. Because it is considered Las Vegas, this is looked at as the norm, but ultimately we want women to feel empowered about their bodies and to not exploit themselves, as they should find other ways to make money to have an income without using alternative methods that can harm them in anyway.

However, with the advent of globalization, prostitution is caught in the nexus of sex tourism and human trafficking. There is a growing recognition that as an industry, prostitution had been economically and systematically exploited Leheny, Young girls and boys from poor rural areas of developing countries are also systematically deceived with offers of jobs and other opportunities, only to end up as prostitutes for local and international customers in the big cities Flowers, ; Lazaridis, As mentioned earlier, more radical feminists have thus articulated that prostitution is a modern form of sex slavery and it should be viewed as violence against women and a violation of human rights Farley et al.

Prostitution can be classified according to modus operandi and gender and age of providers. In their comprehensive review of studies on prostitution, Harcourt and Donovan identified 25 different modi operandi of commercial sex work in more than 15 countries. In their typology, they identified the name of the activity, how clients are solicited and where they are serviced, and in what world regions certain activities are prevalent.

Among the more prominent modi operandi for sex work are street, brothel, and escort prostitution. Street prostitution is the mode where clients are solicited on the street, in parks, or in other public places and are serviced in side streets, vehicles, or short-stay premises. Street prostitution is widespread, particularly in societies where alternative work sites are unavailable e. Brothel prostitution is the mode where certain premises are explicitly dedicated to providing sex.

Usually, brothel prostitution has better security provisions accorded to sex workers than street prostitution. Brothels are often licensed by authorities. Escort prostitution is the mode where clients contact sex workers by phone or via the hotel staff. This is the most covert form of sex work. It is relatively expensive because of low client turnover i. This mode of prostitution is ubiquitous.

Other modes documented by Harcourt and Donovan are culturally bound and unique to certain countries. Also, in some Japanese cities, a popular mode is the geisha. These are women engaged primarily to provide social company, but sex may ensue. Harcourt and Donovan also found that policing of sex work can change the modus operandi and location of prostitution, but rarely its prevalence.

They argued that it is necessary to develop complete understanding of the modus operandi of sex work in a particular area in order to come up with comprehensive sexual health promotion programs. Harcourt and Donovan concluded that there is no one best intervention for prostitution and that interventions must be suitable to the form modus operandi of prostitution in a local area to have some impact.

The following typology generally applies to male and transgender sex workers. In one of the few studies on male prostitutes, Luckenbill identified three modes of operation—street hustling, bar hustling, and escort prostitution—ranked according to level of income and safety from arrest. The author also found that while some male prostitutes developed relatively stable careers within a given rank, others developed ascending careers.

Most of the respondents moved from street hustling to bar hustling, and a few ascended to escort prostitution Luckenbill, Lately, with the prominence of the Internet, male prostitutes can find customers through their online advertisements Pruitt, Compared to female prostitutes, male prostitutes are more likely to be either in bars or working as escorts. Male-to-female transgender prostitutes generally follow the typology of street and off-street prostitution Belza et al.

Transgender prostitutes, however, are predominantly based on the streets and compete with female prostitutes for their customers. A recurrent theme for transgender prostitutes is the higher risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted disease Risser et al. Finally, prostitution can also be classified according to the age of providers, namely adult and child prostitutes. Studies indicate that the dynamics of child prostitution are different from those of adult prostitution.

Child prostitution is generally condemned by most individuals, organizations, and governments. This section describes some causes as delineated by differing ideological perspectives on prostitution. It should be noted that ideological views also influence interpretations of the effects of prostitution and the policies recommended to address the issue.

One of the earliest and possibly most enduring explanations of prostitution is the social and moral deviance perspective. This perspective assumes that prostitution is a crime against the laws of the state and a sin against the laws of God. Studies that assume this position generally find that prostitutes have low self-esteem and low self-control Greenwald, If prostitutes maintain that economic circumstances pressured them into involvement in prostitution, this perspective views them as weak, as they should have explored other decent forms of generating income.

Studies that applied this assumption also maintained that prostitution was associated with feeble-mindedness and that prostitution could be passed on from one generation to the next. Some studies also asserted that as a deviant act, prostitution could be learned.

Individuals who grew up in families or neighborhoods where prostitution was common may likely end up prostituting. This view maintains that individuals who are too weak to control their sexual desires and are too promiscuous have an elevated risk of becoming prostitutes.

This fortifies the position of the social and moral deviance perspective by arguing that low self-control and lack of attachments to the traditional values of society fuel both the phenomena of drug addiction and prostitution. Studies that assume that prostitution is a voluntary act usually find that most prostitutes are involved in the activity for the purpose of quick economic and commercial gains Davidson, These studies also show that involvement in prostitution is fleeting, and a prostitute may leave as soon as the reasons for working as one are no longer present.

The assumption that prostitution is voluntary asserts that female sex workers are simply using their free choice regarding what to do with their bodies Jenness, Since they view prostitution as a legitimate form of employment, female sex workers are in fact actualizing a civil right inherent in their work. This assumption maintains that prostitution is a legitimate way to explore sexual pleasures, and those who engaged in it are not deviants but rather are normal human beings.

Prostitution meets the sexual needs of those currently not served in traditionally accepted institutions. For example, husbands who could not have sex with their wives during periods of pregnancy or long-term separation may solicit the services of a professional sex worker. As such, prostitution is seen to have a legitimate functional role: to support the institution of marriage. Proponents of this view are critical of the deviance perspective because of its inherent double standard: harsh treatment of prostitutes yet lenience toward the customer.

Recently, a scathing critique of both the deviance and free choice perspectives has arisen. Both the deviance and free choice perspectives assume that prostitutes have a say in their involvement; in the former, the prostitute is an antagonist and stigmatized, while in the latter, the prostitute is a protagonist and hailed. The third perspective dismisses both modes of reasoning and argues that prostitution, in whatever form, can never be voluntary.

Scholars who follow this reasoning find a strong correlation between childhood sexual abuse and involvement in prostitution Farley et al. As such, their involvement in prostitution is not based on a rational choice, contrary to the claims of the free choice perspective Farley et al.

Scholars who subscribe to this view also find that most prostitutes are deceived into joining prostitution. Many prostitutes are in dire economic conditions: they are usually jobless and in a state of poverty. This condition is especially true for many individuals in the developing countries Bamgbose, Offers for a job and other remunerations usually lure these individuals to accept invitations for work, which later turn out to be prostitution.

As such, the push of poverty and the deception involved usually translate into coerced prostitution Farley et al. Scholars who embrace this perspective identify macroconditions that systematically produce prostitution. This includes the system of patriarchy that treats women as second-class citizens Davis, , brazen capitalism that commercializes the female body Kuntay, , and religious-cultural beliefs that offer women as sex offerings Mensendiek, ; Orchard, For example, the tremendous growth of global sex tourism, where rest and recreational activities are packaged for male business executives in the developed countries to sexually exploit young women in the developing countries, is an example of how patriarchy, brazen capitalism, and perverted sexual beliefs sustain prostitution Mensendiek, The view that prostitution is a socially and morally deviant act implies that prostitutes are criminals and sinners.

One common effect of this perspective is the stigmatization of those involved in prostitution. This affects more than just the prostitute; rather, the stigmatization spreads to individuals associated with the prostitutes like their children and other family members. This negative labeling may also be the cause of long-term involvement in prostitution, as prostitutes who want out may have limited options.

For example, employers may not want former prostitutes working for them. The stigmatization associated with prostitution also makes prostitutes vulnerable to physical attacks. Likewise, considering that prostitution is illegal in most places, prostitution exchanges may be done in the streets, usually in the dark, where the security of the prostitutes against aggressive clients is compromised Kurtz et al.

In addition to this, some prostitutes are also dependent on illicit substances, thereby increasing their vulnerability. The deviance perspective also normalizes police misconduct against prostitutes. Police officers can abuse this discretionary power and may turn it to their personal advantage.

There is then little option for the prostitutes, given their marginalized states. Those who view prostitution as voluntary do not deny that prostitutes are stigmatized. In fact, they decry systematic efforts to stigmatize sex workers because they believe that involvement in prostitution has substantial positive effects.

Among these positive effects is the support provided by the sex workers to their families and other dependents. In developing countries, for example, sex workers in the urban areas send their earnings to sustain the needs of family and relatives in the rural areas. Related to this, prostitution as an industry provides income for the state.

When properly regulated, sex workers, pimps, and brothel owners can be taxed on their incomes. It also reduces the number of unemployed people and thus stimulates economic activity. Those who freely engage in prostitution are also found to have relatively high self-esteem Vanwesenbeeck, This is especially true for those involved in high-end prostitution, like the escort service providers who have control in choosing their clients Vanwesenbeeck, Others argue that due to its functional role Goodall, , prostitution sustains traditional institutions like marriages.

Many adolescent males who explore their sexuality employ the services of professional sex workers. Without these readily available services, adolescent sexual pressures may translate into sexual aggressions like rape and other sex crimes. Studies that subscribe to the perspective that prostitution is involuntary emphasize the mental, psychological, and physical harms inflicted on prostitutes. For example, they indicate that prostituted women experience posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD , anxiety, depressive symptoms, and other forms of trauma Farley, ; Farley et al.

Anecdotal accounts of young prostitutes show that they have sleepless nights and that their experiences of assault hound them in their sleep. Women saved from prostitution were also found to have difficulty assuming normal lives. The prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases is higher for those who use drugs Graaf et al. One of the common reasons mentioned is that customers are unwilling to use them. Other studies have documented the physical violence inflicted on prostituted women who run away from sex dens.

These women are usually victims of organized syndicates and are imprisoned in their place of work. Usually coming from rural areas of developing countries and exported to urban areas in a different country Bamgbose, ; Mukhopadhyay, , the prostituted women rarely get any social support.

Worse, they may run into police systems of the host country, which may be part of organized crime groups. Given the differing views on the causes and effects of prostitution, there are also competing views on how to deal with prostitution Phoenix, This is one arena of major contention among scholars, social activists, and policymakers.

Each group has compelling arguments. Outright criminalization is often the policy position of those who view prostitution from the social and moral deviance perspective. By adopting a strict policy against prostitution, the government is sending a strong deterrent message to would-be prostitutes, organizers of prostitution, and their customers.

This policy position holds that by keeping the streets clear of open solicitations of prostitution and other forms of street social deviance like drug peddling and panhandling, other forms of criminality can be eradicated as well. Proponents of outright criminalization argue that decriminalizing or legalizing prostitution will encourage it.

This will simply promote idleness, promiscuity, and risk of infections of sexually transmitted diseases. They also echo the arguments of those within the prostitution-asviolence camp that there is a fine line between forced and voluntary prostitution and that those who orchestrate involuntary prostitution pimps and businesses hide under the cloak of voluntary prostitution. Thus, this position calls for harsh penalties for prostitutes, clients, and third parties. Outright decriminalization and legalization is the policy position of those who view prostitution as a legitimate form of work and believe that sex between consenting adults is perfectly acceptable.

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