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Yoga term paper

This finding is in line with an earlier review of literature that reported females to be twice more vulnerable to stress than males in conditions or events of adversity [ 16 , 17 , 19 ]. A recent study investigating depression, anxiety and stress due to COVID19 also found higher stress among females than males [ 42 ]. The reason for higher stress in females can be argued to be partially due to increase in the household chores in the absence of any house helps during lockdown, specially for those also managing their professional work.

Further, it was also found that younger participants from age group 18—25 years reported feeling more depressed, and had lower peace of mind than older participants. A stressful situation such as fear of losing a job, uncertainty about the future can trigger anxiety, depression and is believed to affect the peace of mind.

The rationale for the association of stress and age is given by a study investigating differences in coping strategies across lifespan. The study suggests that older adults use coping strategies that are indicative of greater impulse control and they tend to evaluate conflict situations more positively than younger adults [ 16 — 18 ]. In another study it was found that older adults had lower levels of psychological distress and better dispositional coping compared to younger adults [ 43 ].

Perhaps the fear arising from uncertainties was dealt more efficiently by the older population, such that it affected their wellbeing positively. Interestingly, in this study the urban population reported higher perception of the COVID19 consequences than reported by the participants from rural or semi-urban areas. Perhaps, the urban population felt that COVID19 lockdown is going to affect them more adversely than the rural or semi-urban.

One of the reasons for this difference could be the job insecurity. Another plausible explanation for the difference in perception of the COVID 19 consequence can be derived from research that states that urban populations are reported more prone to psychological distress than their rural counterparts [ 44 ]. Since urban population consists of the majority of service class which is dependent on their jobs for livelihood, they are more likely to perceive graver consequences of COVID19 lockdown than their rural counterparts which comprise mostly of self- employed people.

A number of studies have reported physical and mental health benefits of yoga practice [ 45 — 47 ]. A healthy individual is found to perceive lower cognitive and emotional effects of the illness and a higher preventive control over the illness [ 9 ]. On the other hand, the participants who negatively perceived the COVID19 effects experienced greater levels of stress, anxiety or depression and lower wellbeing, also reported in a study on cancer patients [ 48 ].

Additionally, in light of the findings of the previous study, the notion that an individual is following a treatment or preventative control therapy positively affects the perception about how well the illness is understood and a sense of personal control over the illness [ 10 ]. In this study also yoga practitioners reported to have a better understanding and higher personal control over COVID Perhaps yoga practitioners felt that yoga is an effective therapy to cope with COVID19 both for physical as well as mental health.

In this study, it was also found that yoga practitioners had lower depression, lower stress, lower anxiety, higher wellbeing, and higher peace of mind than the other spiritual practitioners and non-practitioner group. Interestingly, the other spiritual practitioners were also found to have a significantly higher peace of mind than the non-practitioners. The other spiritual practitioner group also reported lower depression, anxiety, stress and higher wellbeing than the non-practitioner group, however the difference was not found to be statistically significant in this study.

Possibly the other spiritual practices; reading Holy Scriptures and rendering seva selfless service to the needy and destitute provided solace and peace of mind. A previous study has also reported a positive association between reading scriptures and positive affect and sukha happiness and a negative association with negative affect and dukkha unhappiness [ 32 ].

As for the non-practitioner group, participants that reportedly followed none of the yoga or spiritual practices, also reported the highest mean score of depression, anxiety and stress and lowest wellbeing and peace of mind. Results showed that there was no significant difference in resilience among the yoga practitioners, other spiritual practitioners and non-practitioner group.

Resilience has for long been debated by researchers to be a trait construct. In this study also resilience was found to be perhaps a more trait-like construct that unfolds over time in response to internal strengths and external supports across lifespan that foster positive outcomes in the face of adversity.

In this study, a significant effect of duration of practice was found on illness perception, and wellbeing related measures. Long term practitioners reported higher personal control and lower illness concern in contracting COVID19 than the mid-term or beginner group.

The general wellbeing was reported higher by the long term and mid- term practitioners than the beginners group. Further, the long term practitioners were found to have highest peace of mind, lowest depression and anxiety with no significant difference in the mid-term and the beginner group. In an earlier study, sustained practice of yoga is reported to enhance physical strength, promote and improve respiratory and cardiovascular function. The improved physiological functions are believed to reduce stress, anxiety, depression, and enhance overall well-being.

In line with the outcomes from this study, the regular practice has also been argued to lead changes in life perspective, self-awareness, a sense of balance between body and mind and generally a positive outlook to life that maintains general wellbeing even in difficulties [ 49 , 50 ].

Interestingly, in this study the beginner group, which had started practicing yoga during COVID19 lockdown, reported comparable mean scores of wellbeing and peace of mind with the mid-term practitioner groups. When compared with the non-practitioner group, the beginner group also had lower depression, anxiety, stress and higher wellbeing, peace of mind.

Perhaps the routine practice of yoga helped the beginner practitioners to calm the mind and maintain a positive disposition during difficult times of COVID19 lockdown. The outcomes reveal that yoga practice helps in illness perception about COVID19 such that the long- term practitioners feel a better sense of preventive control with a notion of being less prone to contracting COVID This perception of lesser vulnerability and a better sense of control over COVID19 is argued to generate lesser stress problems and promote higher wellbeing.

The emotion regulation strategy of cognitive reappraisal is further argued to breed a balanced and coherent understanding about the COVID The balanced representation of the unknown is argued to tone down the fear factor due to uncertainties caused by COVID19 lockdown thus decreasing the stress, anxiety and depression. Such a state of mind allows one to view an adverse situation with a more pragmatic approach and helps in maintaining a peaceful disposition. Altogether, the findings from this study shows that yoga is found to be an effective way to manage the stress, anxiety and depression due to and during COVID19 lockdown.

The evidence further supports that yoga could be used as a complementary and alternative therapy for the stress related problems due to COVID It may also help health practitioners in further promoting yoga-based interventions to facilitate the self-management of the mental health issues due to COVID The authors appreciates all those who participated in the study and helped to facilitate the research process. Browse Subject Areas?

Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract This cross-sectional research aims to study the effect of yoga practice on the illness perception, and wellbeing of healthy adults during 4—10 weeks of lockdown due to COVID19 outbreak. Funding: The author s received no specific funding for this work. Competing interests: No authors have competing interests. Introduction A report by the World Economic Forum estimates that about 2.

Wellbeing has also been shown to positively correlate with resilience [ 16 ] Previous research has suggested that yoga can be used as a non-pharmaceutical measure or as a complement to drug therapy for treatment or cure of modern epidemic diseases like mental stress, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [ 17 ].

Materials and methods In this research three groups; yoga practitioners, other spiritual practices and non-practitioners were examined for the differences in the measures of illness perception and wellbeing. Participants The sample consisted of a total of adults, out of which Materials Brief Illness Perception. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. Scale of General Wellbeing. Brief Resilience Scale. Peace of Mind Scale. Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Procedure Preparation for the study. Data collection and analysis The cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey.

Results Descriptive analysis The descriptive statistics of all the dependent variables were analyzed. Download: PPT. Table 1. Goodness of fit statistics for confirmatory factor analysis. Effect of yoga and other spiritual practice on illness perception, and wellbeing measures Before conducting the MANOVA, Pearson correlation was performed between all dependent variables to test the multivariate assumption that the dependent variables would be correlated with each other in the moderate range [ 40 ].

Table 2. Table 3. Summary of the post hoc comparison for the three groups- yoga practitioners, other spiritual practitioner and non- practitioner groups. Emotion regulation strategies ERQ. Effect of duration of yoga practice on illness perception and wellbeing measures The MANOVA was conducted to test the hypothesis that there would be one or more mean differences in the wellbeing for different groups of yoga practitioners differentiated based on the number of practice years.

Table 4. One-way ANOVA with wellbeing measures as the dependent variable and yoga practitioner groups based on the duration of practice as the independent variable. Table 5. Summary of the post hoc analysis for the groups based on duration of yoga practice- long-term, mid- term, and beginner groups.

Emotion regulation measure ERQ. Discussion and conclusions The aim of present research was to study the effect of practice of yoga and other spiritual practices on the illness perception, wellbeing measures and emotion regulation strategies for adults during COVID19 lockdown. Supporting information. S1 Table. Acknowledgments The authors appreciates all those who participated in the study and helped to facilitate the research process.

References 1. Available: Van Hoof, E. In World Economic Forum Vol. Indian Journal of Psychiatry. Boyraz G, Legros DN. Journal of Loss and Trauma. View Article Google Scholar 4. Changing illness perceptions after myocardial infarction: an early intervention randomized controlled trial. Psychosom Med. View Article Google Scholar 6. Type D personality and illness perceptions in myocardial infarction patients. J Psychosom Res. Common sense representations of common illnesses.

Health Psychology. View Article Google Scholar 8. The brief illness perception questionnaire. Available: Vos R. Disentangling the effect of illness perceptions on health status in people with type 2 diabetes after an acute coronary event. BMC family practice, 19 1 , Factors influencing illness representations and perceived adherence in haemophilic patients: a pilot study. Grossi E. Cult Med Psychiatry 43, 4— Selamu M. Davis T. View Article Google Scholar Zammuner VL, Galli C.

Wellbeing: causes and consequences of emotion regulation in work settings. Int Rev Psychiatry. Executive coaching enhances goal attainment, resilience and workplace well-being: a randomised controlled study. The Journal of Positive Psychology. Woodyard C. Exploring the therapeutic effects of yoga and its ability to increase quality of life.

International journal of yoga, 4 2 , 49— Bhatia T. Nagendra H. International journal of yoga, 13 2 , 87— Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Physical and perceptual benefits of yoga asana practice: results of a pilot study. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. Goyal R. Effect of pranayama on rate pressure product in mild hypertensives.

Singh K. Cross-Cultural Advancements in Positive Psychology, vol 6. Singh K, Sahni P. Swadhyaya Scale: An Indian Perspective. The International Journal of Indian Psychology. Religiousness and mental health: a review.

Braz J Psychiatry. Exploring spirituality with older people: 1 rich experiences. J Relig Spiritual Aging. Asian J Psychiatr. Behaviour Research and Therapy. Available: Longo Y. The scales of general well-being SGWB. Personality and Individual Differences, , — The brief resilience scale: assessing the ability to bounce back. Int J Behav Med.

Psychometric properties of hindi version of peace of mind, harmony in life and sat-chit-ananda scales. Indian J Clin Psychol. Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol. Iglewicz B, Hoaglin DC. Use of Boxplots for Process Evaluation. Journal of Quality Technology. Geuens M, De Pelsmacker P. Developing a Short Affect Intensity Scale. Psychol Rep. Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling.

Nonetheless, results for the included studies demonstrate many of the numerous therapeutic effects, benefits and profound healing power of yoga. Rapidly emerging in the Western world as a discipline for integrating the mind and body into union and harmony, when adopted as a way of life, yoga improves physical, mental, intellectual and spiritual health. Yoga offers an effective method of managing and reducing stress, anxiety and depression and numerous studies demonstrate the efficacy of yoga on mood related disorders.

Currently, treatment for anxiety and depression involves mostly psychological and pharmacological interventions; however, mind-body interventions are becoming increasingly popular as a means to reduce stress in individuals. Yoga, a form of mind-body exercise, has become an increasingly widespread therapy used to maintain wellness, and alleviate a range of health problems and ailments.

Yoga should be considered as a complementary therapy or alternative method for medical therapy in the treatment of stress, anxiety, depression, and other mood disorders as it has been shown to create a greater sense of well-being, increase feelings of relaxation, improve self-confidence and body image, improve efficiency, better interpersonal relationships, increase attentiveness, lower irritability, and encourage an optimistic outlook on life. Researchers are only beginning to understand how disciplines such as yoga promote personal growth, health and well-being.

By acknowledging the unity of mind, body and spirit, mind-body fitness programs i. Health care professionals, health educators and the like, need to be aware of the potential of yoga as an important component of a personal wellness plan. While no concrete guidelines exist regarding the frequency of practice, the more you practice the more you benefit. Yoga is a personalized practice and as such, frequency and duration are personal questions with individual answers.

Practice should happen with wisdom and should be modified to meet individual needs and goals. Individuals should practice as often as possible, especially in the beginning. The length of the induction phase will vary depending on an individual's initial level of fitness and health status; the more difficult yoga is for someone in the beginning the more their body needs it. While modern medicine has the ability in many cases to heal physical diseases and alleviate psychological disorders, it is argued that a purely medical approach is far less effective in healing the emotional, intellectual, and personality layers of the human entity.

There exists an indisputable connection between a person's overall physical and mental health and the inner peace and well-being yoga is designed to achieve. Yoga suspends the fluctuations of the mind and by acting consciously, we live better and suffer less. Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Int J Yoga v. Int J Yoga. Catherine Woodyard.

Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. E-mail: ude. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The objective of this study is to assess the findings of selected articles regarding the therapeutic effects of yoga and to provide a comprehensive review of the benefits of regular yoga practice.

Keywords: Alternative therapy, depression, pain, quality of life, therapeutic yoga. METHODS In order to locate research studies and interventions that examined the therapeutic effects of yoga, databases were searched through Google Scholar via a universities web browser.

RESULTS Mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, stress, and insomnia are among the most common reasons for individuals to seek treatment with complementary therapies such as yoga. Therapeutic application of iyengar yoga for healing chronic low back pain.

Int J Yoga Ther. Lasater J. The heart of pantajali. Yoga J. Raub JA. Psychophysiologic effects of hatha yoga on musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary function: A literature review. J Altern Complement Med. Collins C. Yoga: Intuition, preventive medicine, and treatment. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. McCall T. Yoga as Medicine. The yoga of healing: Exploring yoga's holistic model for health and well-being.

New York: Alford A. Knoff Company; Yoga the iyengar way. Benefits, barriers, and cues to action of yoga practice: A focus group approach. Am J Health Behav. Arora S, Bhattacharjee J. Modulation of immune response in stress by yoga. Maehle G. Ashtanga Yoga: Practice and Philosophy. Stress management: A randomized study of cognitive behavioural therapy and yoga.

Cogn Behav Ther. Marlatt GA. Buddhist philosophy and the treatment of addictive behavior. Cogn Behav Pract. Effect of yoga on cardiovascular system in subjects above 40 years. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. Randomized, controlled, six-month trial of yoga in healthy seniors: Effects on cognition and quality of life.

Altern Ther Health Med. Reducing addictions via the self-soothing effects of yoga. Bull Menninger Clin. Psychological adjustment and sleep quality in a randomized trial of effects of a tibetan yoga intervention in patients with lymphoma. Iyengar yoga for treating symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knees: A pilot study.

Yoga for depression: The research evidence. J Affect Disord. Effects of yoga on depression and anxiety of women. Complement Ther Clin Pract. Birkel DA, Edgren L. Hatha yoga: Improved vital capacity of college students. Antidepressant efficacy and hormonal effects of sudarshana kriya yoga SKY in alcohol dependent individuals. J Affect Dis. A yoga intervention for young adults with elevated symptoms of depression.

The impact of modified hatha yoga on chronic low back pain: A pilot study. Effect of iyengar yoga therapy for chronic low back pain. Effects of hatha yoga and omkar meditation on cardiorespiratory performance, psychologic profile, and melatonin secretion. Boucher S. Yoga for Cancer. Yoga for women with metastatic breast cancer: Results from a pilot study.

J Pain Symptom Manage. Effects of an integrated yoga programme on chemotherapy-induced nausea and emesis in breast cancer patients. Eur Cancer Care Engl ; 16 — Manjunath NK, Telles S.

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Help with my cheap critical analysis essay on civil war The average of all the scores in each subscale of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression are used for analysis. This paper describes the development of a yoga program aimed to reduce burden and yoga term paper coping of family caregivers of inpatients with schizophrenia in India. Its periodicity ranges from 25 persuasive essay on banning pit bulls to 8 h. Context and Aims: Effects of practicing yoga in diabetic mellitus DM patients have been identified to improve in control of blood glucose levels. The articles describing interventions that utilized yoga as a means to achieve some health outcome were chosen for further review. Before conducting a series of follow up ANOVAs, the homogeneity of variance assumption was tested for all the dependent variables. Download the Mobile App.
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Therefore, yoga refers to a certain state of consciousness as well as to methods that help one reach that goal or state of union with the divine. Many people confuse yoga with physical contortion, or think it is a religion. Yoga is none of these things.

Yoga is basically a way of life which enables one to conserve energy and coordinate the power of body, mind, consciousness, which keeps the body healthy and the mind relaxed. Yoga teaches guidelines and values to follow, and practices for purification for the body, mind and spirit. It is the exercise of discipline and the practice of purification. The spiritual tradition of yoga training has been passed down from generation to generation. In the last one hundred years, yoga has become available to the public as never before, presented through hundreds of centers throughout the world, through classes, workshops, videos, books, audio tapes and even television programs.

Page 2 There are many different yogas. Yoga can be simplified into five principles. The second principle is proper breathing ;yoga teaches people how to use the lungs to their maximum capacity and how to control the breath.

Breathing increases vitality and mental clarity. The third principle is proper relaxation ;by relaxing deeply all the muscles, the yogi can thoroughly rejuvenate his or her nervous system and attain a deep sense of inner peace. The fourth principle is proper diet ;besides being responsibel for building oneselves physical body, the foods a person eats profoundly affects the mind. The last principle is positive thinking ;people should exert to entertain positive and creative thoughts as these will contribute to vibrant health and a peaceful, joyful mind.

The four paths of yoga are Jnana Yoga ;this is the yoga of wisdom and develops the Intellect or Will, Bhakti Yoga ;the yoga of devotion which opens the heart, Karma Yoga ;the path of action of selfless service and Raja Yoga ;the royal or psychological , which involves the mind.

Hatha Yoga, which is a branch of Raja Yoga, is one of the best-known yoga practices of western society. This yoga is a path to self awareness. It consists of three components which are meditation, poses and breathing. Hatha Yoga The rest of the paper is available free of charge to our registered users. The registration process just couldn't be easier. Log in or register now.

Yoga has been around for centuries, but it has recently increased in popularity. Yoga originated in India and refers to traditional physical and mental disciplines. There are 5 major branches of yoga in the Hindu philosophy, they include: Raja yoga, Karma yoga, Jnana yoga, Bhakti yoga, and Hatha yoga Yoga. Yoga goals vary and range from improving health to achieving Moksha Yoga.

Paradise is believed. Yoga, as defined in America, is known to be a mind-body technique originating from Asia. It is readily available at fitness facilities, on DVD, and even by means of virtual instructors. Today people may practice yoga for a variety of reasons such as; addressing musculoskeletal concerns, physical, mental, and emotional health. Albeit yoga gaining increased popularity, its context does not stem far beyond its ability to reduce stress. Yoga originated in ancient India as a spiritual practice.

In Sanskrit. Nowadays, one means of achieving that goal is through yoga. Though the use of breathing exercises, meditation and strength postures, people have actually lowered their blood pressure, aches and pains fade away as their body becomes more athletic.

Whether you're a pro athlete or someone just starting to get into shape, the strengthening and stretching positions and motions yoga puts you through is an excellent start for staying, and becoming, an athlete. When first. Hatha Yoga focuses on asanas, postures and exercises, and breathing techniques, pranayamas to improve physical and mental health. Hinduism is a religion that focuses on the physical and the mental.

The physical part of Hinduism is done through the use of yoga. There are many types of yoga and many different forms of yoga. In a world full of skepticism towards the alternative, Yoga has created a place of growing belief for itself. As Timothy McCall, M. Home Page Yoga. Free Yoga Essays and Papers. Satisfactory Essays. Page 1 of 50 - About essays. Good Essays.

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Various studies have shown that the technique is simple and cost effective and can be used as a complementary therapy, together with ongoing conventional treatments, to help people suffering from extreme levels of stress, anxiety, and other physical problems. Studies have demonstrated that SK can play an important role in promoting a healthy lifestyle by improving immunity, antioxidant status, hormonal status, and brain functioning. Through available scientific evidence and research, the current article aims to review the complementary role of rhythmic breathing ie, SK as a practical and effective tool to alleviate stress, improve health A randomized controlled dosing study of Iyengar yoga and coherent breathing for the treatment of major depressive disorder: Impact on suicidal ideation and safety findings.

Yoga interventions offer promise for the treatment of major depressive disorder MDD , yet their safety and potential impact on suicidal ideation SI have not been well documented. This study evaluated the safety of a randomized This study evaluated the safety of a randomized controlled dose-finding trial of Iyengar yoga plus coherent breathing for individuals with MDD, as well as the potential effects of the intervention on SI without intent.

The LDG included two min yoga classes plus three min homework sessions weekly. The HDG offered three min classes plus four min homework sessions weekly. Thirty-two individuals with MDD were randomized, of which 30 completed the protocol. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of an intervention of Iyengar yoga and coherent breathing at five breaths per minute on depressive symptoms and to determine optimal intervention yoga dosing for future studies in The aims of this study were to assess the effects of an intervention of Iyengar yoga and coherent breathing at five breaths per minute on depressive symptoms and to determine optimal intervention yoga dosing for future studies in individuals with major depressive disorder MDD.

Subjects were randomized to the high-dose group HDG or low-dose group LDG for a week intervention of three or two intervention classes per week, respectively. The intervention included min classes plus homework. BDI-II scores dec A multicomponent yoga-based, breath intervention program as an adjunctive treatment in patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder with or without comorbidities.

Effects of yoga on the autonomic nervous system, gamma-aminobutyric-acid, and allostasis in epilepsy, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. A theory is proposed to explain the benefits of yoga practices in diverse, frequently comorbid medical conditions based on the concept that yoga practices reduce allostatic load in stress response systems such that optimal homeostasis is A theory is proposed to explain the benefits of yoga practices in diverse, frequently comorbid medical conditions based on the concept that yoga practices reduce allostatic load in stress response systems such that optimal homeostasis is restored.

It is hypothesized that stress induces 1 imbalance of the autonomic nervous system ANS with decreased parasympathetic nervous system PNS and increased sympathetic nervous system SNS activity, 2 underactivity of the gamma amino-butyric acid GABA system, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter system, and 3 increased allostatic load.

It is further hypothesized that yoga-based practices 4 correct underactivity of the PNS and GABA systems in part through stimulation of the vagus nerves, the main peripheral pathway of the PNS, and 5 reduce allostatic load. Depression, epilepsy, post traumatic stress disorder PTSD , and chronic pain exemplify medical conditions that are exacerbated by stress, have low heart rate variability HRV and low GABAergic activity, respond to pharmacologic agents that increase activity of the GABA system, and show symptom improvement in response to yoga-based interventions.

The observation that treatment resistant cases of epilepsy and depression respond to vagal nerve stimulation corroborates the need to correct PNS underactivity as part of a successful treatment plan in some cases. According to the proposed theory, the decreased PNS and GABAergic activity that underlies stress-related disorders can be corrected by yoga practices resulting in amelioration of disease symptoms.

This has far-reaching implications for the integration of yoga-based practices in the treatment of a broad array of disorders exacerbated by stress. Yoga Breathing, Meditation, and Longevity. D is known as the golden age of the medieval Indian history. All historian of modern age dedicated their energies to prove this fact that Shah Jahan was the master of the wealthiest Empire of the world All historian of modern age dedicated their energies to prove this fact that Shah Jahan was the master of the wealthiest Empire of the world.

As far as the matter of wealth and territorial boundaries are concerned this is a fact that he ruled on the largest Empire of the world in Middle Ages. This Empire was the legacy of his father in which he did not contribute even a single inch. The wealth he had used for his personal aspirations must have been used for the welfare of the people.

These questions are generally avoided by the historians. Taj Mahal, the seventh wonder of the world made the life of common people miserable because they had to pay many taxes for the satisfaction of architectural sense of Shah Jahan. This paper attempts to find out those realities which may challenge this myth. Yoga Research: Past, Present and Future. Sri Acharya Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani.

A contribution of fundamental importance on the most critical aspects of Yoga in our time of crisis and degeneration. Illuminating reflections to which every sincere researcher of Yoga, or of the Sanatana Dharma is called to meditate. It is imperative that advances in medicine include the wholistic approach of Yoga to face the current challenges in health care.

The antiquity of Yoga must be united with the innovations of modern medicine to improve quality of life throughout the world. While modern medicine has a lot to offer humankind in its treatment and management of acute diseases, accidents and communicable diseases, Yoga has a lot to offer in terms of preventive, promotive and rehabilitative methods in addition to many management methods to tackle modern illnesses.

Numerous studies have been reported in recent decades on the psycho-physiological and biochemical changes occurring following the practice of Yoga. We discuss some of the researched benefits to facilitate an understanding of how Yoga works at least at the physical level, though we are yet to research and understand subtler effects of Yoga.

The positive benefits of Yoga research are of vital significance and an understanding of how the various practices work in different conditions and in normal situations are of great value for both the science of Yoga as well as for the world of medicine. Yoga therapists can benefit a lot by a scientific understanding of Yoga postures and other techniques. This will bring about a rational approach to Yoga therapy rather than a haphazard application of individualistic knowledge.

Yoga therapy is being used both in conjunction with modern medicine or alternative systems of medicine as well as on its own in various centers. Many studies are badly constructed and many-a-time we find that the Yoga practices performed by the patients have no real relation to Yoga at all. Ananda B Bhavanani.

Mindfulness, self-compassion, anxiety and depression measures in South Australian yoga participants: implications for designing a yoga intervention. The aim of the study was to examine the demographic and practice characteristics of current yoga participants and assess their levels of mindfulness, self-compassion, stress, anxiety, depression and wellbeing and implications for The aim of the study was to examine the demographic and practice characteristics of current yoga participants and assess their levels of mindfulness, self-compassion, stress, anxiety, depression and wellbeing and implications for designing a yoga intervention.

A web-based survey was administered to South Australian yoga teachers and students from September to February Results showed a positive correlation with mindfulness and self-compassion and negative correlation with Depression, Anxiety and Stress scores with months of practice. Percentage analysis of the additional item on the three most important causal factors in rank order of stress during lockdown revealed that majority of the participants reported isolation due to lockdown Other reasons of stress included; media reports and inadequate information 7.

Interestingly, 8. A gender wise analysis of the causal factors of stress shows that females higher percentage of females Whereas, financial insecurity was ranked as major cause of stress by more males Means plot is shown in Fig 2. Means plot is shown in Fig 3. Means Plot for Emotion regulation i Cognitive appraisal ii Expressive suppression for three practitioner groups. The MANOVA was conducted to test the hypothesis that there would be one or more mean differences in the wellbeing for different groups of yoga practitioners differentiated based on the number of practice years.

Before conducting a series of follow up ANOVAs, the homogeneity of variance assumption was tested for all the dependent variables. A series of one-way ANOVA was conducted followed by a series of post hoc analyses Tukey's HSD were performed to examine the individual mean difference comparisons across all three groups of spiritual practitioners and all the dependent variables. The results revealed statistically significant comparisons as listed in Table 5.

Means Plot shown in Fig 4. There was no statistically significant difference between the mid-term and beginner practitioner group. Means plot is shown in Fig 5. Means plot for Wellbeing measures i Depression; ii Anxiety; iii Stress; iv Wellbeing; v Peace of Mind and vi Resilience for three yoga practitioner groups based on duration of the yoga practice.

Means plot is shown in Fig 6. The aim of present research was to study the effect of practice of yoga and other spiritual practices on the illness perception, wellbeing measures and emotion regulation strategies for adults during COVID19 lockdown. Additionally, the effect of demographic variables such as age, gender, qualification, working status and place of residence was also analyzed.

The confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the factor structure for the study sample, which strengthens the findings of this research. The results examining the demographic variables demonstrate that females reported higher illness concern and were emotionally more impacted than males by the COVID19 lockdown. This finding is in line with an earlier review of literature that reported females to be twice more vulnerable to stress than males in conditions or events of adversity [ 16 , 17 , 19 ].

A recent study investigating depression, anxiety and stress due to COVID19 also found higher stress among females than males [ 42 ]. The reason for higher stress in females can be argued to be partially due to increase in the household chores in the absence of any house helps during lockdown, specially for those also managing their professional work.

Further, it was also found that younger participants from age group 18—25 years reported feeling more depressed, and had lower peace of mind than older participants. A stressful situation such as fear of losing a job, uncertainty about the future can trigger anxiety, depression and is believed to affect the peace of mind. The rationale for the association of stress and age is given by a study investigating differences in coping strategies across lifespan.

The study suggests that older adults use coping strategies that are indicative of greater impulse control and they tend to evaluate conflict situations more positively than younger adults [ 16 — 18 ]. In another study it was found that older adults had lower levels of psychological distress and better dispositional coping compared to younger adults [ 43 ].

Perhaps the fear arising from uncertainties was dealt more efficiently by the older population, such that it affected their wellbeing positively. Interestingly, in this study the urban population reported higher perception of the COVID19 consequences than reported by the participants from rural or semi-urban areas. Perhaps, the urban population felt that COVID19 lockdown is going to affect them more adversely than the rural or semi-urban.

One of the reasons for this difference could be the job insecurity. Another plausible explanation for the difference in perception of the COVID 19 consequence can be derived from research that states that urban populations are reported more prone to psychological distress than their rural counterparts [ 44 ]. Since urban population consists of the majority of service class which is dependent on their jobs for livelihood, they are more likely to perceive graver consequences of COVID19 lockdown than their rural counterparts which comprise mostly of self- employed people.

A number of studies have reported physical and mental health benefits of yoga practice [ 45 — 47 ]. A healthy individual is found to perceive lower cognitive and emotional effects of the illness and a higher preventive control over the illness [ 9 ].

On the other hand, the participants who negatively perceived the COVID19 effects experienced greater levels of stress, anxiety or depression and lower wellbeing, also reported in a study on cancer patients [ 48 ]. Additionally, in light of the findings of the previous study, the notion that an individual is following a treatment or preventative control therapy positively affects the perception about how well the illness is understood and a sense of personal control over the illness [ 10 ].

In this study also yoga practitioners reported to have a better understanding and higher personal control over COVID Perhaps yoga practitioners felt that yoga is an effective therapy to cope with COVID19 both for physical as well as mental health.

In this study, it was also found that yoga practitioners had lower depression, lower stress, lower anxiety, higher wellbeing, and higher peace of mind than the other spiritual practitioners and non-practitioner group. Interestingly, the other spiritual practitioners were also found to have a significantly higher peace of mind than the non-practitioners. The other spiritual practitioner group also reported lower depression, anxiety, stress and higher wellbeing than the non-practitioner group, however the difference was not found to be statistically significant in this study.

Possibly the other spiritual practices; reading Holy Scriptures and rendering seva selfless service to the needy and destitute provided solace and peace of mind. A previous study has also reported a positive association between reading scriptures and positive affect and sukha happiness and a negative association with negative affect and dukkha unhappiness [ 32 ]. As for the non-practitioner group, participants that reportedly followed none of the yoga or spiritual practices, also reported the highest mean score of depression, anxiety and stress and lowest wellbeing and peace of mind.

Results showed that there was no significant difference in resilience among the yoga practitioners, other spiritual practitioners and non-practitioner group. Resilience has for long been debated by researchers to be a trait construct. In this study also resilience was found to be perhaps a more trait-like construct that unfolds over time in response to internal strengths and external supports across lifespan that foster positive outcomes in the face of adversity.

In this study, a significant effect of duration of practice was found on illness perception, and wellbeing related measures. Long term practitioners reported higher personal control and lower illness concern in contracting COVID19 than the mid-term or beginner group. The general wellbeing was reported higher by the long term and mid- term practitioners than the beginners group. Further, the long term practitioners were found to have highest peace of mind, lowest depression and anxiety with no significant difference in the mid-term and the beginner group.

In an earlier study, sustained practice of yoga is reported to enhance physical strength, promote and improve respiratory and cardiovascular function. The improved physiological functions are believed to reduce stress, anxiety, depression, and enhance overall well-being. In line with the outcomes from this study, the regular practice has also been argued to lead changes in life perspective, self-awareness, a sense of balance between body and mind and generally a positive outlook to life that maintains general wellbeing even in difficulties [ 49 , 50 ].

Interestingly, in this study the beginner group, which had started practicing yoga during COVID19 lockdown, reported comparable mean scores of wellbeing and peace of mind with the mid-term practitioner groups. When compared with the non-practitioner group, the beginner group also had lower depression, anxiety, stress and higher wellbeing, peace of mind. Perhaps the routine practice of yoga helped the beginner practitioners to calm the mind and maintain a positive disposition during difficult times of COVID19 lockdown.

The outcomes reveal that yoga practice helps in illness perception about COVID19 such that the long- term practitioners feel a better sense of preventive control with a notion of being less prone to contracting COVID This perception of lesser vulnerability and a better sense of control over COVID19 is argued to generate lesser stress problems and promote higher wellbeing.

The emotion regulation strategy of cognitive reappraisal is further argued to breed a balanced and coherent understanding about the COVID The balanced representation of the unknown is argued to tone down the fear factor due to uncertainties caused by COVID19 lockdown thus decreasing the stress, anxiety and depression.

Such a state of mind allows one to view an adverse situation with a more pragmatic approach and helps in maintaining a peaceful disposition. Altogether, the findings from this study shows that yoga is found to be an effective way to manage the stress, anxiety and depression due to and during COVID19 lockdown. The evidence further supports that yoga could be used as a complementary and alternative therapy for the stress related problems due to COVID It may also help health practitioners in further promoting yoga-based interventions to facilitate the self-management of the mental health issues due to COVID The authors appreciates all those who participated in the study and helped to facilitate the research process.

Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract This cross-sectional research aims to study the effect of yoga practice on the illness perception, and wellbeing of healthy adults during 4—10 weeks of lockdown due to COVID19 outbreak.

Funding: The author s received no specific funding for this work. Competing interests: No authors have competing interests. Introduction A report by the World Economic Forum estimates that about 2. Wellbeing has also been shown to positively correlate with resilience [ 16 ] Previous research has suggested that yoga can be used as a non-pharmaceutical measure or as a complement to drug therapy for treatment or cure of modern epidemic diseases like mental stress, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [ 17 ].

Materials and methods In this research three groups; yoga practitioners, other spiritual practices and non-practitioners were examined for the differences in the measures of illness perception and wellbeing. Participants The sample consisted of a total of adults, out of which Materials Brief Illness Perception. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. Scale of General Wellbeing. Brief Resilience Scale.

Peace of Mind Scale. Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Procedure Preparation for the study. Data collection and analysis The cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey. Results Descriptive analysis The descriptive statistics of all the dependent variables were analyzed. Download: PPT. Table 1. Goodness of fit statistics for confirmatory factor analysis. Effect of yoga and other spiritual practice on illness perception, and wellbeing measures Before conducting the MANOVA, Pearson correlation was performed between all dependent variables to test the multivariate assumption that the dependent variables would be correlated with each other in the moderate range [ 40 ].

Table 2. Table 3. Summary of the post hoc comparison for the three groups- yoga practitioners, other spiritual practitioner and non- practitioner groups. Emotion regulation strategies ERQ. Effect of duration of yoga practice on illness perception and wellbeing measures The MANOVA was conducted to test the hypothesis that there would be one or more mean differences in the wellbeing for different groups of yoga practitioners differentiated based on the number of practice years.

Table 4. One-way ANOVA with wellbeing measures as the dependent variable and yoga practitioner groups based on the duration of practice as the independent variable. Table 5. Summary of the post hoc analysis for the groups based on duration of yoga practice- long-term, mid- term, and beginner groups. Emotion regulation measure ERQ. Discussion and conclusions The aim of present research was to study the effect of practice of yoga and other spiritual practices on the illness perception, wellbeing measures and emotion regulation strategies for adults during COVID19 lockdown.

Supporting information. S1 Table. Acknowledgments The authors appreciates all those who participated in the study and helped to facilitate the research process. References 1. Available: Van Hoof, E. In World Economic Forum Vol. Indian Journal of Psychiatry. Boyraz G, Legros DN. Journal of Loss and Trauma. View Article Google Scholar 4. Changing illness perceptions after myocardial infarction: an early intervention randomized controlled trial.

Psychosom Med. View Article Google Scholar 6. Type D personality and illness perceptions in myocardial infarction patients. J Psychosom Res. Common sense representations of common illnesses. Health Psychology. View Article Google Scholar 8. The brief illness perception questionnaire. Available: Vos R. Disentangling the effect of illness perceptions on health status in people with type 2 diabetes after an acute coronary event.

BMC family practice, 19 1 , Factors influencing illness representations and perceived adherence in haemophilic patients: a pilot study. Grossi E. Cult Med Psychiatry 43, 4— Selamu M. Davis T. View Article Google Scholar Zammuner VL, Galli C. Wellbeing: causes and consequences of emotion regulation in work settings.

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Goyal R. Effect of pranayama on rate pressure product in mild hypertensives. Singh K. Cross-Cultural Advancements in Positive Psychology, vol 6. Singh K, Sahni P. Swadhyaya Scale: An Indian Perspective. The International Journal of Indian Psychology. Religiousness and mental health: a review.

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