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Anxiety is indeed a cause of poor language learning in some individuals and discusses possible source s of this anxiety, including difficulty in authentic self-presentation and various language teaching practices. They found that language anxiety actually differed across proficiency levels.
Advanced learners showed higher levels of anxiety than beginning and intermediate learners. There was an interrelation between language anxiety and course achievement. There was a medium level of language anxiety among most participants, with no significant effect on course achievement.
The results show that language anxiety and achievement are negatively related to each other. Lan studied the relationship between foreign language anxiety beliefs of language learning and English learning achievement. From the findings, the existence of anxiety among the participants and demonstrate that the strongest of the five factors influencing language learning belief is the belief of motivation and expectations.
Belief of difficulty of language learning, motivation and expectations were significantly correlated with English learning achievement. In addition, communication apprehension, test anxiety, negative evaluation and overall foreign language anxiety all demonstrate significant inverse relationships with English learning achievement.
The belief of the difficulty of language learning was significantly inversely correlated with communication apprehension, test anxiety and negative evaluation, a significant correlation exists between learning and communication strategies and negative evaluation. Belief of motivation and expectations was significantly negatively correlated with communication apprehension and negative evaluation. From the review, it seems that achievement is only a benchmark on what the students believe inferring that when they did not achieve well in the past language tests or examinations, those scores would affect their overall performance in the second language.
Hence, if only the students attained better results in their language examinations, only then their level of anxiety will be lowered. However, this study still choose achievement as its anxiety predictor as achievement is able to be measured using instruments such as their past examinations score.
Then point to be pondered here is whether or not achievement is the best predictor to language anxiety, but its role is still cannot be overlooked completely. Speaking Skill and Language Anxiety Due to its emphasis on interpersonal interactions, the construct of communication apprehension is quite relevant to the conceptualization of foreign language anxiety McCroskey, Difficulty in speaking in pairs or groups for example oral communication anxiety or in public such as "stage fright", or in listening to or learning a spoken message for example receiver anxiety are all symptoms of communication apprehension.
Communication apprehension or some similar reaction obviously plays a large role in foreign language anxiety. People who typically have trouble speaking in groups are likely to experience even greater difficulty speaking in a foreign language class where they have little control of the communicative situation and their performance is constantly monitored. Moreover, in addition to all the usual concerns about oral communication, the foreign language class requires the student to communicate via a medium in which only limited facility is possessed.
Possibly because of this knowledge, many otherwise talkative people are silent in a foreign language class. And yet, the converse also seems to be true. Ordinarily self-conscious and inhibited speakers may find that communicating in a foreign language makes them feel as if someone else is speaking and they therefore feel less anxious with the practice of Suggestopedia in language classrooms.
This phenomenon may be similar to stutterers who are sometimes able to pronounce normally when singing or acting. MacIntryre advocates that language anxiety can play a significant causal role in creating individual differences in both language learning and communication. ELAS results indicate levels of language anxiety in the mainstream and ESL classes, although language anxiety is significantly higher in mainstream classes.
Causes of language anxiety about speaking via student interviews vary, including peer humiliation, talking in front of native speakers, pronunciation concerns, and classroom environment. The results of the study showed that language anxiety could affect the speaking skill of learners by lowering the quality of oral performance as the anxiety increases. Her thesis was examining relationships between foreign language anxiety and global proficiency in English in a group of university students, and between foreign language anxiety and their performance on an oral test.
This thesis also was to scrutinize demographic, academic, cognitive and affective characteristics of the participants in relation to overall language proficiency to performance on an oral test and to foreign language anxiety. Students from the highly anxious group performed on average significantly more poorly than those from moderate and low anxiety groups. Participants who had a lower estimation of their own language level, who did not know or speak any other foreign languages.
Tanveer on the other hand, also has produced a very detailed and comprehensive master thesis which attempted to investigate the factors that language anxiety can possibly stem from, both within the classroom environment and out of classroom in the wider social context, and has recommended a variety of strategies to cope with it.
Feigenbaum focused on differences in pronunciation accuracy in these two environments which are group work and teacher-fronted, and the influence that language anxiety may have on these differences. The results show that pronunciation accuracy does not differ between the two environments. In addition, there was no significant relationship between pronunciation accuracy and anxiety in the group work environment.
This suggests that language anxiety only has negative effects on pronunciation during teacher-fronted activities. The assigned two hundred sixteen students of first year university English language course to one of four groups: a one group who had anxiety aroused during their initial exposure to the stimuli, b a second group who had anxiety aroused when they began to learn the meanings of the words, c a third group who had anxiety aroused when they were asked to produce the English word when prompted with the Hindi , and d a control group who did not experience anxiety arousal.
The results indicate that, in each experimental group, the highest anxiety rating was obtained immediately following introduction of the camera, and performance at each of the stages was found to be significantly reduced for the group of subjects who most recently had anxiety aroused.
The absence of an effect for the camera on the anxiety ratings during the intervening tasks suggests that the subjects eventually were able to cope with the state anxiety aroused by the camera. It is clear that the communicative task is much more anxiety provoking than is the learning task. The results also support the suggestion that anxiety reduction alone will not fully compensate for the cognitive deficits created by anxiety arousal. Sioson aimed to determine which among the subscales of language learning strategies LLS , beliefs about language learning and anxiety was the strongest predictor of performance in an academic speaking context, and whether significant relationships between and among the factors existed.
Results show that all the subscales of language learning strategies, beliefs and anxiety were positively correlated with their respective subscales. However, LLS, in general, were found to be negatively correlated with beliefs about language learning and anxiety, but beliefs about language learning and anxiety subscales had generally no relationship with each other.
Furthermore, only the motivation subscale of beliefs about language learning was the significant predictor of speaking performance, but yielded a negative relationship with performance. Suleimenova study addressed the issue of identifying foreign language speaking anxiety and the major consequences of language speaking anxiety reported by students learning English in the evaluation of the foreign language classroom. Besides, the study also revealed that these students have had a number of negative experiences with speaking activities in a foreign language class.
There is a modest negative relationship between language anxiety and English speaking proficiency for the 6th graders, but such negative relationship does not exist for the 3rd graders in his study. Chiang went into elementary school context on investigating foreign language anxiety and English speaking proficiency. The highest mean of anxiety factors is on speech anxiety variable, while the lowest mean of anxiety factors is recorded for fear of making mistakes variable.
There is also a significant correlation between foreign language anxiety and foreign language speaking proficiency. Results indicate that there was a strong potential for the reduction of anxiety associated with the voice board. A number of students experienced a reduction of their level of anxiety due to the elimination of the time pressure of the classroom and opportunity to edit their contributions.
The conditions of the point of access to the technology were found to have a negative effect on student anxiety on the voice board. A negative attitude towards going to the language laboratory, technical difficulties during the Wimba activities, and instructional time had a negative effect on the level of anxiety. Increased risk-taking in oral contributions and reduced fear of negative evaluation were also found in the Wimba environment.
Shams has almost similar research like Charle Poza on incorporating the use of computer assisted language learning CALL for reducing anxiety in speaking foreign language. She examined the use of computerized pronunciation practice as a tool in the reduction of foreign language anxiety as well as evaluated the efficacy of computerized practice on the improvement of student French pronunciation.
While there was an overall decrease in anxiety levels, the statistical analyses indicated no relationship between method of practice and the decrease in anxiety. Regarding pronunciation improvement, the results showed that subjects who practiced with the computer did experience statistically significant improvement in the quality of their pronunciation while those who practiced with the cassettes did not.
It is found that there is a mildly significant negative correlations between foreign language anxiety and achievement were found among sophomore but not among juniors. In-class activities that were seen as most anxiety provoking are those which require student to make a speech in front of a large group of people. A typical anxiety-provoking English teacher might have the following characteristics: a a habit of giving surprise quizzes, b being unpredictable, c being rigid and, d being a poor communicator.
There was a mildly significant correlation between English Oral Conversation course semester achievement and foreign language anxiety. Cheng on the other hand investigates on English speaking proficiency and speaking anxiety among EFL major students. The study discovered that speaking anxiety had a negative influence on English speaking proficiency of the freshman students.
Correlations between speaking anxiety and English speaking proficiency were not significant among sophomores, juniors and seniors. Low-anxiety group obtained a higher speaking proficiency than the high anxiety group. Participants varied in their description of English speaking anxiety. Therefore as a conclusion, there was a mildly significant correlation between English speaking proficiency and speaking anxiety.
Chang investigates, using a foreign language anxiety scale, the self-perceived anxiety levels of Taiwanese EFL university students speaking English under different contextual conditions, including in class and outside of class, presenting individually and in groups, and learning English in formal and informal situations.
Among 4 of the basic English language skills, namely Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing, speaking and writing were the two language skills most associated with sources of language anxiety Abdul Aziz, Other language skills and language anxiety This section is added in this review of literature as only speaking skill is given emphasis in this study.
This section is included to inform that other than speaking skill which is being negatively influenced by language anxiety, language learners are also experiencing language anxiety in other language skills like listening, reading and writing. Kim conducted a study on listening skill and language anxiety among of EFL learners, all university students in Korea.
For the qualitative data, 20 university students participated in retrospective interviews. This study suggested that foreign language learners do indeed experience anxiety in response to listening comprehension. A majority of the participants acknowledged having experienced listening anxiety in foreign language classrooms and real-life communication situations. And Lack of self-confidence in listening. Furthermore, the participants in this study experienced the highest foreign language anxiety of any observed in the various language anxiety studies.
Correlation analyses revealed that listening anxiety is significantly related to both general foreign language anxiety and listening proficiency, the latter suggesting that listening anxiety interferes with foreign language listening.
In addition, listening anxiety was found to be significantly related to two background factors, university major, and study with tutors or in private language institutes. The retrospective interview protocol and open-ended responses in the FLLAS showed that foreign language learners are sensitive to the types of listening passages or tasks.
Quantitative findings obtained from 50 first year students indicated that FL reading anxiety was a phenomenon related to, but distinct from general FL anxiety. As a result of the study some suggestions for dealing with the FL reading anxiety were proposed. Zhao explores the foreign language reading anxiety among learners of Chinese in colleges in the United States.
This survey research reported that the level of foreign language reading anxiety was similar to the level of general foreign language anxiety among learners of Chinese. There was a significant course level effect on the level of foreign language reading anxiety with intermediate students having a significantly higher level of foreign language reading anxiety than elementary students.
There was a significant negative correlation between foreign language reading anxiety and foreign language reading performance. Armendaris made a comprehensive investigation on ESL students experience in learning academic English writing, approaches to teaching academic writing facilitate and impede success and interaction with native English speakers in the improvement of academic writing.
The result from interviewing 21 participants states that all participants experienced some form of anxiety in writing English. The differences in the level of English writing anxiety between the groups of freshmen and sophomores reached the level of statistical significance. The sophomores were found to suffer significantly higher levels of English writing anxiety than the freshmen. Correlation analysis results suggested a negative relationship between measure of ESL writing anxiety and measures of writing performance course grade and timed writing grade.
An in-depth analysis of the causes of ESL writing anxiety revealed that linguistic difficulties, insufficient writing practice, fear of tests TEM , lack of topical knowledge and low self-confidence in writing performance constitute the main sources of ESL writing anxiety experienced by Chinese English majors. These past researches have shown that language anxiety does not only exist in speaking skill, but also in listening Kim, , reading Kuru-Gonen, ; Zhao, and writing Armendaris, ; Zhang, as well.
These researches are valuable to help lecturers and students to understand about other language skills anxiety as well as to suggest further on how to tackle language anxiety in these other skills. They also reported many of the psycho-physiological symptoms commonly associated with anxiety for example tenseness, trembling, perspiring, palpitations, and sleep disturbances. The FLCAS consists of 33 statements with significant part-whole correlations with the total scale, aiming to assess communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation associated with language anxiety.
Total scores of the scale range from 33 to with lower scores indicate higher levels of anxiety. Twenty-four of the items are positively worded, and nine of the items are negatively worded Tran, The three factor model has three domains which are communication apprehension, test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation.
The four factor model has four domains which are communication apprehension, test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, and fear of English classes. These three domains are empirically derived through factor analysis and further confirmed having the best fit for the observations. The HFLCAS was administered to English major and 66 non-English major students, whose responses were factor-analysed to test construct validity of the scale. Next, reliability was assessed using the internal consistency method.
The results of factor analysis support Horwitz et al. On the one hand, FLCAS had been designed on the basis of previous in-depth qualitative research, which solidified it as one of the most comprehensive and valid instruments that were available for measuring the situational anxiety directly associated to the specific context of the foreign language classroom.
On the other hand, the scale had demonstrated satisfactory reliability coefficients with the first samples of population to which it had been administered. Their pilot study which aimed to confirm the reliability of the FLCAS as an instrument to measure potential sources of anxiety in language classrooms in Malaysian learning context. The four factor model is appropriate to measure the language learning of Japanese foreign language among Malaysian learner as the four factor model was proposed by Aida, whom is a Japanese.
Hence based on these studies, the researcher for this study has strongly decided and been positively confirmed to adopt FLCAS in her own study. Compared to the four factor model, the three factor model is chosen as fear of English class was not brought up as an important issue in this study. Language Anxiety Coping Strategies Marwan has conducted a research on the types of anxiety experienced by Indonesian FL learners and the strategies they use to cope with their anxiety.
The findings revealed that the majority of students, despite their gender and level differences, experienced some kinds of FL anxiety and many of them also applied particular strategies to overcome their FL anxiety. Variables related to foreign language learning anxiety can be divided into two main categories which are situational variables and learner variables.
Findings indicated that anxiety was most often associated with the output and processing stages, specifically in the sense of mental planning of the learning process and that students attributed the cause of anxiety to the teacher or other people. Other findings were that the effect of and response to anxiety were associated with gender and perceived ability level.
Sixty 60 students from International Islamic University Chittagong IIUC in Bangladesh contributed a result that their moderate level of anxiety that hinders their learning. Interventions suggested from the article to reduce foreign language speaking anxiety are project work, establishing a learning community and a supportive classroom atmosphere, teacher-students relations, providing indirect, rather than direct correction, accepting the need for self-worth protection, teacher immediacy and provision of praise.
Tanveer has attempted to investigate the factors that language anxiety can possibly stem from, both within the classroom environment and out of classroom in the wider social context, and has recommended a variety of strategies to cope with it. This study used a qualitative semi- structured interview format and focus-group discussion technique to investigate the issue.
Summary There has been abundant of language researches in the past which focused on the issue of foreign language anxiety. This chapter reviewed the concept of language anxiety and the researches made by local researchers on this matter. According to this chapter, language anxiety is categorized into specific anxiety reactions and useful to be related with its three performance anxieties which are communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation.
Furthermore, language researches have dwelled on the three selected potential learner variable namely gender, language achievement and speaking skill with language anxiety, are reviewed in this chapter. The correlation of language anxiety and those three potential predictors of learner variable are discussed in this chapter. Moreover, the discussion on the instruments used for studying second language anxiety are included.
In addition, this chapter also reviewed on some researches that provide suggestions for coping second language anxiety. Finally, ample language researches on the interrelationships of gender, language achievement and speaking skill with language anxiety are reviewed in this chapter. Introduction This study was designed primarily to investigate the associations of learner variables with second language anxiety, and to examine the level of second language anxiety among students.
The target population of this study was diploma students enrolled in various courses in MARA University of Technology, Kota Samarahan 2 campus as well as the English lecturers at the same campus. Convenience sampling was adopted to recruit participants. This chapter explains the research procedures of this study, including research design, participants, instruments, data collection procedures, and data analysis.
Research Approach The design of this study was primarily quantitative in nature. According to Fraenkel, Wallen and Hyun , quantitative researchers usually base their work on the belief that facts and feelings can be separated, that the world is a single reality made up of facts that can be discovered.
When it comes to the purpose of research, quantitative researches seek to establish relationships between variables and look for and sometimes explain the causes of such relationships. Quantitative research has established widely agreed on general formulations of steps that guide researchers in their work. Quantitative research designs tend to be pre-established. The ideal researcher role in quantitative research is that of a detached observer.
The ideal study in the quantitative tradition is the experiment. Lastly, most quantitative researchers want to establish generalizations that surpass the immediate situation or particular setting. This type of research can help to make more intelligent predictions.
Correlational research seeks to investigate the extent to which one or more relationships of some type exist. The approach requires no manipulation or intervention on the part of the researcher other than administering the instrument s necessary to collect the data sought after. Generally, the researcher of this study embark on this type of research to look for and describe relationship that may exist among naturally occurring phenomena, without trying in any way to modify these phenomena.
This study utilizes a correlational research design as it seeks to investigate the degree of relationship between learner variables such as gender, language achievement and speaking skill; and language anxiety, and uses the results of the observed relationships to make predictions about the nature of the relationship between the two.
Data Collection 3. Sampling Many times it is extremely difficult or sometimes even impossible to select either a random or a systematic non-random sample. Hence, in this type of situation, the researcher is using convenience sampling for this study. This number of participants is chosen in order to get the similar accuracy with the past research on foreign language anxiety done by Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope , whereby they use students.
The students were not restricted into which semester they studied because it will be interesting to investigate the level of anxiety according to different semesters. Their English language proficiency level assumed to range from intermediate to upper intermediate. In order to give a comprehensive suggestions on the strategies that can help students to cope with language anxiety, the questionnaire of 6 open- ended questions will be distributed among 10 English lecturers from the same institution.
Instruments 3. The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale has been widely used across time on various groups of respondents. However, the response in communication apprehension subscale is given highlight by means of it represents one of the learner variables as the predictors of second language anxiety.
Gender The background information questionnaire will give a brief introduction to the study and provide instructions for the students to complete the survey. The background information questionnaire indicated that all responses of the student participants will be completely anonymous. It was designed to obtain demographic information about their backgrounds and English language learning experiences. The demographic information included gender, age, native language, language proficiency, English educational background, their opinion of the influence of language anxiety on language learning as well as the strategies they use to cope with language anxiety Tanveer, ; Wong, Language Achievement Measurement The background information questionnaire will also be asking for the results of two other English language examinations that have been taken by the students to get other measures of their language achievement.
To prevent the students from misunderstanding about the items in the questionnaire, they will be reminded to consult with the researcher who will be available at a fixed location during the distribution of the questionnaire as they responded to the questionnaire. However, to predict whether students are affected by language anxiety in terms of their speaking skill, the questionnaire will be divided into three subscales which is communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation.
The items in the subscale of communication apprehension are grouped together after two past researches Huang ; as cited in Cao, and Oda was juxtaposed to see their similarity in grouping the items from FLCAS to be included under the subscale of communication apprehension. Thus, from the comparison made between those two categorization, the researcher concluded to group item 1, 4, 9, 14, 18, 24, 27 and 29 as items in communication apprehension subscale for this study.
Language Anxiety Coping Strategies There are two ways on how the strategies in coping with language anxiety is obtained. Firstly, the eleven coping strategies of language anxiety listed by Hauck and Hurd ; as cited in Tanveer, was included in the background information questionnaire as item number 7. Students can tick any strategies listed that they felt they have used before but in order to choose the most important strategy, students will have to circle the number of the statement that they felt the strategy has effectively or brilliantly help them in alleviating language anxiety.
The results gathered from this instrument is very treasured and unaffected response from English lecturers themselves. Instead of using interview method like other past researches would employ, the lecturers will not be stressed to spare their time from their busy daily routine to have a typical 30 to 40 minutes interview when they could answer the questionnaire in less time than that. Therefore, interview is replaced by the questionnaire of open-ended questions in this study.
Data collection techniques In order to conduct this correlational study, the researcher will be giving a one-page letter to the English lecturers and will be explaining the purpose of the study. The letter also will be inquiring about only the English lecturers who taught English and they are not in class session at the time of questionnaire distribution, will be selected to participate. In addition, the students will be informed by the researcher that their responses in this study will be completely voluntary, and all of their identities will be kept anonymous.
Moreover, there will be no correct answers in the survey questionnaires. At the beginning, the students will be instructed to fill in the forms about their demographic information and general English learning experiences. Seven items see Appendix A were included in this portion of the survey. These items included information of the student participants' age, gender, native language, English examinations results, language proficiency, opinion on the influence of language anxiety on language learning and the strategies they use to cope with language anxiety.
In the second part of the survey questionnaire, the researcher will be giving the student oral and written instructions and will be asking them to simply rate Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale on each item of the 33 statements see Appendix B on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 for "strongly disagree" to 5 for "strongly agree" indicating their perception of their level of language anxiety. The student participants chose the statement that identifies them the best based on the scale of strongly disagree to strongly agree with a single answer.
The lecturers will also be asked to suggest some strategies for the students to cope with their language anxiety. At the end of the survey questionnaires, the student will be thanked for their participation. The English lecturers also will be thanked during their free time that they are willing to spent by giving cooperation that is very much needed by the researcher to conduct the survey questionnaires.
The collected data from the language anxiety questionnaire will be analysed using the Statistics Package for Social Science SPSS software in order to obtain statistics. The survey subsection under the name communication apprehension will be treated separately in the data analysis. The analysis of the data with the aid of the SPSS software will be used to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference in anxiety scores of MARA University of Technology diploma students among the learner variables, which are gender, language achievement and speaking skill.
The high scores indicated the high level of language anxiety the student participants had. To investigate how the selected learner variables gender, achievement, speaking skill are related to second language anxiety, and what contribution they make to its prediction, two procedures will be used. Multiple regression analysis will be used to assess the effect of the three learner variables simultaneously and determine their relative contribution to the prediction of second language anxiety.
Standard Multiple Regression will be run first, with all three predictor variables entered into the regression model. Total variance explained R2 will be used as a measure of the predictive power of the six independent variables, while squared partial correlation coefficients as an estimate of their unique contribution as a proportion of R2.
Finally, a backward selection method will be adopted to identify the best predictors of second language anxiety. Before the actual data collection period, a pilot study was conducted to test reliability of the questionnaire as well as to get feedbacks and suggestions from the respondents. There are three purposes of the pilot study. Firstly, pilot test will ensure the comprehensibility of the questionnaires to be used in the formal study.
Secondly, pilot test will examine the validity and the reliability of the questionnaires and lastly, to check the procedures for administrating the questionnaires and the time required to complete them, hence pilot test is conducted Chiang, As for the concern of validity, the instruments that will be used in this study was consulted with an expert in this area from the renowned local public university who has vast knowledge and experience upon conducting research.
Potential Limitations There are several potential limitations in this research study. According to Chang , the results from the questionnaire of the students' level of language anxiety might be different if the students were taught by different language lecturers.
However, the results cannot be generalized to all college or university students in Malaysia or elsewhere. Abdul Aziz, N. Doctorate Dissertation, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Abdullah, K. A study on second language speaking anxiety among UTM students.
Theses and Dissertations, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Aida, Y. Modern Language Journal, 78 2 , Armendaris, F. Retrieved 9 November from ProQuest database. Arnaiz, P. Retrieved 28 November from www. Awan, R. The Journal of International Social Research, 3 11 , Azarfam, A. Bailey, K. Teaching Speaking Skills, Bekleyen, N. Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 8, Cao, Y. Philippine ESL Journal, 7, Time Taylor International. Chang, H. Doctorate Dissertation, Alliant International University.
Retrieved 15 November from ProQuest database. Charle Poza, M. Doctorate Dissertation, West Virginia University. Cheng, C. Language Anxiety and English Speaking Proficiency. Cheng, Y. The effects of attitudinal, motivational, and anxiety factors on the English language proficiency of Taiwanese senior high school students. Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens. Chiang, M. Chiang, Y. Doctorate Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin. Cortes, C. Doctorate Dissertation, Andrews University.
Retrieved 10 November from ProQuest database. Darmi, R. Exploring Language Anxiety of Malaysian Learners. Anxiety, learning and memory: A reconceptualization. Journal of Research in Personality, 13, — Feigenbaum, E. The role of language anxiety in teacher-fronted and small-group interaction in Spanish as a foreign language: How is pronunciation accuracy affected? Retrieved 8 October from ProQuest database.
Ferdous, F. Journal of Education and Practice, 3 9. Gardner, R. On the measurement of affective variables in second language learning. Language Learning, 43 2 , Gibbons, F. Self-evaluation and self-perception: The role of attention in the experience of anxiety. Wicklund Eds.
London: Harwood Academic Publishers. Gill, S. English in Asian and European Higher Education. In Chappelle, C. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Serdang: Universiti Putra Malaysia Press. Journal of the School of Marine Science and Technology, 3 2 , Hass, R. The effects of self-focused attention on perspective-taking and anxiety. Horwitz, E. Preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of a foreign language anxiety scale. Language Anxiety and Achievement. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety.
The Modern Language Journal, 70 2 , Language Anxiety among Gifted Learners in Malaysia. English Language Teaching, 6 3 , Kawashima, T. Stoke Ed. Tokyo: JALT. English Language Teaching, 3 2 , Retrieved 27 October from www.
Doctorate Dissertation, University of Texas, Austin. Retrieved 27 October from ProQuest database. Kojima, E. Factors associated with second language anxiety in adolescents from different cultural backgrounds. Doctorate Dissertation University of Southern California. Kuru-Gonen, I. Lan, Y. Sexist: After eight years old. Identifies the method of study. Writing a major academic work can be difficult enough, but it is even more so when working in a foreign language.
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