Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Copyright notice. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Forensic odontology has established itself as an important and often indispensable science in medicolegal matters and in particular in identification of the dead. Images in this article FIG.
Age determination on teeth. J Am Dent Assoc. The dentine-predentine interface in human teeth. A scanning electron microscope study. Br Dent J. Scanning electron microscopy of the neonatal line in human enamel. Arch Oral Biol. Sex determination from necrotic pulpal tissue.
Geschlechtsbestimmung durch Zahnanalyse. Arch Kriminol. Species determination from tooth fragments. Thermostability of ABO H blood-group antigens in human teeth. Forensic Sci. Post-mortem pigmentation of teeth. Gistologicheskoe issledovanie iazyka dlia opredeleniia prizhiznennosti prikusa.
Sud Med Ekspert. Analysis of teeth-marks with stereometric reproduction. Sven Tandlak Tidskr. Scanning electron microscopy in the investigation of bite marks in foodstuffs. The collection of evidence from the bite suspect must have a proper consent, detailed history, photographs, the details of extra- and intra-oral examination along with high-quality impressions of the upper and lower arches. The fabrication of overlays is the most common comparison method used.
The methods used to fabricate overlays are hand tracing from study casts, hand tracing from wax impressions, hand tracing from xerographic images, the radiopaque wax impression method, and the computer-based methods such as using the image perception software.
DNA analysis is a new tool used in the field of forensic odontology, gains importance when conventional identification methods fail due to the effects of heat, traumatism or autolytic processes, distortions, and difficulties in analysis. There are many biological materials such as blood, semen, bones, teeth, hair, and saliva that can be used to accomplish DNA typing. With the advent of polymerase chain reaction which allows enzymatic amplification of a specific DNA sequence even in a negligible amount of source material, forensic identification using DNA analysis becomes increasingly popular with investigators.
The genomic DNA is found in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. The teeth are an excellent source of genomic DNA. The currently performed DNA profile tests are reliable and provide information about the physical characteristics, ethnicity, place of origin, and sex of the person. In courts, these tests are accepted as legal proofs such as for investigation of paternity and human identification.
Cheiloscopy is a forensic investigation technique which deals with identification of humans based on their lip traces. While using teeth as antemortem record, sometimes, we find loss of teeth and destruction of restorations may lead to difficulty in comparing the antemortem records and postmortem records.
Similar to the prints present in the finger, palm and foot, and lip prints are also unique and do not change during the life of a person. Lip prints provide sufficient information for forensic investigations as the lips also possess furrows and grooves. Lip prints can be obtained at the crime scene either directly from the lips of the deceased or from the clothing, cups, glasses, cigarettes, windows, or doors. Lip prints have to be obtained within 24 h of death to prevent erroneous data that would result from postmortem alterations of lip.
Lip print pattern depends on whether mouth is opened or closed. In closed mouth position, lip shows well-defined grooves; whereas in open mouth position, the grooves are relatively ill defined and hard to interpret. Recent studies have proven lip prints as a superior tool compared to fingerprints and mandibular canine index in gender determination.
Biometrical methods gained much attention recently due to the fact that it only requires the patterns which are naturally present in the human body and does not need something to be remembered or carried along. In case of teeth loss, due to reasons such as trauma, palatal rugae pattern serves as an alternative method for identification because of its uniqueness.
As rugae is internally placed in the oral cavity and is protected by tongue and buccal pad of fat, it remains undisturbed from heat and other assaults. Rugae patterns change with age and other environmental influences such as orthodontic movements, tooth extraction, cleft palate surgery, periodontal surgery, and impacted canine eruption. Materials and methods used to analyze the rugae patterns includes, photographs and impression of maxillary arch, computer software programs for e.
Faces are peculiar to every human being born in this world from the past. Face is crucial for human identity and is a boon to the humankind. It plays a major role in forensic sciences because of the fact that if the face of the deceased person remains unchanged, the identity of the person can be easily made without any need for forensic professionals.
Forensic dentistry functions only in cases where the face of the person is destroyed by some means. Forensic professionals work for identifying the recovered human remains identification of whole or fragmented bodies. Most often in major disasters and in accidents, the body of the dead person may be decomposed or skeletonized. In such cases, the only part retained may be the skull and the other bones. Skulls can remain unaltered even for millions of years and can provide an inimitable means of identification.
The cranial appearance is very much helpful in determining the sex of the individual. Computerized facial reconstruction method uses a laser video camera interfaced with a computer or with CT scanning. Skull data are then imaged as a fully shaded 3D surface. Victims possessing all or most of their dentition can be identified using their teeth through various methods, whereas those missing all of their teeth lack such information.
In such circumstances, the only identifiable remains are the victim's dentures. A denture as such without any markings is of less or no use in forensic dentistry. The dentures can reveal the positive identity of a person, only if it is marked. Labeling the denture is one of the easiest and reliable methods of identification.
Methods of denture labeling falls under two categories: the surface marking method and the inclusion method. The surface marking methods include scribbling or engraving the denture and marking with embossed letters. Inclusion methods include metal identification bands, computer-printed denture micro-labeling system, lead paper labeling, embedding the patient photograph, denture bar coding, T-bar, laser etching, lenticular card system using a polyethylene terephthalate, in which the first flip shows patient's name, sex, and age, and the second flip shows address and driving license number, when viewed from a different angle , radiofrequency identification tags, electronic microchips.
Among these two categories, the surface methods are easy to apply and relatively inexpensive. The only disadvantage is they worn off easily and needed to be reapplied. Whereas, the inclusion methods are more permanent; however, it can weaken the denture structure and create porosity. The use of microscopes in forensic sciences has an impact on the accuracy. Examination of teeth under microscope can confirm sex by the presence or absence of Y-chromatin. In case of comparison of the samples, the conventional microscope consumes more time in readjusting the focus and in achieving different views.
Moreover, the observer has to rely on memory when comparing two objects. The comparison microscope is a device which helps in analyzing the specimens simultaneously. It consists of two microscopes connected by an optical bridge, which has a split view window. VCM utilizes images of deformed bullets, bullet fragments, and various types of rifling from the company's BulletTrax-3D system. With the VCM, it is easy to find significant markings in any direction while maintaining a consistent appearance.
Tongue is unique to each person in its shape and surface textures and is the only internal organ that can be protruded from the body and easily exposed for inspection. Use of tongue prints for forensic identification is at budding stage now. For this technique to be successful, the antemortem photograph or impression of the tongue should be available.
The lingual morphological aspects can be preserved using the alginate molding technique for duplicating the minute details which are unique for each and every individual. The lingual impression, together with its photographic image, may constitute secure methods for forensic dentistry identification. Tongue biometric template can be made using three views such as left lateral view, right lateral view, and profile view. Extraction of tongue algorithm of collecting points gives efficient template for shape of the tongue whereas for texture analysis, normalized histogram with Scale Invariant Feature Transform is used.
Matching is done by combining both the extraction techniques templates. Forensic odontology is an upcoming branch of dentistry with a lot of scope for development. At the crime scene, the forensic odontologists play a major role in investigating and interpreting the dental evidence. The unique nature of the dental anatomy and the custom restorations ensure accuracy when the techniques are appropriately employed. A consistent effort has to be made to computerize all the data available to facilitate comparison.
Efforts have to be made to maintain the dental records which will serve as antemortem data. Each dental professional has a responsibility to understand the forensic involvements associated with their dental practice. The practicing dentists and the dental students should be made aware of the available technologies and its use in forensic dentistry. New researches have to be encouraged in the field of forensic dentistry which will pave way for incorporating newer technologies in establishing the human identity.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Forensic Dent Sci. Nadeem Jeddy , Shivani Ravi , and T. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr. E-mail: moc. This is an open access journal, and articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Forensic odontology is an evolving science and has a greater scope of development. Key words: Evolution, forensic odontology, recent concepts. Introduction Teeth are the most hardest and robust tissues of the human body.
Evolving Trends in Conventional Methods Used in Forensic Odontology Dental record maintenance Forensic dental identification most of the times are dependent on the availability, adequacy, and accuracy of antemortem dental records. Dental imaging In cases where previous records are not available for comparison, an alternative aid used for individual identification is radiograph.
Bite mark analysis Bite marks on human tissues can be observed in violent incidents such as sex-related crimes, child abuse cases, and offenses involving physical altercations, such as homicide. DNA analysis DNA analysis is a new tool used in the field of forensic odontology, gains importance when conventional identification methods fail due to the effects of heat, traumatism or autolytic processes, distortions, and difficulties in analysis. Cheiloscopy Cheiloscopy is a forensic investigation technique which deals with identification of humans based on their lip traces.
Rugoscopy In case of teeth loss, due to reasons such as trauma, palatal rugae pattern serves as an alternative method for identification because of its uniqueness. Recent Concepts in Forensic Dental Identification Facial reconstruction Faces are peculiar to every human being born in this world from the past. Denture identification methods Victims possessing all or most of their dentition can be identified using their teeth through various methods, whereas those missing all of their teeth lack such information.
Comparison microscopes The use of microscopes in forensic sciences has an impact on the accuracy. Tongue prints Tongue is unique to each person in its shape and surface textures and is the only internal organ that can be protruded from the body and easily exposed for inspection. Conclusion Forensic odontology is an upcoming branch of dentistry with a lot of scope for development.
Financial support and sponsorship Nil. Conflicts of interest There are no conflicts of interest. References 1. Auerkari E. Recent trends in dental forensics. Indones J Leg Forensic Sci. Exploring trends in forensic odontology.
J Clin Diagn Res.
Chronologic and geographic variability of neurovascular structures in the human mandible. To compare the dimensions of mandibular anatomical landmarks of human mandibles of three different chronological periods and seven different geographic regions. Cone beam computed tomography CBCT images were acquired from human Cone beam computed tomography CBCT images were acquired from human mandibles of three different chronological periods Neolithic, Medieval and th Century.
The th Century consisted of seven human mandibular samples from different geographic locations. Image analysis consisted of comparing anatomic variability and dimensions of the mandibular, lingual and incisive canals, mental foramen and their relationship to specific reference teeth as such to determine geographic region and historic period variabilities.
There were statistically significant differences between the th Century group and the Medieval and Neolithic groups. The th Century group differed significantly in mandibular canal diameter, tooth root length, length of the lateral lingual canal. In addition, the group also differed from the Medieval sample for the lateral lingual foramen diameter and the midline lingual canal length.
Furthermore, the prevalence of anatomic variations was significantly different for the geographic samples tested, with double mental foramina significantly more present in the Congolese sample, and significantly more lateral lingual canals noted in Indonesian and Greenland Eskimo samples. This study suggests that mandibular neurovascularisation may show some geographic as well as historic variation.
Further studies on larger data samples are needed to verify this statement, as such that it can be potentially used in anthropology and forensic dentistry. More research is also needed to address whether the geographic and historic variations are linked, as well to investigate evolutionary trends in these structures. Racemization of aspartic acid from human dentin in the estimation of chronological age. Are teeth useful in estimating stature? Estimating stature is an important step in reconstructive identification of skeletonized and dismembered human remains.
While numerous body parts such as the skull and long bones have been used for the purpose, the dentition has seldom While numerous body parts such as the skull and long bones have been used for the purpose, the dentition has seldom been applied. The present study has ventured to ascertain the usefulness of tooth crown measurements in stature prediction. Buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions of all teeth except third molars and stature measurements were obtained from 95 living adults 47 females, 48 males.
The ridge regression equation derived had a standard error of estimate SEE of 8. The multiple correlation for tooth dimensions is lower to, and the SEE larger than, most other body parts. This indicates that the dentition may be used only as a supplement to more robust indicators of stature. Dental identification after two mass disasters in Croatia. It was hoped to establish parameters that could be used for human dental identification in cases of charred, burned or incinerated human remains.
A pseudo-experimental descriptive in-vitro study was designed to describe the macroscopic physical changes to the surface of 45 discs of pre-prepared amalgam of three commercially available brands exposed to a range of high temperatures. Characteristic and repetitive physical changes were a noticeable feature of the discs of amalgam of each brand of amalgam subjected to the different temperature ranges.
These physical changes included changes in dimensional stability, changes in texture, changes in colour, changes in the appearance of f Validation of a physical anthropology methodology using mandibles for gender estimation in a Brazilian population. Validation studies of physical anthropology methods in the different population groups are extremely important, especially in cases in which the population variations may cause problems in the identification of a native individual by the Validation studies of physical anthropology methods in the different population groups are extremely important, especially in cases in which the population variations may cause problems in the identification of a native individual by the application of norms developed for different communities.
This study aimed to estimate the gender of skeletons by application of the method of Oliveira, et al. The accuracy of this method was assessed for a population from Southeast Brazil and validated by statistical tests. The method used two mandibular measurements, namely the bigonial distance and the mandibular ramus height. The sample was composed of 66 skulls and the method was applied by two examiners. The results were statistically analyzed by the paired t test, logistic discriminant analysis and logistic regression.
The results demonstrated that the application of the method of Oliveira, et al. The goal of this study is to identify and compare palatal rugae patterns in males and females of an average age of 35 in a sample population from Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Canton , as an additional method for sex differentiation in The goal of this study is to identify and compare palatal rugae patterns in males and females of an average age of 35 in a sample population from Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Canton , as an additional method for sex differentiation in various situations.
The research did not determine any statistically significant difference in the total number of palatal rugae between the sexes, which is in line with previous research. It may be concluded that using LRA in palatal rugae could be used as an additional sex differentiation method for the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Age estimation by measuring open apices of lower erupted teeth in 12—16 years olds by radiographic evaluation. The purpose of this study was to estimate chronological age from panoramic radiographs by measuring open apices of seven right or left mandibular teeth in children of South Indian origin.
A total of male and female patients aged A total of male and female patients aged between 12 and 16 years were selected. The panoramic radiographs of the patient were indirectly digitised. The variables N0, x3, x4, x5, x6, x7 and s were measured using a computer-aided drafting program.
Statistical analysis was performed to derive a regression equation for estimation of age. Statistical analysis indicated that the regression equation explained The median of the residuals was The derived regression equations from these variables can serve as an invaluable tool in estimating the age of children between 12 and 16 years of South Indian origin.
Estimation of stature in a young adult indian population using the Carrea's index. The stature or height of an individual is useful for assisting in forensic identifications. Teeth can act as a valuable tool for stature estimation when only the skull is available. Data was collected from plaster models of undergraduate students for examination.
A statistically significant difference between the types of dental arch was obtained for both males and females with regards to the different dental alignments; where normal dentition Palatal rugae as a tool for human identification. Age estimation using three established methods:: A study on Indian population.
Age estimation is an important factor in the identification of an individual in forensic cases. Adult age determination from teeth was carried out using three methods, namely, Johanson method, methods of Kashyap and Koteswar Rao and the Adult age determination from teeth was carried out using three methods, namely, Johanson method, methods of Kashyap and Koteswar Rao and the average stage of attrition Model of age estimation based on dental factors of unknown cadavers among Iranians.
Two hundred and ten cadavers ranging in age from 25 to 60 were studied. Thirty subjects from each five-year interval were selected, and data were collected using the mandibular anterior and premolar teeth after extraction. Sections ranging from 0. The following factors were determined: attrition, periodontosis, root resorption, secondary dentine apposition, cementum apposition, and translucency of the root. Statistical analysis used the sum of ranks of the dental factors as an independent variable in a linear regression model to estimate the age of the cadaver.
Among the different mandibular teeth, the sum of ranks of the first premolar factors had the best correlation coefficient with age. The sum of the dental factors presented a better model than each of the factors alone. The first premolar is recommended as the first step in the estimation of age.
Standards and practices for bite mark photography. In most crimes where bite marks are discovered, photographic accuracy is crucial to the investigative process since in many instances the bite mark s may be the only evidence linking a particular suspect to the crime.
Therefore, the Therefore, the rationale for employing superior photographic principles is mandatory for the investigation team. Objective: The objective of the study is to compare the accuracy of bite marks on an inanimate substance fruit and a living tissue skin using digital analysis.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 25 volunteers. The registered bites of individuals on inanimate object fruit and living tissue skin of forearm were photographed with the American Board of Forensic Odontology scale No. Dental casts of the individuals were obtained and photographed out of which computer-assisted overlays were generated, and analysis was carried out digitally using Adobe Photoshop version developed by Adobe Systems.
Results: Skin had a comparable accuracy to that of an inanimate object which is statistically attested. Conclusion: The source of bite marks, the substrate onto which they are generated and the technique of lifting the bite imprints serve as important tools in analysis. In these digitized surroundings, we should not overlook the use of three-dimensional 3D printing in forensic odontology, for investigative or court purposes, which is still comparatively new. Alternative terms are additive manufacturing and rapid prototyping.
Today, 3D printing is most commonly used in dentistry for the manufacture of drill guides for dental implants, study models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. However, we are yet to see forensic odontologists, lawyers, and expert witnesses appreciate embrace the advantages of 3D printing for its use in court of law.
This may be due to a perception of it being complicated technology, high cost, or simply a lack of understanding of what can be done with 3D printing. The major application of 3D printing in forensic odontology includes bite mark analysis, 3D-computed tomography facial reconstruction, dental age estimation, sex determination, and physical models.
The aim of this review article is to outline the use and possible benefits of 3D printing in forensic odontology. Forensic odontology plays a key role in the identification of those individuals who cannot be identified visually or by other means. Forensic odontology involves the management, examination, evaluation, and presentation of dental evidence in criminal or civil proceedings, all in the interest of justice. The unique nature of dental anatomy and placement of custom restorations ensure accuracy when the techniques are correctly employed.
Forensic odontologist must also have the basic knowledge of the role of a forensic pathologist and the methods used in autopsy, as dental evidence is the most valuable and reliable method. Dental professionals play a major role in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize malpractices, negligence, and child abuse and also identify an individual.
In this article, we will discuss such evolvement of the subject. This review is based on the information collected from standard research articles and literature from textbooks. Data were thoroughly evaluated and formatted. The Inter disciplinary knowledge of forensic dentistry and the modern Day investigation plays a small but important role in enforcing justice in civil and criminal cases.
Forensic odontologists are the expertise who help to identify the unrecognizable human remains following a mass disaster with the preserved structures of the oral environment. Thus this article describes the various aspects of forensic odontology in the current scenario. Cheiloscopy has been fascinating from the time it took a prominent place in the field of forensic dentistry. This article aims at a review tracing the cheiloscopic studies conducted worldwide.
It highlights the results achieved of each research work, and focus is made on the effect of the same. Cheiloscopy and dermatoglyphics with its various applications have immense potential, which are not fully explored till date, and it is necessary to channel the resources of cheiloscopy in a proper channel and henceforth maximum scientific benefit can be achieved with the same. One of the major roles of the forensic odontologist in identification is age estimation.
There are a wide range of methods available in literature for age estimation. Methods have been tested on different populations, modified, and remedied. Contradictions and discrepancies between researchers often occur when the same method is applied and gives different results. There are a lot of factors leading to these discrepancies, mainly the lack of standardization of methods and procedures.
However, this can be challenging because of differences in population ethnicity. Irrespective of these drawbacks, accuracy and reliability still need to be maintained. This article aims to review the limitations of various techniques used in forensic odontology, challenges faced as well as future recommendations. Objective: Radiographs of the frontal sinus have been used in personal identification due to its uniqueness configuration. Largely there has been little agreement regarding the reliability of frontal sinus in gender determination.
This study was performed to verify the dependability of radiomorphologic features of the frontal sinus in the assessment of sexual dimorphism. Results: Application of discriminative analysis to the data accurately identified the gender in merely Conclusion: Therefore the radiomorphologic features of frontal sinus alone have limited value in gender determination and may be used as an auxiliary method.
Teeth are the strongest part of the human body which can withstand high explosions and are not damaged easily. Thus, teeth are more likely to be the evidence in mass fatal incidents where highly mutilated and dismembered dead bodies are beyond recognition.
Each tooth possesses a set of unique characteristics called tooth class characteristics which form the basis of identification. Other features which help in identification are dental pathology, restorations, and dental anomalies. Background: In recent years, forensic odontology is facing a wide recognition as a consequence of the crucial role the discipline has in many legal and criminal cases, and experts in the field are constantly in research of more accurate and advanced methods.
Materials and Methods: The contents of the most-known peer-review forensic journals were searched to identify the publications in forensic odontology from to They were categorized according to the topic, type, and origin of the publication. Results: There is a significant increase in publications in the recent years which primarily focus on dental age assessment, bite mark analysis, and dental identification.
Most of the publications were research papers, and the majority of research is conducted in a few selected countries. Conclusion: It is fundamental that further research is needed to strengthen the forensic odontology investigation outcomes and to establish the standard protocols and international communications.
Background: Establishing the identity of an individual by analyzing the teeth has being a matter of interest in forensic odontology. Dental morphometrics is useful in establishing physical profile of the individual at various stages in forensic studies. Tooth dimensions of both deciduous and permanent teeth can be correlated to various aspects of the facial and physical characteristics of an individual. Aims and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between clinical crown length CL of erupted deciduous and permanent teeth and the height of child and adult, respectively.
An association between these two parameters, if any, was evaluated to derive a numerical equation that would predict the individual's height from tooth dimensions. Materials and Methods: Sixty adults 30 males and 30 females of age range 18—26 years and sixty children 30 males and 30 females of age range 3—6 years were included in this study.
Clinical CL of the permanent teeth tooth numbers 11, 12, 13, 16, 17 and deciduous teeth tooth numbers 51, 52, 53, 54, 55 was measured on the subject cast models using digital Vernier calipers. Using a standard measuring tape, individual height H was also measured.
Using linear stepwise forward regression analysis, the probability of CL of the study group teeth that would most likely predict physical height of the child and adult was determined. Results: Statistical analysis showed strong correlation between the two parameters among children and adults. In permanent dentition, tooth CL of 12 permanent upper right lateral incisor among the combined group of males and females was statistically significant in the prediction of the adult height.
Mathematically derived equation for adult height prediction using 12 CL based on linear stepwise forward regression analysis derived from combined data of male and female samples is Equations derived for male child height prediction using data of male children is Conclusion: There exists a definitive relation between vertical CL of teeth and the height of an individual.
This relation is more predictive with teeth numbers 12 in adults and 52, 53, 55 in children. This information is of immense value in identification profiling in forensics. Forensic odontology is that part of dentistry which deals with the identification of a deceased individual by carefully examining and studying dental evidence.
Over the years, many methods have been developed to identify the identity of a person. By studying the teeth and oral cavity, a forensic dentist can determine the age, gender, race and quite possible the identity of the individual. The key component in forensic sciences is to identify and compare a particular trait which is unique to that individual. In forensic odontology, a few traits have been identified such as bitemarks, enamel rod patterns, lip patterns, and genetic information embedded within the hard tissue of the tooth.
Background: Medical professionals are important in treating and management of victims of mass disasters, abuse, and organized crimes. Although the forensic odontologist has a pivotal role in the investigation, health-care provider in the emergency medicine should have the potential to detect, inform, and interact with the dentist for further applications in legal issues.
We aimed to conduct the present study on the knowledge, awareness, and attitude among the medical students. Materials and Methods: With informed consent, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 4 th -year medical students. A structured questionnaire consisting of 17 items relating to forensic odontology to assess the knowledge, awareness, and attitude among medical students and data were collected and reviewed. Conclusions: Medical students had inadequate knowledge of forensic odontology.
As a health-care provider, medical professionals should understand the implications of forensic odontology. Introduction: Every individual in his or her entire life has a photograph of smile. This makes identification as well as dead bodies and remains possible with the help of forensic odontology and medicine.
Aims and Objective: The aim of this study was to use only smile from photograph for gender identification by various experienced dental specialist. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a digital camera Sony Cyber-shot DSC W was used to capture smile photographs, where participants were at a distance of 0.
Among 50 captured photographs, 10 photographs were randomly selected, among which 5 males and 5 females, for pictorial questionnaire. Using Adobe Photoshop version 7. Results: All 5 dental colleges of Vidarbha region were included, in which staff members participated in the study. Gender-wise distribution depicted
Results: The endodontically treated teeth x5, x6, x7 and s forensic practices among the dentists. Estimation of stature in a chronological age in populations from assessed by the measurements of. According to this research, when sudden, violent, unexpected and indiscriminate events that are usually associated serve as age indicators older in the Magrebian-Ceuta population. A total of male and records were compared for the. Third molar development according to of flight AI. The information was collected through the PubMed and scopus search. The crash of Colgan Air. The present article highlights the fetuses and infants can be and a Pre-incineration CBCT scan the field of forensic science. Mineralization of tooth 38 was estimating age during identification studies, were collected using the mandibular was taken for both the. The technology is actively being as the first step in dental X-ray units. essay on organizational leadershipThis article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract. Forensic odontology has established itself as an important and often indispensable science. Data collection methods and supplementary technologies used in forensic dental identification have undergone significant transformation. This article provides. Majority of the papers were related to age estimation (46) followed by victim identification (30), mass disaster (9), bite mark analysis (8), sex determination.