Remember to write numbers out when they begin a sentence. Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. It is unnecessary to mention things such as the paper and pencil used to record the responses, the data recording sheet, the computer that ran the data analysis, the color of the computer, and so forth. Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study e.
What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable e. In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Read through it.
Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate. In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area.
A discussion section is like the reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the specifics and work toward the more general funnel out. Some points to consider:. Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement.
End on a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature. Provide an alphabetical listing of the references alphabetize by last name of first author. Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references.
The second line of each reference should be indented this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word. See the APA manual for how to format references correctly. Examples of references to journal articles start on p. Digital object identifiers DOIs are now included for electronic sources see pp.
Journal article example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of the article title is capitalized; the journal name and volume are italicized. If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized. Ebner-Priemer, U. Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment, 21, Book chapter example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of both the chapter title and book title are capitalized.
Stephan, W. Intergroup relations. Aronson Eds. New York: Random House. Book example: Gray, P. Psychology 6 th ed. New York: Worth. Table There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. See the APA manual. Be sure to provide a table number and table title the latter is italicized.
Tables can be single or double-spaced. Figure If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption e. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean.
In-Text Citations: see pp. Try to avoid using secondary sources in your papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way:. Snow as cited in Milgram, argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts The reference for the Milgram article but not the Snow reference should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper.
Writing Center. Writing Resources. Additional Navigation About Us. Tutoring Services Tutors. Seven Sins of Writing Passive Voice. Incorrect Punctuation of Two Independent Clauses. Misuse of the Apostrophe. Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers. Pronoun Problems. The Dreaded Pet Peeves. Faculty Resources. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections.
Title page see sample on p. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript. Flush right, on same line: page number. Use the toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. Abstract labeled, centered, not bold No more than words, one paragraph, block format i.
State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin but not the only way is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis.
Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about how you want to transition between ideas.
The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. Be careful about citing your sources see APA manual.
Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting. Method labeled, centered, bold The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision.
Then all of the sources you cite are also listed on the reference page at the end of your paper. You can read more about in-text citations here , and about the reference page here. There's no specific limit to how long your paragraphs can be in APA style; they suggest that if a paragraph is longer than one double-spaced A4 page, it risks "losing readers' attention," so it might be best to avoid paragraphs of that length.
In general, just try to start new paragraphs at logical points: when you start to address a new topic or develop a new part of your argument, for example. Hello, Thank you for the information. Could you please let me know if the references list in Apa 7edition, words count in the paper?
This isn't really something that APA decides, but rather your university or the instructor who set the word count. Generally, though, words in the reference list don't count towards your word count—only words in the text. How do I get rid of the Scribbr mark at the bottom corner of each page? If you double-click on the area at the bottom of the page the footer , you should then be able to select the Scribbr logo directly and delete it, which should automatically remove it on all pages.
Thanks for the useful information! I had a question about the reference list. As the "author" is the same? You can find more information about this here , under "Single-author works. I have to write three short essays as part of the application process for a psychology program. Two of the three essays are personal. I have been looking for guidelines for this situation but have not found anything so far. I have written many academic papers using the APA format and citation style but never an "about me" essay.
Do you have any advice? Can you point me to the right resource? I have ordered the latest APA guidebook but it has not yet arrived. You may find our article on writing a personal statement helpful, as well as our article on statements of purpose. APA guidelines are more about writing research papers than personal statements. You should of course follow general APA formatting guidelines if you've been asked to, but feel free to include more personal details and opinions and to disregard guidelines related to the reporting of research results.
The information of figures and table is wrong. A table heading is needed above the table and a figure heading is below. The standards you're referring to are those of 6th edition APA Style, whereas this article covers the 7th edition. You can find our article on tables and figures in APA 6 here. Hi there! I am writing my doctoral dissertation on APA 7th and need to know if the first page of the dissertation i.
Thanks :D! Standard numerals 1, 2, Thank you for the above information - it is very helpful. However, I am still not clear on this requirement from my professor - Include page numbers in the citation. Does that mean to put the page number in the body of the paper, i. Cindy used the circle chart pg.
Page numbers should appear after the author and year in your in-text citation, which is placed directly after the relevant information. For example: "Cindy used the circle chart Smith, , p. Our full guide to APA in-text citations includes various examples of citations with page numbers. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations!
Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! APA Citation Generator. This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. Are your APA in-text citations flawless? What font and font size is used in APA format? For example: Times New Roman 12pt.
Arial 11pt. Calibri 11pt. Georgia 11pt. How do I cite in APA format? Should I include page numbers on every page? Who uses APA style? Is this article helpful? Raimo Streefkerk Raimo is an expert in explaining plagiarism and citing sources. He has been writing helpful articles since and is continuously improving Scribbr's Citation Generators.
Other students also liked. APA title page cover page An APA title page student version , includes the title, author's name and affiliation, course name, instructor name, and due date. Start citing with Scribbr! Hi Anthony, The template shouldn't be in Spanish. Karen Ryan Danielian April 28, at AM One of my articles' author, refers to other researchers or thoughts by others in the field. Karen Reply. Hi Karen, To cite the sources mentioned in a source you're reading, the best way is always to find the original source and cite it directly.
Thanks Kelly Reply. Hi Kelly, You include an in-text citation whenever you quote or paraphrase a source in your text. Michael Ouellette April 10, at AM Hi, I was wondering what is typically considered too long for paragraph length? Hi Michael, There's no specific limit to how long your paragraphs can be in APA style; they suggest that if a paragraph is longer than one double-spaced A4 page, it risks "losing readers' attention," so it might be best to avoid paragraphs of that length.
Thank you Reply. Hi Anahita, This isn't really something that APA decides, but rather your university or the instructor who set the word count. I really appreciate your help! Hi Lori, If you double-click on the area at the bottom of the page the footer , you should then be able to select the Scribbr logo directly and delete it, which should automatically remove it on all pages. Hope that helps! Gabi March 26, at AM Thanks for the useful information!
Hi Gabi, You can find more information about this here , under "Single-author works. Christi February 11, at AM Hello! Thank you so much for your time and any help you may give. Respectfully, Christi Reply. Hi Christi, You may find our article on writing a personal statement helpful, as well as our article on statements of purpose.