Term paper format pdf. You should first write a rough draft in the format below. Regardless of the nature of your research if you are writing a paper an outline will help you to not only organize your thoughts but also serve as the template for your entire paper. Notes bibliography style based upon kate turabians a manual for writers of term papers theses and dissertations 7th ed copies available at main and science library reference and reserve desks call number lb t8 Sixth term examination papers in mathematics often referred to as step are university admissions tests for undergraduate mathematics courses developed by the university of cambridge.
Step papers are typically taken post interview as part of a conditional offer of an undergraduate place. What is pdfathe pdfa or portable document format archival is a format designed as a preservation format for digital records particularly documents. Well tell granny to get. A map for navigating climatetragedy iflas occasional paper 2 wwwiflasinfo july 27th professor jem bendell ba hons phd occasional papers. How to write a term paper. Format for a research paper. The format though can also be used for scanned documents.
See Baugh and Cable 99 ff. Geipel 14 refers to these as structure words, whereas Baugh and Cable as well as Kastovsky prefer the label form words. However we might call these items, it is a well-known fact that they are usually not borrowed from other languages cf. Baugh and Cable This is obviously because their function is highly grammatical, which means that they belong to the basic grammatical construct of a language. Form words from one language are not often borrowed into another because their semantic correspondents either already exist in the other language, 3 or if they do not, the other language would have to change its grammatical character in order to borrow them.
However little we might know about the relationship between the AngloSaxons and the Vikings, the fact that grammatical items from ON were borrowed into OE suggests that the two peoples must have had close contact for a long time, as Geipel 14 conjectures: The assimilation by one language of such intimate items as 'structure words' i. Moreover, this borrowing of words with grammatical functions also strengthens the hypothesis mentioned above, namely that the two languages were mutually intelligible at least to some extent.
Smith concludes that the loadwords from ON must have been treated sociolinguistically as equivalent to items of English lexis, and thus available for use within the core vocabulary of the language, and this is indeed only possible if there is a certain degree of intelligibility. Now, if this kind of borrowing so rarely takes place, what actually made it happen in this case? One possible reason for the replacement of hie by they could be the fact that hie is fairly similar in form to the OE third person singular pronouns usually spelled he he and heo or hio she , and this similarity extends to the other cases as well e.
Thus the Scandinavian th- forms were possibly  felt to be less subject to confusion with forms of the singular, as Baugh and Cable put it. This theory of the 3. One of Smiths further observations is that they advanced [i. Of course, wherever linguistic changes take place over time, a certain amount of synchronic variation is to be expected.
In our case, this means that in a lot of mediaeval texts we may expect to find they used in the nominative case and the indigenous forms in the other cases. In fact, Blake states that [b]y the end of the fourteenth century the use of they as the subject was fairly regular, and their was the dominant, but not the exclusive, form of the genitive, whereas in the oblique case h em was as common as them.
We should not, by the way, be surprised to find the period of linguistic change extending even far beyond the Norman Conquest, by which time the period of actual contact between English and ON was over. We must remember that we are dealing only with written texts, and that we do not know how different spoken OE actually already was from the language used in the texts when they were written.
However, a common feature of linguistic changes is that they first occur in the spoken language and do not make their way into written language until later. Another reason for the surprisingly little number of th- pronouns in OE is the fact that most surviving texts from this period were written in the West Saxon dialect, which was spoken in the region of England that was geographically the most distant from the Danelaw, where the th- forms probably occurred first.
Therefore, what we need to do first is to frame research questions or hypotheses on which to ground our analysis. The studies of Blake 34; and Smith f. The inclusion of geographical issues could have been made in a longer paper. They will probably start occurring sometime after A. Then, over the course of late OE and throughout ME times, the h- forms will probably be gradually replaced by the thforms.
In the case of hie vs. Table 1 gives an overview of these sub-periods from Kyt As mentioned in the introduction, this research will be limited to the time up to A. Now, simply typing hie or they into WordSmith would have yielded inaccurate. Michell and Robinson 18 , for example, provide two different spelling variants for each form in their Guide to Old English. However, a glance into the OED shows that there are in fact between ten and thirty different historical spelling variants for all six of our words.
Creating such text files saves a lot of time: Instead of typing each spelling variant individually into WordSmith and then adding up all the results, WordSmith can simply be told to search for any word in the text file, which in the case of the word they means that only one search will have to be run instead of twenty-four. During this process I came upon another problem: Some of the instances that were found in the corpus were in fact completely different words and not the variants of the words looked for e.
However, in nearly all cases, the context of the findings confirmed my suspicion that these represented the third person singular pronoun her the same as in PDE and the adverb here, respectively. In order to attain more accurate results, I decided to eliminate these ambiguous spellings from the text files and have WordSmith work with the now slightly abbreviated word lists.
A first glance at table 2 already shows that, as was to be expected, there are a lot of zeroes in the lower left corner of the table, which means that the search for the Scandinavian th- forms in early OE has yielded no results. In fact, the th- forms do not occur in high numbers before ME1 i. Furthermore, if we take a look at the upper right corner, we will see that of the three h- forms, at least hie had been completely replaced by they by the end of ME times.
These trends become more easily visible if we turn our data into graphs, compare figures 1 and 2 below. It is easy to see that the curves for the h- forms in figure 1 mostly reach their peaks in the left half of the chart the hem curve being an exception here; its peak is reached at ME3 , whereas the curves for the th- forms in figure 2 stay fairly close to 0 on the y-axis and then dart up after ME2.
Additionally, the two charts nicely show the relatively quick replacement of the nominative form hie through they: The blue curve in figure 1 is the only one to reach the 0 line on the y-axis, and in figure 2, the blue curve is clearly the one that contains the steepest rise. Another fact that strikes the eye is that, especially in figure 1, the quantities of instances seem to fluctuate from one time period to the next, e. This has to do with the fact that we are dealing with the absolute numbers of instances.
From the manual to the HC Kyt , we learn that the overall number of words in the texts from the different sub-periods is not always the same; in fact, the excerpts from the earlier periods are actually quite unequal in length: Sub-period. ME1 ME2 94,33 50 5,67 50 99,53 0,47 0 97,17 2,83 0. Based on these percentages we are able to create charts whose graphs will not fluctuate with the length of the different sub-periods, and will therefore reflect the linguistic changes more accurately.
In the following figures 3 to 5, purple always represents the now extinct forms while blue represents the forms adopted from ON. In the hie vs. Note that even though the replacement happens rather quickly, there is an initial phase with only little change happening OE4 - ME1.
The percentage data for them rises just as steeply as that for they, and again the change starts taking place slowly and then gains velocity; it almost looks like the curve from figure 3 has been copied into figure 4. The only significant difference between the two charts is that in figure 4 the changes happen later the replacement of hem through them in written English actually extends into EModE times. Figure 5 is the least conclusive of all: Though it is clear to see that the changes at first ME2 - ME3 resemble those in figure 4, one would expect the amount of blue to increase, and not to decline, from ME3 to ME4.
An investigation into the following three sub-periods would no doubt shed more light on the problem. It is possible that the replacement in the genitive case took place even slightly later than the replacement in the oblique case. So far, the most interesting data from table 2 has not been shown in percentages yet.
In the following, we will see what happens when we directly compare the total of h- forms to the total of th- forms in every sub-period cf. This behavior is typical of linguistic changes, and if we turn this data into a chart, we get what is probably the main bulk of a characteristic s-curve see figure 6. This paper has shown that, although the period of the highest influence of Scandinavian on the English language obviously lasted from c.
This, however, is not true for the nominative case hie vs. The curve in figure 3 as well as the other percentage curves behave roughly as expected; Blake 50 seems to have been right in claiming that around , hem and them were about equally common. The hir vs. If we compare these results with the outline of historical events during the Viking Age briefly touched upon in the introduction, we cannot but notice the temporal discrepancies: From the 9th century to the 11th century, there are hardly any traces of the th- forms in the written language yet.
In fact, about years passed between the period of actual contact with the Norsemen and the first significant. These discrepancies are partly accounted for by the fact that we are dealing mostly with West Saxon texts see chapter 2. We may conclude with the statement that the replacement of indigenous OE third person plural pronouns by the corresponding Scandinavian forms is not only in itself a surprising fact, but that, given the socio-historical background, it also seems to have taken place surprisingly late, at least in written English.
It would be interesting to investigate the chronological development of this specific borrowing in relation that of other words borrowed from ON, as well as to take geographical issues into account, in future papers. A History of the English Language. London: Routlegde. Bjrkman, Erik Scandinavian Loan-words in Middle English. Part I. Studien zur englischen Philologie 7.
Halle: Max Niemeyer. Blake, N. London: Macmillan. Freeborn, Dennis . From Old English to Standard English. Geipel, John The Viking Legacy. English History, Diversity and Change. London: Routledge. Jucker, Andreas H. History of English and English Historical Linguistics. Stuttgart: Klett. Kastovski, Dieter Semantics and Vocabulary.
In: Hogg, Richard M. Volume 1: The Beginnings to Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Kyt, Merja Meyer, Charles F. English Corpus Linguistics. An Introduction. Mitchell, Bruce and Fred C.
Connect both names by using the word "and. If a work has more than two authors but fewer than six , cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; include the last name followed by "et al. Example: First occurrence: Williams, French and Joseph found Subsequent citations: Williams et al. Quotations: Cite the source of direct quotations by enclosing it in parentheses. Include author, year, and page number. Punctuation differs according to where the quotation falls.
Example: Many inexperienced writers are unsure about "the actual boundaries of the grammatical abstraction called a sentence" Shaughnessy, , p. End with the period outside the parentheses. Example: Fifty percent "of spontaneous speech is estimated to be non-speech" Shaughnessy, , p. The source is cited in parentheses after the final period. Example: This is further explained by Shaughnessy's following statements: In speech, pauses mark rates of respiration, set off certain words for rhetorical emphasis, facilitate phonological maneuvers, regulate the rhythms of thought and articulation and suggest grammatical structure.
Modern punctuation, however, does not provide a score for such a complex orchestration. A reference list includes only those references which were actually cited in the text of one's paper. There must be total agreement between the two. See example of a reference list on the last page. A bibliography includes all literature consulted which was "immediately relevant" to the research process, even though the material was not cited in the text of one's paper.
Kaufman, J. Eliot, G. Pay close attention to these differences in the examples below. NOTE: The following examples are single-spaced, however, double- space when typing your reference list. Also, use hanging indents: entries should begin flush left, and the second and subsequent lines should be indented.
The teacher. London: Oxford University Press. Two authors: McCandless, B. Children and youth: Psychosocial development. Hinsdale, IL: Dryden Press. Three or more authors: List each author Smith, V. Alternatives in education: Freedom to choose. Society, association, or institution as author and publisher: American Psychiatric Association.
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 3rd ed. Editor or compiler as author: Rich, J. Readings in the philosophy of education 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Chapter, essay, or article by one author in a book or encyclopedia edited by another: Medley, D. Teacher effectiveness. Mitzel Ed. New York: The Free Press.
Classrooms as forums for reasoning and writing. College Composition and Communication, 36, Two authors: Horowitz, L. The prototype as a construct in abnormal psychology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, Society, association, or institution as author: Institute on Rehabilitation Issues. Critical issues in rehabilitating the severely handicapped. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 18 4 , Detroit Free Press, pp.
The importance of being twins. Psychology Today, 19, Down Beat, The effect of work experience on young men's earnings. Report No. Madison: Wisconsin University. Madison Institute for Research on Poverty. Changing attitude through behavior modification. When citing an Internet source, one should: 1. Provide as much information as possible that will help readers relocate the information.
Also try to reference specific documents rather than web pages when possible. Give accurate, working addresses URLs. References to Internet sources should at least include the following four items: 1. A title or description 2. A date either date of publication or date of retrieval 3.
An address URL 4. UK judges reverse decision on cloned embryos [Electronic version]. British Medical Journal, , Article in an Internet-only journal: Dungworth, D. Iron Age and Roman copper alloys from northern Britain. Internet Archaeology. The Statue of Liberty, Central Park and me. New York Times. Instructions to authors in the health sciences. HOWEVER, if it is necessary to use a number after a medium for identification or retrieval purposes, use parentheses instead of brackets, i. Maas, J.
Deeper in hypnosis [Motion Picture]. References American Psychological Association. Electronic resources. American Psychological Association. Frequently asked questions. Bloom, B. Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals, by a committee of college and university examiners. New York: D. Down beat, Horowitz, L.
Journal of abnormal psychology, 90, Institute on Rehabilitation Issues. Rehabilitation counseling bulletin, 18 4 , Deeper into hypnosis [Motion Picture]. Mandel, B. Losing one's mind: Learning to write and edit. College composition and communication, 29, Medley, D.
A FOOTNOTE gives the specific location in a book, journal, or other source down to the page number where information or ideas used in the text of your paper were found. Heilman1 stated that this coincides with the high value which our society places on education and to the recognition that education is based on reading skill. Wilson and Hall2 concluded that success in school is closely tied to success in reading and that the poor reader, who is introduced to reading before being ready, can be blocked from using this major avenue of learning and can experience failure in many school areas.
Heilman, Principles and Practices of Teaching Reading, 4th ed. Merrill Publishing Co. The bibliography appears at the end of a paper and includes entries listed in alphabetical order by the author's last name. Heilman, Arthur W. Wilson, Robert M. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, Zintz, Miles V. Dubuque: Wm. Brown Company Publishers, The examples below represent the footnote and bibliography format and style suggested in the following source. LB Turabian, Kate L.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, T8 Reference You may wish to place all your notes at the end of the paper rather than at the bottom of each page. They are then referred to as endnotes rather than footnotes and are numbered consecutively throughout the body of the paper. In any case, the same rules of format apply. Franklin, John Hope. George Washington Williams: A Biography. Kernighan and Dennis M. Kernighan, Brian W. The C Programming Language.
Englewood Cliffs, N. Rector, and Michael D. Nagda, Niren L. Guidelines for Monitoring Indoor Air Quality. McKenney, and William F. Massy, eds. Cambridge: MIT Press, Directions for Library Service to Young Adults. Chicago: American Library Association, Christopher Fry London: Methuen, , Anouilh, Jean.
The Lark. Translated by Christopher Fry. London: Methuen, Pollak, Ellen. Women in Culture and Society Series. Beech, Mary Higdon. Hanna Papanek and Gail Minault, Delhi: Chanakya, Smith, Lawrence P. Welles, C. Norman, Michael. Runes and Harry G. Schrickel, eds. Runes, Dagobert D. Encyclopedia of the Arts. New York: Philosophical Library, , S. Encyclopedia Americana , ed. Stone, Social Service Review 59 September : Dwight Frankfather.
Social Service Review 59 September : Securities and Exchange Commission. Lillian B. Millwood, N. Peale, Charles Wilson. Robson, Barbara. Tanzania: Country Status Report. Artioli, Gilberto. Washington, Harold, Mayor of Chicago. Interview by author, 23 September Telephone interview. Mitchell, William J. City of Bits: Space, Place, and the Infobahn. Book on-line. Reference Taken from a Secondary Source. When citing the work of one author as found in the work of another author, both works must be mentioned in the footnote.
Second or Later Reference to the Same Work. For references to the same page of a work without any intervening references e. For a reference to a different page or pages of the same work with NO intervening references to the last work, "Ibid. One style frequently required is the parenthetical-reference or reference citation in text format.
Another is the MLA Style. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, Reconstruction: After the Civil War. Jackson, Richard. Weber, Bruce. Click here to see how our academic service helps college students all around the world with various types of assignments! We have tested thousands of candidates to present you with the best writers available. Click here to meet them! Learn the simple process of getting yourself a well-written custom essay!
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