Planning and Writing Research Papers. Writing Annotated Bibliographies. Creating Poster Presentations. Writing an Abstract for Your Research Paper. Writing a Review of Literature. U niversity of W isconsin —Madison. Hours Summer Term Chat with Us.
Discovering, Narrowing, and Focusing a Researchable Topic Try to find a topic that truly interests you Try writing your way to a topic Talk with your course instructor and classmates about your topic Pose your topic as a question to be answered or a problem to be solved Finding, Selecting, and Reading Sources You will need to look at the following types of sources: library catalog, periodical indexes, bibliographies, suggestions from your instructor primary vs.
Why is it significant? What background material is relevant? What is my thesis or purpose statement? What organizational plan will best support my purpose? Writing the Introduction In the introduction you will need to do the following things: present relevant background or contextual material define terms or concepts when necessary explain the focus of the paper and your specific purpose reveal your plan of organization Writing the Body Use your outline and prospectus as flexible guides Build your essay around points you want to make i.
If prior to your conclusion you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the end of your paper to add your points up, to explain their significance. Need more help? Grammarly can save you from misspellings, grammatical and punctuation mistakes, and other writing issues on all your favorite websites. Your writing, at its best. Use Grammarly for mistake-free writing.
Get Grammarly Here are the best elements to a research paper:. Craft a strong opening sentence that will engage the reader. Explain the purpose of your paper and how you plan to approach the topic. Is this a factual report? An analysis? A persuasive piece?
Conclude the introductory paragraph with your thesis statement. The introduction is the broad beginning of the paper that answers three important questions:. Your paper may evolve, so keep it fluid, but do remember to stay focused on your thesis statement and proving your points. Organize first and use your sources as they become relevant.
Consider the Rule of Three. Find supporting arguments for each point you make, and present a strong point first, followed by an even stronger one, and finish with your strongest point. Most research papers conclude with a restated thesis statement.
Present your thesis again, but reword it. Take a moment to explain why you believe those points support your case. If your research is inconclusive, take a moment to point out why you believe this topic bears further research. This part of the process is about much more than just fixing typos and adding or subtracting commas. Thorough research, thoughtful organization and presentation, and attention to detail in your developmental and final line edit will help you succeed in crafting a winning research paper.
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Does the ceremony grant the participant and new status or privileges? Where did this ceremony come from? What do you think about the ceremony? How does the developmental theory relate to the cultural event? You will also include a page APA format paper on the topic of your project. You will explain the cultural event by answering the above questions and apply it to a developmental theory or theories. The 5th page will be your reference page bibliography. This means that you do not include title of article or title of journal or full name of author s in your paper as this will all be on the reference page.
Fuller, M. Please review the resources on how to properly cite within the paper. OWL Links to an external site. Do not skip extra spaces between paragraphs Microsoft Word now skips 2. The paper can be longer than 4 pages of research. This is a paper about the latest research on your topic, so you must write it in essay format, without bullet points, lists, or subsection titles. You will not write an abstract.
You need a minimum of 3 references for this paper, which may only include journal articles and interviews. Major websites will not count as the minimum of 3 references but can be used as supplementary sources. Do not use any type of book as a reference, including your textbook.
Research articles must be published within the last 10 years since unless the research paper is a seminal article for the field. You are not allowed to use websites for the paper until I approve the site beforehand. A few exceptions to this include: psychologicalscience. You must include a 5th page that will be a list of all of your reference a bibliography websites and journal articles.
You must cite your references in every paragraph of the research report section of your paper; this should be done in either APA format see www. The following is an example of a sentence from a paper on depression: Many times depression is linked to anxiety Myers, Here is what a website would look like as a cited source: www. The full http address will be in the reference page. Please review the supplemental pages of APA information.
Microsoft Word does have a template specifically for APA format. It would be a good idea to use it. Please do not copy word for word from your sources unless you put those words in quotation marks. You may not use quotes longer than one sentence, and you may not have more than 4 sentence quotes in the paper. You must summarize what you have read using plain English. Do not write scientific jargon such as lists of prescription drugs or the ingredients of drugs that is not understandable without a medical degree.
If you do not use all of your own words and do not properly cite your sources, this is plagiarism. I will either give your paper back to you to re-do OR I will simply give you a zero. The key thing is to guide the reader into your topic and situate your ideas.
In a more empirical paper, this is the place to review previous research and establish how yours fits in. Provide only the most relevant background information. This is a sort of miniature literature review —a sketch of the current state of research into your topic, boiled down to a few sentences. This should be informed by genuine engagement with the literature. Your search can be less extensive than in a full literature review, but a clear sense of the relevant research is crucial to inform your own work.
Begin by establishing the kinds of research that have been done, and end with limitations or gaps in the research that you intend to respond to. Scribbr editors not only correct grammar and spelling mistakes, but also strengthen your writing by making sure your paper is free of vague language, redundant words and awkward phrasing.
See editing example. In an argumentative research paper, you can simply state the problem you intend to discuss, and what is original or important about your argument. In an empirical research paper, try to lead into the problem on the basis of your discussion of the literature.
Think in terms of these questions:. You can make the connection between your problem and the existing research using phrases like the following. The way you frame this varies. An argumentative paper presents a thesis statement, while an empirical paper generally poses a research question sometimes with a hypothesis as to the answer. The thesis statement expresses the position that the rest of the paper will present evidence and arguments for.
It can be presented in one or two sentences, and should state your position clearly and directly, without providing specific arguments for it at this point. The research question is the question you want to answer in an empirical research paper. Present your research question clearly and directly, with a minimum of discussion at this point.
The rest of the paper will be taken up with discussing and investigating this question; here you just need to express it. If your research involved testing hypotheses , these should be stated along with your research question.
They are usually presented in the past tense, since the hypothesis will already have been tested by the time you are writing up your paper. The final part of the introduction is often dedicated to a brief overview of the rest of the paper. Full examples of research paper introductions are shown in the tabs below: one for an argumentative paper, the other for an empirical paper.
Are cows responsible for climate change? A recent study RIVM, shows that cattle farmers account for two thirds of agricultural nitrogen emissions in the Netherlands. These emissions result from nitrogen in manure, which can degrade into ammonia and enter the atmosphere. By comparison, road traffic and households are responsible for 6. While efforts are being made to mitigate these emissions, policymakers are reluctant to reckon with the scale of the problem. The approach presented here is a radical one, but commensurate with the issue.
This paper argues that the Dutch government must stimulate and subsidize livestock farmers, especially cattle farmers, to transition to sustainable vegetable farming. It first establishes the inadequacy of current mitigation measures, then discusses the various advantages of the results proposed, and finally addresses potential objections to the plan on economic grounds.
The rise of social media has been accompanied by a sharp increase in the prevalence of body image issues among women and girls. These studies have consistently found that the visual and interactive aspects of the platform have the greatest influence on body image issues. This paper sets out to address this research gap.
We investigated the effects of daily Instagram use on the prevalence of body image issues among adolescent girls. It was hypothesized that daily Instagram use would be associated with an increase in body image concerns and a decrease in self-esteem ratings. The introduction of a research paper includes several key elements:. The way you present your research problem in your introduction varies depending on the nature of your research paper.