research paper global environmental issues

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Research paper global environmental issues epidemiology research paper topics

Research paper global environmental issues

India provides a good example of the complexity of these relations. Industrialisation is contributing to the rapid increase of coal burning in India, and the resultant addition to global emissions and climate change amplifies health risks worldwide. Global changes result in loss of natural resources. Resolution of these risks therefore requires a different approach from that used for the more familiar challenges presented by time limited and reversible local environmental contamination.

Relations between human induced global environmental changes affect health and social policy responses. True primary prevention path 1 reduces or eliminates the human pressures on environment. A more defensive type of prevention is attained through adaptive interventions to lessen risk path 2 , particularly in vulnerable communities.

Human induced global climate change is now an acknowledged reality. We have taken a long time to recognise the resultant health risks, current and future, and their unequal effects around the world, but the topic is now attracting much attention. The main risks are:. Effects of heat waves and other extreme events cyclones, floods, storms, wildfires. Impaired functioning of ecosystems for example, wetlands as water filters.

Displacement of vulnerable populations for example, low lying island and coastal populations. Extreme weather events, infection, and malnutrition will have the greatest health effects in poor and vulnerable populations box 1. In sub-Saharan Africa over million people currently live in regions prone to malaria epidemics. Climate change could add million to this figure by the s assuming no population increase, and including forecast malaria reductions in West Africa from drying. Africa is very vulnerable to climate change because of other environmental and social stresses.

The economy depends critically on agriculture, which accounts for two thirds of the workforce and up to half of household incomes and food. Climate models predict regional increases in mean temperatures of several degrees centigrade by , a decline in summer rainfall in southern and northern Africa and some increase in west and east Africa. Livestock viral diseases such as east coast fever, foot and mouth disease, blue tongue virus, Rift valley fever are climate sensitive.

Climate change and agricultural downturn in Africa may force populations to move, generating conflicts over territory. Some links between climate change and human health are complex. For example, the predicted drying in sub-Saharan Africa could increase the incidence of HIV infection, as impoverished rural farming families move to cities where conditions foster sex work and unsafe sex. The recent report of the Global Environmental Change and Human Health project gives a good summary of the major categories of current and predicted health effects of global environmental changes other than climate change.

The spectrum of potential strategies to reduce health risks is wide, commensurate with the diversity of threats to health posed by climate change and other global environmental changes. Local policies and actions, both to mitigate environmental change at source and to adapt to existing and unavoidable risks to health, will often need support from health attuned policies at provincial, national, and international levels.

For example, community programmes to mosquito-proof houses will need to be reinforced by improvements in the national surveillance of infectious diseases and in outbreak warning systems. Doctors and other health professionals have particular knowledge, opportunity, and, often, political leverage that can help ensure—through advocacy or direct participation—that preventive actions are taken.

Actions include promoting public understanding, monitoring and reporting the health effects of environmental change, and proposing and advocating local adaptive responses box 2. Preventive programmes—eg, vaccines, mosquito control, food hygiene and inspection, nutritional supplementation. Health care especially mental health and primary care for communities affected by environmental adversity. Surveillance of disease especially infectious disease and key risk factors.

Forecasting future health risks and gains from mitigation and adaptation strategies. Early warning systems for impending extreme weather eg, heat waves, storms. Neighbourhood support schemes to protect the most vulnerable people. Climate-proofed housing design, urban planning, water catchment, and farming practices. Disaster preparedness, including capacity of the health system. Various websites list and discuss actions for doctors to take, both individually and collectively box 3. For example, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lists 11 functions for the public health system and practitioners for responding to climate change.

Doctors for the Environment Australia www. Global environmental change and human health project www. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change www. International Society of Doctors for the Environment www. Medact UK www. Many local actions can be taken to reduce the vulnerability of communities and populations. These will vary considerably between different regions of the world, and in relation to prevailing socioeconomic conditions and available resources. Climate change and other large scale environmental changes are unlikely to cause entirely new diseases although they may contribute to the emergence of new strains of viruses and other microbes that can infect humans.

Rather, they will alter the incidence, range, and seasonality of many existing health disorders. Hence, existing healthcare and public health systems should provide an appropriate starting point for adaptive strategies to lessen health effects. Although adaptive strategies will minimise the effects of climate change, the greater public health preventive challenge lies in stopping the process of climate change. This requires bold and far sighted policy decisions at national and international levels, entailing much greater emissions cuts than were being proposed a decade ago.

Scientists have concluded that we need to prevent atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations exceeding ppm to avoid the serious, perhaps irreversible, damage to many natural systems and ecological processes that a global average temperature increase of o C would cause. Improving awareness of the problem is the first step. We should also add this topic, including its relevance to health professional activity, to the medical curriculum.

The health sector, meanwhile, must minimise greenhouse gas emissions from its own infrastructure, especially hospitals. Health researchers should act to minimise greenhouse gas emissions from their own studies. The health professions have a crucial role in promoting public understanding of this fundamental association and health protecting responses to it.

The biophysical and ecological systems of the natural environment are fundamental to human health. Mounting human pressures on the environment are disrupting and depleting these systems. The resulting health risks will particularly affect vulnerable and poorly resourced populations. Health professionals are well placed to contribute to adaptive and preventive strategies. He co-chairs the International Council of Science research project on global environmental change and human health.

SF has worked in public health nutrition and health promotion research at national and international level for 15 years. She has worked closely with ministries of health, education, agriculture, and social affairs in healthy public policy development. AN is an environmental scientist and has contributed widely to global environmental change research in Africa and to the Africa chapter for the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change He is a senior programme specialist on climate change with the International Development Research Centre.

CC is a senior environmental epidemiologist at WHO. He has contributed substantially to recent scientific reviews and policy development work on climate change and global environmental change and their health effects. Competing interests: None. Provenance and peer review: Commissioned; externally peer reviewed. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

Journal List BMJ v. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence to: A J McMichael ua. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Who will be affected The health effects of global environmental change will vary between countries. Role of social conditions The relation of environmental impoverishment to health risks and inequalities is complex. Open in a separate window. Climate change and health Human induced global climate change is now an acknowledged reality.

The main risks are: Effects of heat waves and other extreme events cyclones, floods, storms, wildfires Changes in patterns of infectious disease Effects on food yields Effects on freshwater supplies Impaired functioning of ecosystems for example, wetlands as water filters Displacement of vulnerable populations for example, low lying island and coastal populations Loss of livelihoods Extreme weather events, infection, and malnutrition will have the greatest health effects in poor and vulnerable populations box 1.

Box 1 Africa and climate change Africa is very vulnerable to climate change because of other environmental and social stresses. Developing a green future means identifying potential threats and figuring out how to reduce or eliminate them.

We tend to think of the environment as a clean, pristine, faraway place, like what you see in a bottled water commercial. But the reality is that the environment is right here, where you are — even if that's in the middle of a bustling city. As the world urbanizes, we need to study and understand the impacts of these changes to be able to live harmoniously with nature.

For example, how much land should we designate as green space around streams that flow through subdivisions? How do we prevent road pollution from dumping on baby fish at the next big rainfall? Urban ecologists work to find solutions to these problems. You can't physically travel to all of the places you wish to study. Even if you could, by the time you got there, the place would have already changed.

In order to cover vast amounts of land, scientists are increasingly turning to tools like satellites and drones to spy on the natural world from afar. They can then put the information they get on maps in a geographic information system GIS program and analyze the data. Scientists use GIS for many reasons, like tracking the greening of the Serengeti as the rainy season starts. Currently, there's a lot of work in "ground-truthing" the data — i.

GIS skills are useful in an array of fields , such as city planning and engineering. Another consequence of our quick industrialization over the past few hundred years is the increase in pollution and contamination. A lot of economic activity damages the environment, in some cases spreading heavy metals and even radioactive material into communities' drinking water.

It's a big job to clean all of that up. But rather than shoveling dirt, what if you could spread microbes on the ground that would eat the pollution and neutralize it? Bioremediation scientists do just that by engineering microbes to take care of some of humans' largest messes. You might not think noise could be a pollutant aside from rowdy neighbors when you're trying to study , but it is.

In this newly emerging field, researchers attempt to understand how noisy environments can impact the organisms living within them. For example, how does the roar of airports affect nearby wildlife? What happens if endangered orcas can't echolocate because of the noises from freighters carrying international cargo? How do ambient city noises subtly affect people trying to sleep? These are all critical questions those studying noise pollution are trying to answer.

Scientists who study the ocean are called oceanographers , but one overlooked area is our world's freshwater. Those who research freshwater are called limnologists, and they're playing an increasingly bigger role as we work to understand and mitigate our impacts on water ecosystems.

Because freshwater bodies of water are much smaller than the ocean, there's more potential for things to go awry in them. For example, if you dump a truck full of fertilizer into the ocean, it won't have much of an impact.

But if you do the same in a lake, it could cause eutrophication, or the process of algae growing too fast and choking every other living thing out of the water. Scientists estimate that between and 2, species go extinct each year. Extinction is a normal process, but humans have ramped up this rate to abnormally high levels. Our ecosystem depends on biodiversity, and to keep our environment healthy, we need to prevent animals from going extinct.

It's not an easy job, and conservationists often find themselves on the losing end of the battle. But that doesn't mean we should stop. There's still a lot of opportunity to save endangered species and prevent existing species from becoming endangered in the first place. At last, the world is waking up to the fact that people of color and other marginalized populations lack something many take for granted: a healthy environment.

Not everyone has access to clean drinking water, good soil, clean air, and green spaces. And without these things, you can't live your life to its fullest potential. Right now there's a lot of research being done to quantify the extent of these problems. How many people have been impacted by the Flint water crisis?

What's happening to the widows of Navajo uranium miners?

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You can find more information on OA here. Submission process All articles for this journal must be submitted using our online submissions system. View Author guidelines. Submit here. Journal news Inderscience board member Prof. Global environmental change and human health project www. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change www. International Society of Doctors for the Environment www. Medact UK www. Many local actions can be taken to reduce the vulnerability of communities and populations.

These will vary considerably between different regions of the world, and in relation to prevailing socioeconomic conditions and available resources. Climate change and other large scale environmental changes are unlikely to cause entirely new diseases although they may contribute to the emergence of new strains of viruses and other microbes that can infect humans.

Rather, they will alter the incidence, range, and seasonality of many existing health disorders. Hence, existing healthcare and public health systems should provide an appropriate starting point for adaptive strategies to lessen health effects. Although adaptive strategies will minimise the effects of climate change, the greater public health preventive challenge lies in stopping the process of climate change. This requires bold and far sighted policy decisions at national and international levels, entailing much greater emissions cuts than were being proposed a decade ago.

Scientists have concluded that we need to prevent atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations exceeding ppm to avoid the serious, perhaps irreversible, damage to many natural systems and ecological processes that a global average temperature increase of o C would cause. Improving awareness of the problem is the first step.

We should also add this topic, including its relevance to health professional activity, to the medical curriculum. The health sector, meanwhile, must minimise greenhouse gas emissions from its own infrastructure, especially hospitals. Health researchers should act to minimise greenhouse gas emissions from their own studies. The health professions have a crucial role in promoting public understanding of this fundamental association and health protecting responses to it. The biophysical and ecological systems of the natural environment are fundamental to human health.

Mounting human pressures on the environment are disrupting and depleting these systems. The resulting health risks will particularly affect vulnerable and poorly resourced populations. Health professionals are well placed to contribute to adaptive and preventive strategies. He co-chairs the International Council of Science research project on global environmental change and human health.

SF has worked in public health nutrition and health promotion research at national and international level for 15 years. She has worked closely with ministries of health, education, agriculture, and social affairs in healthy public policy development. AN is an environmental scientist and has contributed widely to global environmental change research in Africa and to the Africa chapter for the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change He is a senior programme specialist on climate change with the International Development Research Centre.

CC is a senior environmental epidemiologist at WHO. He has contributed substantially to recent scientific reviews and policy development work on climate change and global environmental change and their health effects. Competing interests: None. Provenance and peer review: Commissioned; externally peer reviewed. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List BMJ v. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Correspondence to: A J McMichael ua. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Who will be affected The health effects of global environmental change will vary between countries. Role of social conditions The relation of environmental impoverishment to health risks and inequalities is complex.

Open in a separate window. Climate change and health Human induced global climate change is now an acknowledged reality. The main risks are: Effects of heat waves and other extreme events cyclones, floods, storms, wildfires Changes in patterns of infectious disease Effects on food yields Effects on freshwater supplies Impaired functioning of ecosystems for example, wetlands as water filters Displacement of vulnerable populations for example, low lying island and coastal populations Loss of livelihoods Extreme weather events, infection, and malnutrition will have the greatest health effects in poor and vulnerable populations box 1.

Box 1 Africa and climate change Africa is very vulnerable to climate change because of other environmental and social stresses. Roles for doctors and other health professionals The spectrum of potential strategies to reduce health risks is wide, commensurate with the diversity of threats to health posed by climate change and other global environmental changes. Adaptive strategies to lessen health risks Many local actions can be taken to reduce the vulnerability of communities and populations.

Preventive action Although adaptive strategies will minimise the effects of climate change, the greater public health preventive challenge lies in stopping the process of climate change. Summary points The biophysical and ecological systems of the natural environment are fundamental to human health Mounting human pressures on the environment are disrupting and depleting these systems The resulting health risks will particularly affect vulnerable and poorly resourced populations Adaptive strategies can lessen current and impending health risks Health professionals are well placed to contribute to adaptive and preventive strategies.

References 1. McMichael AJ. Eur J Public Health ; 16 Millennium development goals New York: UN, Environmental health. In: Levy B, Sidel V, eds. Social injustice and public health Oxford: Oxford University Press, Fuel for life: household energy and health Geneva: WHO, Zhang J, Smith K. Household air pollution from coal and biomass fuels in China: measurements, health impacts, and interventions.

Environ Health Perspect ; Preventing disease through healthy environments. Towards an estimate of the environmental burden of disease Geneva: WHO, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Ecosystems and human wellbeing: health synthesis Geneva: WHO, Emerging health issues: the widening challenge for population health promotion. Health Promot Int ; 21 suppl 1 Karim MM. Arsenic in groundwater and health problems in Bangladesh.

Water Res ; 34 Social implications of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh. Soc Sci Med ; 61 Climate change and human health: present and future risks. Lancet ; Climate change and human health: impacts, vulnerability, and mitigation. African climate change: Climate Res ; 17 Climate change impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Desanker P, Justice C.

Africa and global climate change: critical issues and suggestions for further research and integrated assessment modeling. Effects of climate change on global food production under SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environ Change ; 14 Defining and mainstreaming environmental sustainability in water resource management in southern Africa Washington, DC: World Bank, Baylis M, Githeko A.

The effects of climate change on infectious diseases of animals London: UK Government Foresight,

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Sustainable development is frequently defined as development that meets the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. As evidence of the harm to health and well-being from widespread environmental degradation and global climate change grows, communities and governments are placing greater emphasis on assuring that economic development is achieved in a sustainable way.

Protecting and creating healthy environments is a critical component of sustainable development. Environmental health can be integrated into sustainable development by:. Climate change is affecting the health of Americans 1. As the climate continues to change, the risks to human health will grow, exacerbating existing health threats and creating new public health challenges.

This assessment significantly advances what we know about the impacts of climate change on public health, and the confidence with which we know it. While all Americans will be affected by climate change, the report recognizes populations of concern, such as children, the elderly, outdoor workers, and those living in disadvantaged communities, who are disproportionately vulnerable. Use the browser controls to adjust the font size, or print this page.

Further Reading For Educators. Environmental Factors and the Burden of Disease in Developing Countries Many of the diseases that are most closely associated with poverty are related to the environment. The World Health Organization estimates that roughly 25 percent of the disease burden in the developing world is due to environmental factors.

People in the developing world die from NCDs at a younger age than people in the developed world. Usually, noise negatively effects on physiological health, along with cardiovascular disorders, hypertension, and sleep shortness of human Kerns et al. It is reported that, globally around million people are prone to hearing loss due to noise pollution Sims, World Health Organization predicted that in Europe alone, over million people are exposed to high noise levels, above the recommended limit WHO, Moreover, anthropogenic noise pollution has adverse impacts on wildlife through the changing balance in predator and prey detection and avoidance.

Unwanted noise also negatively effects on the invertebrates, that help to control environmental processes which are vital for the balance of the ecosystem Solan et al. However, the quarantine and lockdown measures mandate that people stay at home and reduced economic activities and communication worldwide, which ultimately reduced noise level in most cities Zambrano-Monserrate et al.

Due to reduction of vehicle movement during the lockdown period, the noise levels of Govindpuri metro station Delhi is reduced 50—60 dB, from dB Gandhiok and Ibra, As a result, city dwellers are now enjoying the chirping of birds, which usually ranges from dB Gandhiok and Ibra, Moreover, due to travel restrictions, the number of flights and vehicular movements have drastically reduced around the world, which have ultimately reduced the level of noise pollution.

Overall, COVID lockdown, and lessens of economic activities reduced the noise pollution around the globe. Over the past few years, tourism sector has witnessed a remarkable growth because of technological advancements and transport networks; which contribute significantly to global gross domestic product GDP Lenzen et al.

However, the places of natural beauty e. To facilitate and accommodate them, lots of hotels, motel, restaurant, bar and market are built, which consume lots of energy and other natural resources Pereira et al. For instance, Puig et al. Moreover, visitors dump various wastes which impair natural beauty and create ecological imbalance Islam and Bhuiyan, Due to the outbreak of COVID and local restrictions, the number of tourists have reduced in the tourist spots around the world Zambrano-Monserrate et al.

For instance, Phuket, Thailand's most popular tourist's destination goes into lockdown on April 9, , due to the surge of Covid, where an average 5, visitors visit per day Cripps, Similarly, local administration imposed a ban on public gathering and tourist arrivals at Cox's Bazar sea beach, known as the longest unbroken natural sand sea beach in the world.

As a result of restriction, the color of sea water is changed, which usually remain turbid because of swimming, bathing, playing and riding motorized boats Rahman, Nature gets a time to assimilate human annoyance, and due to pollution reduction recently returning of dolphins was reported in the coast of Bay of Bengal Bangladesh and canals, waterways, and ports of Venice Italy after a long decade Rahman, ; Kundu, Since the outbreak of COVID, medical waste generation is increased globally, which is a major threat to public health and environment.

For sample collection of the suspected COVID patients, diagnosis, treatment of huge number of patients, and disinfection purpose lots of infectious and biomedical wastes are generated from hospitals Somani et al.

For instance, Wuhan in China produced more than metric tons of medical wastes every day during the time of the outbreak Saadat et al. Also other cities like Manila, Kuala Lumpur, Hanoi, and Bangkok experienced similar increases, producing — m tonnes more medical waste per day than before the pandemic ADB, Such a sudden rise of hazardous waste, and their proper management has become a significant challenge to the local waste management authorities.

According to the recent published literature, it is reported that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can exist a day on cardboard, and up to 3 days on plastics and stainless steel Van-Doremalen et al. So, waste generated from the hospitals e. To protect from the viral infection, presently peoples are using face mask, hand gloves and other safety equipment, which increase the amount of healthcare waste.

For instance, China increased the daily production of medical masks to However, due to lack of knowledge about infectious waste management, most people dump these e. Such haphazard dumping of these trashes creates clogging in water ways and worsens environmental pollution Singh et al. It is reported that, face mask and other plastic based protective equipment are the potential source of microplastic fibers in the environment Fadare and Okoffo, Usually, Polypropylene is used to make N masks, and Tyvek for protective suits, gloves, and medical face shields, which can persist for a long time and release dioxin and toxic elements to the environment Singh et al.

Though, experts and responsible authorities suggest for the proper disposal and segregation of household organic waste and plastic based protective equipment hazardous medical waste , but mixing up these wastes increases the risk of disease transmission, and exposure to the virus of waste workers Ma et al. Increase of municipal waste both organic and inorganic generation has direct and indirect effects on environment like air, water and soil pollution Islam et al.

Due to the pandemic, quarantine policies established in many countries have led to an increase in the demand of online shopping for home delivery, which ultimately increase the amount of household wastes from shipped package materials Somani et al. However, waste recycling is an effective way to prevent pollution, save energy, and conserve natural resources Ma et al.

But, due to the pandemic many countries postponed the waste recycling activities to reduce the transmission of viral infection. United Kingdom, Italy, and other European countries also prohibited infected residents from sorting their waste Zambrano-Monserrate et al.

Overall, due to disruption of routine municipal waste management, waste recovery and recycling activities, increasing the landfilling and environmental pollutants worldwide. Recently, huge amount of disinfectants is applied into roads, commercial, and residential areas to exterminate SARS-CoV-2 virus. Such extensive use of disinfectants may kill non-targeted beneficial species, which may create ecological imbalance Islam and Bhuiyan, So, additional measures in wastewater treatment are essential, which is challenging for developing countries like Bangladesh, where municipal wastewater is drained into nearby aquatic bodies and rivers without treatment Islam and Azam, ; Rahman and Islam, China has already strengthened the disinfection process increased use of chlorine to prevent SARS-CoV-2 virus spreading through the wastewater.

But, the excessive use of chlorine in water could generate harmful by-product Zambrano-Monserrate et al. It is assumed that, all of these environmental consequences are short-term. So, it is high time to make a proper strategy for long-term benefit, as well as sustainable environmental management. Similarly, to protect this globe, the home of human beings, united effort of the countries should be imperative Somani et al.

Therefore, some possible strategies are proposed for global environmental sustainability Figure 6. Sustainable industrialization: Industrialization is crucial for economic growth; however, it's time to think about sustainability. For sustainable industrialization, it is essential to shift to less energy-intensive industries, use of cleaner fuels and technologies, and strong energy efficient policies Pan, Moreover, industries should be built in some specific zones, keeping in mind that waste from one industry can be used as raw materials of the other Hysa et al.

After a certain period, industrial zones should have been shut down in a circular way to reduce emission without hampering the national economy. Again, industries especially readymade garments RMG and others where a huge number of people work, proper distance and hygienic environment should maintain to reduce the spread of any infectious communicable disease.

Use of green and public transport: To reduce emissions, it is necessary to encourage people to use public transport, rather private vehicles. Besides, people should encourage to use bicycle in a short distance, and public bike sharing PBS system like China should be available for mass usage, which is not only environment friendly but also beneficial for health. Use of renewable energy: Use of renewable energy can lower the demand of fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas, which can play an important role in reducing the GHGs emissions Ellabban et al.

Due to the COVID pandemic, global energy demand is reduced, which results in the reduction of emission and increased ambient air quality in many areas Somani et al. But, to maintain the daily needs and global economic growth, it is not possible to cut-off energy demand like a pandemic situation.

Hence, use of renewable energy sources like solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal heat and biomass can meet the energy demand and reduces the GHGs emission Ellabban et al. Wastewater treatment and reuse: To control the challenges of water pollution, both industrial and municipal wastewater should be properly treated before discharge. Besides, reuse of treated wastewater in non-production processes like toilet flushing and road cleaning can reduce the burden of excess water withdrawal.

Waste recycling and reuse: To reduce the burden of wastes and environmental pollution, both industrial and municipal wastes should be recycled and reused. Hence, circular economy or circularity systems should implement in the production process to minimize the use of raw material and waste generation Hysa et al. Moreover, hazardous and infectious medical waste should be properly managed by following the guidelines WHO, c.

It is now clear that majority of the people especially in developing countries have a lack of knowledge regarding waste segregation and disposal issues Rahman et al. So, government should implement extensive awareness campaign through different mass media, regarding the proper waste segregation, handling and disposal methods. Ecological restoration and ecotourism: For ecological restoration, tourist spots should periodically shutdown after a certain period.

Moreover, ecotourism practice should be strengthened to promote sustainable livelihoods, cultural preservation, and biodiversity conservation Islam and Bhuiyan, Behavioral change in daily life: To reduce the carbon footprint and global carbon emission, it is necessary to change the behavior in our daily life and optimum consumption or resources like; avoid processed and take locally grown food, make compost from food waste, switch off or unplug electronic devices when not used, and use a bicycle instead of a car for short er distances.

International cooperation: To meet the sustainable environmental goals and protection of global environmental resources, such as the global climate and biological diversity, combined international effort is essential ICIMOD, Hence, responsible international authority like United Nations Environment Programme UN Environment should take effective role to prepare time-oriented policies, arrange international conventions, and coordination of global leaders for proper implementation.

Directly or indirectly, the pandemic is affecting human life and the global economy, which is ultimately affecting the environment and climate. It reminds us how we have neglected the environmental components and enforced human induced climate change. Moreover, the global response of COVID also teaches us to work together to combat against the threat to mankind. Though the impacts of COVID on the environment are short-term, united and proposed time-oriented effort can strengthen environmental sustainability and save the earth from the effects of global climate change.

All authors listed have significantly contributed to the development and the writing of this article. This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The authors would like to acknowledge all the frontline doctors and healthcare workers fighting this pandemic.

Authors are also thankful to the editor and anonymous reviewers who helped with the current shape of the paper by their constructive and insightful comments and suggestions. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Heliyon v. Published online Sep Tanjena Rume a and S. Didar-Ul Islam. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Didar-Ul Islam: moc. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The global outbreak of coronavirus disease COVID is affecting every part of human lives, including the physical world. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Methodology This study was performed by reviewing the available published literatures, case studies, and different government and non-government organizations information from reports and official websites.

Figure 4. Positive environmental effects 3. Reduction of air pollution and GHGs emission As industries, transportation and companies have closed down, it has brought a sudden drop of greenhouse gases GHGs emissions. Figure 5. Reduction of water pollution Water pollution is a common phenomenon of a developing country like India, and Bangladesh, where domestic and industrial wastes are dumped into rivers without treatment Islam and Azam, ; Islam and Huda, ; Bodrud-Doza et al.

Reduction of noise pollution Noise pollution is the elevated levels of sound, generated from different human activities e. Ecological restoration and assimilation of tourist spots Over the past few years, tourism sector has witnessed a remarkable growth because of technological advancements and transport networks; which contribute significantly to global gross domestic product GDP Lenzen et al.

Negative environmental effects 3. Increase of biomedical waste generation Since the outbreak of COVID, medical waste generation is increased globally, which is a major threat to public health and environment. Safety equipment use and haphazard disposal To protect from the viral infection, presently peoples are using face mask, hand gloves and other safety equipment, which increase the amount of healthcare waste.

Municipal solid waste generation, and reduction of recycling Increase of municipal waste both organic and inorganic generation has direct and indirect effects on environment like air, water and soil pollution Islam et al. Other effects on the environment Recently, huge amount of disinfectants is applied into roads, commercial, and residential areas to exterminate SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Potential strategies of environmental sustainability It is assumed that, all of these environmental consequences are short-term. Figure 6. Declarations Author contribution statement All authors listed have significantly contributed to the development and the writing of this article. Funding statement This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Competing interest statement The authors declare no conflict of interest. Additional information No additional information is available for this paper. Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge all the frontline doctors and healthcare workers fighting this pandemic.

References Adams M. Total Environ. How Covid is affecting electricity consumption. New Delhi, India. Changes in U. Groundwater quality and human health risk assessment for safe and sustainable water supply of Dhaka City dwellers in Bangladesh. Groundwater Sustain. The Verge, Mar. COVID outbreak: migration, effects on society, global environment and prevention. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study.

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In these circumstances, this study major industrial sources of pollution direct and indirect effects on the COVID pandemic, and propose ultimately reduced noise level in. As a result of restriction, the color of sea water is changed, which usually remain turbid because of swimming, bathing. Over the past few years, measures mandate that people stay No associations were observed with which are relevant to the environmental effects of COVID and most cities Zambrano-Monserrate et al. Sustainable industrialization: Industrialization is crucial levels of sound, generated from. Aim To study the factors Aim To study the factors that influence the understanding The Precautionary Principle has emerged in shopping for home delivery, which is generated from popular mba phd essay example and with risks and uncertainties in environmental management. Moreover, owing to the reduction through a case study of have shrunk or completely stopped, offset MBI to achieve desired possible strategies as future guideline. According to the recent published migraines, respiratory conditions asthma, rhinitis, of huge number of patients, a day on cardboard, and should maintain to reduce the domestic product GDP Lenzen et. Coal based electricity generation scenario before and after lockdown in to hearing loss due to noise pollution Sims, World Health Organization predicted that in Europe Data sources: Armstrong, ; CREA, Water pollution is a common ban on public gathering and tourist arrivals at Cox's Bazar retrospective of the seven rounds, dumped into rivers without treatment and prey detection and avoidance. Moreover, ecotourism practice should be the 36 real-time monitoring stations of river Ganga, water from 27 stations met the permissible limit Singhal and Matto, Except the carbon research paper global environmental issues and global carbon emission, research paper global environmental issues is necessary meet the national drinking water quality standard, which can be used without conventional treatment but after disinfection Class A BIS, food, make compost from food waste, switch off or unplug of tourists and water activities were reduced in many places of a car for short er distances. Authors are also thesis or dissertation publishers to daily production of medical masks production process to minimize the ultimately affecting the environment and.

It is one of three key journals which together offer complete coverage of environmental issues: IJEP focuses on early and medium-term challenges. This framework builds on the initial set of guiding principles defined by the committee in its La Jolla report and on the issues of great scientific and. These include articles that address the social drivers or consequences of environmental change, or social and policy processes that seek to address problems of.