landscape architecture term paper

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Year after year, we review dozens of reader nominations, revisit sites from past lists, consider staff favorites, and search the far-flung corners of the web for new celebration of new year essay for a varied compilation that will prove an asset to any writer, of any genre, at any experience level. This selection represents this year's creativity-centric websites for writers. These websites fuel out-of-the-box thinking and help writers awaken their choke palahnuik and literary analysis. Be sure to check out the archives for references to innovative techniques and processes from famous thinkers like Einstein and Darwin. The countless prompts, how-tos on guided imagery and creative habits, mixed-media masterpieces, and more at Creativity Portal have sparked imaginations for more than 18 years. Boost your literary credentials by submitting your best caption for the stand-alone cartoon to this weekly choke palahnuik and literary analysis from The New Yorker. The top three captions advance to a public vote, and the winners will be included in a future issue of the magazine.

Landscape architecture term paper secretary work resume

Landscape architecture term paper

This paper aims to determine potential spaces for sustainable future development at Hutan Simpan Ampang, Ulu Klang, Malaysia. The site is highly valuable due to strategic location and high availability of spaces. However, due to several However, due to several landslide incidents happened in Ulu Klang over the past decades, the site is categorised as a landslide-prone area. Therefore, Potential Surface Analysis PSA is conducted to determine the potential areas within the site that are safe and suitable for future development.

All the factors were processed in Geographic Information System GIS through the overlay mapping technique, combining spatial and attribute data to obtain the suitability map. The result found that the majority coverage of the site is not suitable for any future development. There are only a few coverage areas that are suitable for small scale development.

However, a combination of the very high suitability area and the high suitability area expanded the opportunity for sustainable future development. Man and nature: common priorities. In spite of the serene natural environment created by God for the benefit of all the earth inhabitants with vegetation, water bodies, hills and mountains dotting everywhere to create an environment planned to achieve an atmosphere that In spite of the serene natural environment created by God for the benefit of all the earth inhabitants with vegetation, water bodies, hills and mountains dotting everywhere to create an environment planned to achieve an atmosphere that denotes and connotes peacefully living, quality and healthy life style, and a sustained earth space for future generation — the rapid deteriorating state of the natural landscape advancement in technology and the quest of man for more cannot be overlooked as various government all over the global are striving to ensure that the future generation meet in place an environment that can still be called healthy and conducive.

The word sustain means to preserve and one of the ways be which the environment can be preserved is through effective planning of rural and urban area; whereby the capacity within the urban area is no longer in proportion its population speedy growth and this has resulted into further gradual extinction of the few remaining natural habitat which has now giving birth to the urgent need of a Sustainable Urban Planning — this is the main basis for this research topic.

How to ensure that people are more sensitive to their natural environment. This research work investigates on the idea of softscape, how it relates to sustainable urban planning, challenges faced in the cause of implementing a sustainable urban plan and how softscape as a landscaping element can be used to improve the implementation and also the quality of the environment. Basis studies of pervious research works and notable garden and parks are used in this research with emphasizes on the Kuala Lumpur City Centre Taman in Malaysia, being a park location within the center of one of the busiest capital cities in Asia.

At the end of the research observation as where made as to how the use of softscape elements can help improve the quality of living in respect to urban beautification, air purification and creating a relaxing atmosphere for recreational purposes all within a sustainable planned urban area. Recommendation on how well to sanitized and imbibe in the people to embraces softscape method of sustaining their immediate environment and the larger community will be made. ABSTRACT The objective of design for all is to develop theories, principles and solution suggestions for ensuring that each and every individual uses the solutions developed for physical environment in the widest sense, within the scope of buildings, any area and space that is subjected to landscape design, communication tools or households goods.

In design-for-all, the key point is to ensure every individual with the rights of use, manners and forms under equal terms. Along with special opportunities, design and landscaping of open areas and natural fields present unexampled challenges for planners, architectures, landscape architectures and industrial product designers.

Many rural or urban areas are not accessible by a certain part of the society, nor is it usable. Landscape design for all is a phenomenon, which needs to be addressed within the scope of the principles of modern focus, sustainability, ergonomics, equality and freedom.

Where the landscape areas are subjected to landscaping within the scope of designing, it may be of a characteristic to be used by each and every part of the society, including the elders, people with disabilities and families with children. Within the scope of this research, the universal design principles are included in terms of design-for-all, while examining the design components in terms of landscape architecture.

There has been growing awareness in recent years of the energy consumption and interior environmental comfort of buildings. Substantial evaluation of the building envelope and indoor human experience is required to develop sustainable Substantial evaluation of the building envelope and indoor human experience is required to develop sustainable solutions, create a responsive system that enhances building performance and human comfort in terms of energy consumption and daylight quality.

The system is designed to contribute to energy reduction, daylight availability, and view quality through its ability to change position and placement to respond and adapt to new climate conditions. The thermal expansion phenomenon was used in the actuation process, with heat-activated actuators that correspond to specific dry-bulb temperatures.

This paper concisely demonstrates the functional mechanism of the PDSD concept. The focus is on the assessment of energy performance, daylight, and view quality when using PDSD. A numerical simulation was conducted to evaluate and analyze the potential energy savings and daylight control, and to improve the system in terms of material properties.

The Energy Plus and Radiance platforms were used during the study to facilitate simulation of a dynamic system. The system is validated by comparing three cases with the same geometry, function, and fenestration. The first case has no shading device, the second has a fixed shading device, and the third has a PDSD. This work presents an example of application of the system in a region with a hot, arid climate that receives an enormous amount of direct solar radiation.

Make your city greener. Make your city greener is a short guide to Nature-based Solutions of Depaving for the urban space with aim to support the actions of climate adaptation of the built environment. Though a highly complex phenomena coupled with not one, but Though a highly complex phenomena coupled with not one, but several Earth systems, human actions are both directly and indirectly changing wildfire frequencies, intensities, severities, and behaviours, and to the detriment of both environment and society.

A place where fire-averse architectures meet increasingly fire-prone lands, loss of lives, properties, and livelihoods to a series of wildfire complexes of proportions unprecedented in living memory have rendered there an urgent need to reconsider the challenge of living with wildfire as a vital landscape process. The product of a transdisciplinary study which converged state-of-the-knowledge from fields as diverse as the fire, ecological, and wider Earth sciences; information, communication, computing, and related technologies, both digital and biological; evolutionary, smart and living materials, architectures, and urban systems; philosophy, anthropology, psychology, and policymaking, this thesis presents a new wildland urban interface paradigm modelled on the biochemistries, behaviours, and systems of fire-adapted flora and the fire regimes they form.

Migrating biomimetics from the level of species to systems, relying not on generic notions of nature and its workings, nor assumptions more generally, but on rigorous interrogation of the interplay between biotic and abiotic processes from the molecular to landscape to planetary scale, and across both human and geological timescales, several original theoretical and technical architectural and urban concepts are discussed, together with their possible applications and implications both within and beyond the wildland urban interface.

Integrating insights from local and global indigenous and ancient fire cultures, the findings conclude that not merely is a reconciliation of human and non-human systems at the interface of fire-prone wild and urban lands possible, but therein resides potent ecological, social, and technical potentialities that merit further research in the years ahead. Chapter Overview: Transcending the boundaries of space and time, whereas the 5-part case studies series is exclusively focused on recent western U.

Traversing transdisciplinary information as relates to both wildland and urban fires, a system of systems approach is employed by means of illuminating how, at the level of biochemistry, physics, and the wider sciences, fire behaviours as are witnessed in wildlands have become manifest in cities past and present, and why the matter thereof it pertinent to architectural and urban design futures. While informing the new WUI paradigm this thesis puts forth, the purpose of this chapter is that of highlighting the wider applicability of the findings of this research programme, and of critiquing construction, and other built environment concepts as evidence vulnerability to fire.

This paper will concentrate on the result of a research based on comparative study between two Persian gardens in different micro climates in arid regions. Sustainability could be observed in many aspects and elements of traditional Sustainability could be observed in many aspects and elements of traditional Iranian architecture and landscape architecture, and this method of design has used to solve many problems for many centuries.

Gardens of Iran have had special role to moderate hot and arid climate since many years ago and their design method is an appropriate strategy to create sustainable landscape in our today cities. In this research, the selected case studies are Hasht-Behesht garden in Isfahan, and Jahannama garden in Shiraz, located in two different areas in arid regions of central plateau of Iran.

The research method adopted in this paper consists of descriptive-analytic and deductive analyses. By the analysis of sustainable and climatic features and characteristics of these cases, the main goal is to identify the parameters of creating green space for present and future sustainable landscaping with similar climates. Results confirm that the similarities and differences between these two gardens are because of the different microclimatic regions they are located in.

At the conclusion part, the main characteristics of Persian gardens from sustainability view will be classified and recommendations for sustainable landscape design will be presented. This study This study looked at the factors affecting landscaping in Auchi polytechnic. The data used for the study was the primary and secondary source of data.

The building activities of its medieval and Quattrocento patrons generated a heterogeneous campo that incorporated morphological elements from two Venetian urbanistic types: the parish campo and the monastic island. Its sixteenth-century patriarchs created a new architectural vision of the campo, contesting its slippage from the center of Venetian life and forging a distinctive ensemble that differs marke Kristina Kleutghen. Architecture of geothermal places: socially and culturally responsive therapeutic landscapes.

There is increasing recognition that culture plays a crucial role in shaping therapeutic environments; from fundamental conceptions of wellness and healing, through to cultural relationships with the natural world, and to how spaces are There is increasing recognition that culture plays a crucial role in shaping therapeutic environments; from fundamental conceptions of wellness and healing, through to cultural relationships with the natural world, and to how spaces are shaped by culturally-specific construction methods and materials.

This paper approaches the concept of therapeutic landscapes from an architectural perspective, analysing three separate case studies relating to geothermal architecture from the Ring of Fire. This paper contributes to our understanding of the role of culture in producing and maintaining architectural places by reflecting on the way in which individuals and groups engage with place, their range of social encounters, experiences, narrative Fragile edges and floating strategies along the albanian coastline.

By speculatively reversing the By speculatively reversing the order of landscape perception from land to water, the coastline becomes a flexible device capable of responding to unpredictable future events - natural disasters related to climate change rising sea levels , or globally challenging socio-political phenomena such as mass migration growing in scope, complexity and impact.

The experimental design approach involves the design and representation of an incremental waterscape. Spatial designers are asked to translate historic identities into spatial forms in order to Spatial designers are asked to translate historic identities into spatial forms in order to bridge the gap between past and future. Special cultural heritage policies are developed to stimulate a shift in design practice and to increase awareness of the value of cultural landscapes.

Because interpretation of the rural landscape is often rooted in nostalgia, most conservation efforts are directed at old historical landscapes and rural scenes. But what about modern rural landscapes? How do these landscapes relate to the emerging issue of heritage protection and development? To answer this question the historical significance of these landscapes was examined by analyzing their design in the slipstream of post-war reconstruction.

Attention was also given to their possible future in a planning and management context that is increasingly influenced by a public and professional demand for landscape conservation and heritage. We argue that these landscapes are at odds with the values and core convictions of the current heritage policies and merit recognition in their own right.

Alternatives au gazon-Olivier Filippi. Utilising agent based models for simulating landscape dynamics. Cities and landscapes are now understood as systems that are open, chaotic, unpredictable, irreversible, and in constant flux-ie complex adaptive systems. This is why designers need to develop new modes of practice that can cope with open This is why designers need to develop new modes of practice that can cope with open systems design.

The golf courses are not isolated areas in the territory where they are located; instead, these elements are an integral part of the surrounding ecosystem. The golf courses are components of the landscape and, in addition to all the The golf courses are components of the landscape and, in addition to all the benefits of functional, visual, and economical that could bring to the region, they may also, if their management is correct, improve the quality of the environment. Throughout this study, it is possible to realize, once more, that the process of Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Impact Studies are the support base so that there is success in the design of sustainable Golf course.

Moreover, we should consider the measures to mitigate the negative impacts and maximize the positive impacts and develop methods to conduct constant monitoring of these projects' typologies. Pharaonische Landschaftsarchitektur. A garden in the desert: Pharaonic landscape architecture. View Comments. Anna Isabel Serra Masdeu. Comunicacions i paisatge.

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This paper aims to determine potential spaces for sustainable future development at Hutan Simpan Ampang, Ulu Klang, Malaysia. The site is highly valuable due to strategic location and high availability of spaces. However, due to several However, due to several landslide incidents happened in Ulu Klang over the past decades, the site is categorised as a landslide-prone area. Therefore, Potential Surface Analysis PSA is conducted to determine the potential areas within the site that are safe and suitable for future development.

All the factors were processed in Geographic Information System GIS through the overlay mapping technique, combining spatial and attribute data to obtain the suitability map. The result found that the majority coverage of the site is not suitable for any future development. There are only a few coverage areas that are suitable for small scale development. However, a combination of the very high suitability area and the high suitability area expanded the opportunity for sustainable future development.

Man and nature: common priorities. In spite of the serene natural environment created by God for the benefit of all the earth inhabitants with vegetation, water bodies, hills and mountains dotting everywhere to create an environment planned to achieve an atmosphere that In spite of the serene natural environment created by God for the benefit of all the earth inhabitants with vegetation, water bodies, hills and mountains dotting everywhere to create an environment planned to achieve an atmosphere that denotes and connotes peacefully living, quality and healthy life style, and a sustained earth space for future generation — the rapid deteriorating state of the natural landscape advancement in technology and the quest of man for more cannot be overlooked as various government all over the global are striving to ensure that the future generation meet in place an environment that can still be called healthy and conducive.

The word sustain means to preserve and one of the ways be which the environment can be preserved is through effective planning of rural and urban area; whereby the capacity within the urban area is no longer in proportion its population speedy growth and this has resulted into further gradual extinction of the few remaining natural habitat which has now giving birth to the urgent need of a Sustainable Urban Planning — this is the main basis for this research topic.

How to ensure that people are more sensitive to their natural environment. This research work investigates on the idea of softscape, how it relates to sustainable urban planning, challenges faced in the cause of implementing a sustainable urban plan and how softscape as a landscaping element can be used to improve the implementation and also the quality of the environment.

Basis studies of pervious research works and notable garden and parks are used in this research with emphasizes on the Kuala Lumpur City Centre Taman in Malaysia, being a park location within the center of one of the busiest capital cities in Asia. At the end of the research observation as where made as to how the use of softscape elements can help improve the quality of living in respect to urban beautification, air purification and creating a relaxing atmosphere for recreational purposes all within a sustainable planned urban area.

Recommendation on how well to sanitized and imbibe in the people to embraces softscape method of sustaining their immediate environment and the larger community will be made. ABSTRACT The objective of design for all is to develop theories, principles and solution suggestions for ensuring that each and every individual uses the solutions developed for physical environment in the widest sense, within the scope of buildings, any area and space that is subjected to landscape design, communication tools or households goods.

In design-for-all, the key point is to ensure every individual with the rights of use, manners and forms under equal terms. Along with special opportunities, design and landscaping of open areas and natural fields present unexampled challenges for planners, architectures, landscape architectures and industrial product designers.

Many rural or urban areas are not accessible by a certain part of the society, nor is it usable. Landscape design for all is a phenomenon, which needs to be addressed within the scope of the principles of modern focus, sustainability, ergonomics, equality and freedom.

Where the landscape areas are subjected to landscaping within the scope of designing, it may be of a characteristic to be used by each and every part of the society, including the elders, people with disabilities and families with children. Within the scope of this research, the universal design principles are included in terms of design-for-all, while examining the design components in terms of landscape architecture. There has been growing awareness in recent years of the energy consumption and interior environmental comfort of buildings.

Substantial evaluation of the building envelope and indoor human experience is required to develop sustainable Substantial evaluation of the building envelope and indoor human experience is required to develop sustainable solutions, create a responsive system that enhances building performance and human comfort in terms of energy consumption and daylight quality.

The system is designed to contribute to energy reduction, daylight availability, and view quality through its ability to change position and placement to respond and adapt to new climate conditions. The thermal expansion phenomenon was used in the actuation process, with heat-activated actuators that correspond to specific dry-bulb temperatures.

This paper concisely demonstrates the functional mechanism of the PDSD concept. The focus is on the assessment of energy performance, daylight, and view quality when using PDSD. A numerical simulation was conducted to evaluate and analyze the potential energy savings and daylight control, and to improve the system in terms of material properties. The Energy Plus and Radiance platforms were used during the study to facilitate simulation of a dynamic system. The system is validated by comparing three cases with the same geometry, function, and fenestration.

The first case has no shading device, the second has a fixed shading device, and the third has a PDSD. This work presents an example of application of the system in a region with a hot, arid climate that receives an enormous amount of direct solar radiation. Make your city greener.

Make your city greener is a short guide to Nature-based Solutions of Depaving for the urban space with aim to support the actions of climate adaptation of the built environment. Though a highly complex phenomena coupled with not one, but Though a highly complex phenomena coupled with not one, but several Earth systems, human actions are both directly and indirectly changing wildfire frequencies, intensities, severities, and behaviours, and to the detriment of both environment and society.

A place where fire-averse architectures meet increasingly fire-prone lands, loss of lives, properties, and livelihoods to a series of wildfire complexes of proportions unprecedented in living memory have rendered there an urgent need to reconsider the challenge of living with wildfire as a vital landscape process. The product of a transdisciplinary study which converged state-of-the-knowledge from fields as diverse as the fire, ecological, and wider Earth sciences; information, communication, computing, and related technologies, both digital and biological; evolutionary, smart and living materials, architectures, and urban systems; philosophy, anthropology, psychology, and policymaking, this thesis presents a new wildland urban interface paradigm modelled on the biochemistries, behaviours, and systems of fire-adapted flora and the fire regimes they form.

Migrating biomimetics from the level of species to systems, relying not on generic notions of nature and its workings, nor assumptions more generally, but on rigorous interrogation of the interplay between biotic and abiotic processes from the molecular to landscape to planetary scale, and across both human and geological timescales, several original theoretical and technical architectural and urban concepts are discussed, together with their possible applications and implications both within and beyond the wildland urban interface.

Integrating insights from local and global indigenous and ancient fire cultures, the findings conclude that not merely is a reconciliation of human and non-human systems at the interface of fire-prone wild and urban lands possible, but therein resides potent ecological, social, and technical potentialities that merit further research in the years ahead.

Chapter Overview: Transcending the boundaries of space and time, whereas the 5-part case studies series is exclusively focused on recent western U. Traversing transdisciplinary information as relates to both wildland and urban fires, a system of systems approach is employed by means of illuminating how, at the level of biochemistry, physics, and the wider sciences, fire behaviours as are witnessed in wildlands have become manifest in cities past and present, and why the matter thereof it pertinent to architectural and urban design futures.

While informing the new WUI paradigm this thesis puts forth, the purpose of this chapter is that of highlighting the wider applicability of the findings of this research programme, and of critiquing construction, and other built environment concepts as evidence vulnerability to fire. This paper will concentrate on the result of a research based on comparative study between two Persian gardens in different micro climates in arid regions. Sustainability could be observed in many aspects and elements of traditional Sustainability could be observed in many aspects and elements of traditional Iranian architecture and landscape architecture, and this method of design has used to solve many problems for many centuries.

Gardens of Iran have had special role to moderate hot and arid climate since many years ago and their design method is an appropriate strategy to create sustainable landscape in our today cities. In this research, the selected case studies are Hasht-Behesht garden in Isfahan, and Jahannama garden in Shiraz, located in two different areas in arid regions of central plateau of Iran.

The research method adopted in this paper consists of descriptive-analytic and deductive analyses. By the analysis of sustainable and climatic features and characteristics of these cases, the main goal is to identify the parameters of creating green space for present and future sustainable landscaping with similar climates.

Results confirm that the similarities and differences between these two gardens are because of the different microclimatic regions they are located in. At the conclusion part, the main characteristics of Persian gardens from sustainability view will be classified and recommendations for sustainable landscape design will be presented.

This study This study looked at the factors affecting landscaping in Auchi polytechnic. The data used for the study was the primary and secondary source of data. A construct of use categories provides a system for understanding the environment in terms of what it is perceived to provide its users.

Use categories include wayfinding, human territoriality, cultural expression, visual and non-visual aesthetics, and task performance. Drawing from literature and research in many areas, each of these categories is first defined in general terms. Each is then surveyed relative to its more specific application to the elderly which is followed by an examination of each category as it relates to the elderly and landscape. Application of categories to site analysis, programming, design, post-occupancy evaluations, and research is proposed.

Some landscape design implications for the elderly are noted along with areas for further research. Changes in riparian vegetation following release of reclaimed effluent water into the Santa Cruz River: As a corollary, the effects of channelization on vegetation in the Santa Cruz River. Livingston, Margaret M. This project seeks to determine the composition of river vegetation due to the release of the reclaimed water, and as a corollary, to examine the effects of channelization on the vegetation of the Santa Cruz River.

Using belt and line transects the vegetation along the Santa Cruz River was surveyed. Treatment with effluent was found to increase plant density, diversity, richness, cover, and incidence of exotic plants. Channelization was found to increase only plant richness and incidence of exotic plants. Furthermore, effluent encouraged the growth of tree plant types while channelization discouraged such growth. Recommendations were made regarding future release of effluent into the Santa Cruz River and future attempts to restore the once prolific, willow-cottonwood forests and mesquite forests.

A confluence of thinking: The influence of 20th century art history on American landscape architecture. I discovered a connection in the usage of the jargon of art in landscape architecture study. People, for the most part, do not know what landscape architects do or who we are. In this thesis I will make the case for aligning the profession of landscape architecture with the fine arts and humanities. An art history component in the curriculum and education and training of landscape architects would augment their design and presentation skills in the workplace.

I have included the results of a survey questionnaire that I sent to 65 landscape architecture teaching faculty representing 38 landscape architecture programs in the United States. These individuals held either a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree, a Master of Fine Arts degree, or they had a scholarly research interest in art.

A critical analysis of the plans for the preservation of four Templer colonies in Israel. This study critically analyzes plans for preservation and development of four of the seven colonies which were founded in Palestine in the 19th century by the German Templers who immigrated because of religious convictions. The history of the group and their contribution to the development of Palestine are described, as are the present condition of the colonies.

Criteria for critical analysis of preservation plans which drawn from existing laws in the modern state of Israel, international charters, and interviews with people connected to the colonies in one way or another. The conclusions from this analysis show that only one plan fits the criteria. Defining success in schoolyard design in Tucson, Arizona: Evaluating schoolyards utilizing assessment, staff perceptions, and achievement test scores. The intention of this study was to identify the design elements, qualities, or processes of elementary schoolyards that determine the success of these environments.

Descriptive and comparative data analyses were conducted following the distribution of questionnaires and the application of criteria checklists to a sample of public elementary schools in Tucson, Arizona. The discovered patterns contributed information as to how well these schoolyards are providing a successful outdoor experience for staff and children, as well as what factors determine that positive outcome. The findings are useful for the design of future school outdoor environments and the redesign of existing schoolyards in Tucson and the Southwest, and may be applicable in other regions.

Design variables and the success of outdoor neighborhood recreational facilities. Designing a successful outdoor neighborhood recreational facility insures that the surrounding population has an enjoyable, safe, and lasting space to recreate. This study properly illustrates the process in designing a successful neighborhood park. A demographic analysis, conducted in Southern California's Coachella Valley, identified three neighborhood parks as ideal study sites.

Likewise, the review of existing literature, site observations, and the analysis of a carefully designed survey developed the appropriate methodology in meeting the intent of this study. As author, I wish to stress the importance of process. If the designer of a neighborhood facility is to meet the recreational goals of any community, he or she must first take action in understanding the appropriate process.

Once this understanding is achieved, effective design guidelines may then be developed. Another line of thought is that in a well-rounded education in architecture and landscape architecture, couples design with the act of construction. This allows for a healthy balance from conceptualization to construction, which in turn, may foster stronger, integrated design skills. Familiarization with the construction process from materials and construction methods to budgeting and project management offers increased experience and understanding and can foster confidence and assurance crucial to decision making throughout academic and professional careers.

This process can also lead to innovation and expansion of theory in the field due to the physical implementation and testing of ideas and concepts. As a growing number of architectural graduates are beginning their career and thriving in the design-build sector, this model of education is to evolve as a cornerstone in the curriculum of an architecture or landscape architecture program. This thesis explores the history, theory, and implementation of design-build education in the field of architecture and landscape architecture.

Furthermore, an analysis is to be conducted on present day curriculum standards and previously conducted student and post-graduate surveys, as well as student and professional interviews. Based on research and reflections, a curriculum for a design-build studio within a school of landscape architecture is developed.

The development of travel guide specifications to increase the awareness of landscape architecture and natural resource management. One solution is a travel guide to be developed using marketing and interpretive principles.

The research question is: what should be the content of the travel guide such that it would increase public awareness about landscape architecture and related natural resource professions and their role in land stewardship? The scope included research for planning the guide: it excluded collection of specific project information. A questionnaire was administered to landscape architects at two professional meetings.

The major findings include which topics best explain the profession, and the types of projects that should be selected. These findings are valuable to natural resource professional societies and to publishing industry marketers, and for use in pursuing grant funding to continue the guide's development.

Biogeographical and anthropological methods were employed to explore the history of the forests. Archaeology and historical narratives provided a portrait of the study area from prehistory to the early 20th century. Aerial surveys from and were analyzed to quantify changes in forest cover. Mapping and inventory of indicator species measured short-term change between and Interviews, field observation and participant observation in the tourist industry provided a socio-cultural context for quantitative analysis and for recommendations for remediation of pressures on the remaining forest.

The conclusions question concepts such as "landscape integrity" and the usefulness of non-interventionist ideology in an historic and rapidly changing region. Gorski, Andrew David; Jeffery, R.

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This is highly subjective. Balled and burlapped - Field dug tree with the root ball wrapped in burlap. Basalt - as it relates to landscaping in Portland The most common type of landscape and masonry stone. Boulders from the Columbia River Gorge and other local quarries are usually basalt.

The most common basalt is gray, but black basalt and basalt with brown tones is also available. Basin - An enclosed area of water. When discussing water features the basin may be the water receptacle below ground or the pot or vessel that water spills out of. Bubbler - A style of water feature with a large drilled stone usually serving as the centerpiece. Boulder - Large stone. In general a stone over lbs would qualify as a boulder.

More about the proper way to set boulders is here. Cascade - Where water in a stream or vessel hits a point of vertical drop. The height and width of a cascade are major factors in the amount of noise generated by a water feature. Catch basin - A below grade vessel for collecting surface water and then directing it into a drain line or dry well.

Also, an area where water pools before falling over the next cascade. Clump - Group of trees, shrubs, bamboo, or ornamental grass planted together to form a grouping. Compost - Decomposed garden or food material, used in planting beds to amend from above and hold moisture where it is needed. Concept Plan - During the landscape design process, this is a basic drawing or plan containing the key details of the garden plan, without adding excessive details or full plantings so the basic footprint of key elements can be understood.

Conifer - Tree that bears cones and needle-like or scale-like leaves that are typically evergreen. Pine, cedar, hemlock, redwood, fir, cypress, juniper, spruce, and arborvitae are common conifers in the PNW. Contour - Purposeful change in ground elevations or grade. These may take the form of a mound, swale, or combination of the two. Contrast - Differences in tone, texture, mass, or color between landscape design elements.

Plant combinations or pairings often highlight these differences so that each plant can shine. Course - A horizontal row or tier of stone, paver, or wood in a wall , patio, or landscape screen. Courtyard garden - A garden mostly or completely surrounded by walls or buildings, perhaps at the entry to a building or meant to viewed from key windows.

Curbing - A border or edging using poured concrete or natural stone. Deciduous - A tree or bush shrub that loses its leaves in winter. In the PNW there are semi-deciduous or semi-evergreen plants that may lose their leaves depending on how cold the winter is. Abelia and some hebe are good examples. Deck - A flat gathering space, made of wood or composite material made to look like wood , typically adjacent or attached to a structure.

A deck usually sits above grade, a patio would generally be at grade. Decking - Materials the surface of a deck is made out of. Cedar, ipe, juniper, and composite are the most common decking materials in Portland. Some excellent decking contractors are recommended here.

Decorative rock - Rocks chosen for their color or texture and used as a ground cover, walking surface, or focal point. Black beach pebbles, pea gravel, and granite are the most common choices in Portland landscape designs.

Decomposed Granite - Granite that is weathered to the point that it is a very fine aggregate. This is a natural process, and the result can be used for paths and patios. Decomposed granite is often referred to as DG. It is especially useful in modern landscapes. Design Elements - Key landscape features being proposed in a landscape design plan. Water features, paths, patios, decks, boulders, plantings, screens, fences, and contouring are just some of the common design elements.

Design Objectives - Goals that the client has for the new landscape. Common design objectives in Portland are low maintenance, drought tolerant, and animal friendly. Dethatch - Process for removing or thinning the dead lower level of a mature lawn. Thatch is grass that has died and collected below the green blades. Some thatch is normal and healthy. However, over time this layer can get very thick and make it difficult for water, sun, and nutrients to get to portions of the turf.

Drainage - The process of collecting and controlling the flow of water on a property. This can be done with grading, French drains, dry wells, permeable surfaces, sump pump, rain gardens, and more. Often multiple methods are required since Portland gets so much rain. Properties at the bottom of hills, with natural springs, or full of heavy clay have the most drainage problems. Drip irrigation - A slow feeding irrigation system that utilizes flexible tubing and emitters to send a precise amount of water to each plant.

This is the most efficient method of irrigating plants. Drought Tolerance - The ability of a plant to survive without much summer water. Dry Garden - A garden feature where water is represented by an aggregate stone product, usually a gravel or granite. These are most commonly found in modern and Japanese garden design. Dry-laid - A stone or flagstone patio, path, or walkway built without a concrete base. The base would be compacted gravel and the joints would be an aggregate or walkable ground cover.

Dry laid stone work is more rustic and will become somewhat uneven over time. Dry-stacked - A stone retaining or free standing wall built without the use of mortar. A highly skilled mason is required for a dry stack stone wall. Most walls in Portland are not dry stacked, even if they appear to be. Dry Well - An underground structure that collect water and allows it to slow percolate into the soil around it.

Edging: Edging in the landscape is a line of demarcation that creates visual interest in the garden by separating one segment from another segment. This can be aesthetic or functional, keeping one element such as pea gravel from getting mixed into another like bark dust. Enclosure: In a landscape design, to fence or wall an area in. Entry Garden: The landscape near the entry to a building. Espalier: A tree, shrub or vine, trained to grow on a wall or fence into a specific pattern.

Especially useful for fruit trees , making it easy to harvest the fruit and containing mess. Evergreen: A plant whose leaves or needles are green year-round. Exotic: A plant that is not native to the location where it will be planted. Fescue: Thicker bladed turf grass that spread via rhizomes.

Final grade : The level of soil on your property before bark dust or compost is spread. Fixture Low Voltage Lighting : The lighting elements of a landscape lighting system. Primary fixtures types are spot lights, path lights, well lights, and underwater lights. Flagstone : Generic term used to describe natural flat stones of different shapes and colors used to create walkways, patios, and walls.

Flagstone is usually larger than stepping stones. Float valve: A valve that will automatically refill your water feature when the water falls below a certain level. These are usually connected to your irrigation system. Flow control valve : Usually a ball or gate valve that gives you control over the flow of water coming from your pump to your water feature.

Focal Point: The element in a landscape design or area in a landscape that is meant to be most prominent. The focal point can be a plant, boulder, statuary, gathering space, or other landscape feature. Formal: A style of gardens or garden elements that stress straight lines, right angles and circles. Foundation Plantings: Bushes or shrubs located in beds near the foundation of a home or other structure. Function: The purpose, reason, or action that an area is be landscaped for.

Stairs function, for example, to allow foot traffic up and down a slope. Garden: Space for growing plants for viewing, eating, or physical activity. Gazebo: A roofed building used over an outdoor gathering space. Germination: The sprouting of a seed, perhaps referring to a lawn that is being grown from seed. Grading: Changing the level of soil for better drainage or to create interest or function.

Groundcover: Low plants that are allowed or encouraged to spread over an area. Head : Height difference between the level of water in a pond or the level of the pump if it sits outside the pond and the upper outlet of water which impacts performance of the water pump in gph gallons per hour.

Hedge: Dense shrubs or trees that form a fence, screen, or boundary. Herbaceous: Plants with non-woody stems. Herbicide: A chemical used to control weeds. Horizontal Slats: Fence boards that run horizontally, often used in modern or Japanese-inspired landscape designs. Imaginary Lines: Lines that define spaces within a landscape concept. These often extend from corners or key features of an existing structure.

Proper use of imaginary lines can help the landscape feel connected to the home and other elements. Informal: The opposite of formal in the landscape. A more relaxed garden dominated by curved rather than straight bed lines and a less rigid structure. Traditional PNW landscapes are informal. Invasive Plant: A plant that spreads more than desired, or into habitats where it does damage. Portland has a list of invasive plants that should not be installed in landscapes because they can spread to forests or waterways and be difficult to control.

Irrigation: Watering plants and lawn, usually with an irrigation or sprinkler system. Smart irrigation controller reviews and recommendations here. Can include head placements and coverage, pipe sizing, GPM specs, and materials needed to install this system.

An irrigation plan is usually unnecessary for residential properties but is common for commercial projects. Landscape Architect: Licensed professional who designs landscapes, schooled in engineering and architecture as well as in horticulture. Landscape Design: The art or practice of planning designing changes to landscaped areas, either for aesthetic or practical purposes. Landscape Designer: The professional who plans and develops landscape projects, usually at a residential or small commercial level with the major design impetus on plantings.

There are about 19, practicing professional landscape architects. City and regional planning programs, interest in environmental protection, and the growth of transportation systems and recreational areas will contribute to the demand for qualified landscape architects, as will the general growth in population. To become a landscape architect, a person must be completely qualified in the field. The career of a landscape architect demands extensive schooling.

Schools with architectural or landscape architectural are located all over the country. Courses that are taken in college for the preparation of landscape architecture are anything related to advanced mathematics, botany, and horticulture ASLA. Special expenses of the education would be things such as books and special tools. College entrance requirements for landscape architects are the same as any other major since the starting courses are basic.

Practically all states require landscape architects to be licensed Discover 3. Admission to the examination usually requires a degree from an accredited school, plus one to four years of work experience. Applicants are tested on all aspects of landscape architecture 3. Landscape architecture is a very diverse and rewarding profession. Although extensive schooling is required, the advantages of this career outweigh the disadvantages.

Landscape architects are individuals who design and produce a better environment that appeals to the public. Accredited Programs in Landscape Architecture. What is Landscape Architecture? Washington, DC: Costello, Joan M. Concise Handbook of Occupations. Chicago, Illinois: J. Ferguson Publishing Company. Microsoft Corporation, Third Edition.

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