Whether you are writing a B. Degree Research Paper or completing a research report for a Psychology course, it is highly likely that you will need to organize your research paper in accordance with American Psychological Association APA guidelines.
Here we discuss the structure of research papers according to APA style. A complete research paper in APA style that is reporting on experimental research will typically contain a Title page, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, and References sections. Emma Geller. What is this paper called and who wrote it? The institutional affiliation is usually listed in an Author Note that is placed towards the bottom of the title page. In some cases, the Author Note also contains an acknowledgment of any funding support and of any individuals that assisted with the research project.
One-paragraph summary of the entire study — typically no more than words in length and in many cases it is well shorter than that , the Abstract provides an overview of the study. What is the topic and why is it worth studying? What did you do? If there were multiple experiments, then each experiment may require a separate Methods section. A rule of thumb is that the Methods section should be sufficiently detailed for another researcher to duplicate your research. What did you find?
It may also be prefaced by a description of the analysis procedure that was used. The first is a clear statement of the main research question or hypothesis. This statement tends to be more formal and precise than in the opening and is often expressed in terms of operational definitions of the key variables. The second is a brief overview of the method and some comment on its appropriateness. These considerations lead to the hypothesis that the more bystanders to an emergency, the less likely, or the more slowly, any one bystander will intervene to provide aid.
Each subject should also be blocked from communicating with others to prevent his getting information about their behaviour during the emergency. The experiment reported below attempted to fulfill these conditions. Thus the introduction leads smoothly into the next major section of the article—the method section. The method section is where you describe how you conducted your study.
At the same time, it should avoid irrelevant details such as the fact that the study was conducted in Classroom 37B of the Industrial Technology Building or that the questionnaire was double-sided and completed using pencils. The participants subsection indicates how many participants there were, the number of women and men, some indication of their age, other demographics that may be relevant to the study, and how they were recruited, including any incentives given for participation.
After the participants section, the structure can vary a bit. Figure In the first, the participants section is followed by a design and procedure subsection, which describes the rest of the method. This works well for methods that are relatively simple and can be described adequately in a few paragraphs.
In the second approach, the participants section is followed by separate design and procedure subsections. This works well when both the design and the procedure are relatively complicated and each requires multiple paragraphs.
What is the difference between design and procedure? The design of a study is its overall structure. What were the independent and dependent variables? Was the independent variable manipulated, and if so, was it manipulated between or within subjects? How were the variables operationally defined?
The procedure is how the study was carried out. It often works well to describe the procedure in terms of what the participants did rather than what the researchers did. For example, the participants gave their informed consent, read a set of instructions, completed a block of four practice trials, completed a block of 20 test trials, completed two questionnaires, and were debriefed and excused.
In the third basic way to organize a method section, the participants subsection is followed by a materials subsection before the design and procedure subsections. This works well when there are complicated materials to describe. This might mean multiple questionnaires, written vignettes that participants read and respond to, perceptual stimuli, and so on. The heading of this subsection can be modified to reflect its content.
The results section is where you present the main results of the study, including the results of the statistical analyses. Several journals now encourage the open sharing of raw data online. Although there are no standard subsections, it is still important for the results section to be logically organized. Typically it begins with certain preliminary issues. One is whether any participants or responses were excluded from the analyses and why.
The rationale for excluding data should be described clearly so that other researchers can decide whether it is appropriate. A second preliminary issue is how multiple responses were combined to produce the primary variables in the analyses. For example, if participants rated the attractiveness of 20 stimulus people, you might have to explain that you began by computing the mean attractiveness rating for each participant.
Or if they recalled as many items as they could from study list of 20 words, did you count the number correctly recalled, compute the percentage correctly recalled, or perhaps compute the number correct minus the number incorrect? A third preliminary issue is the reliability of the measures. A final preliminary issue is whether the manipulation was successful. This is where you would report the results of any manipulation checks. The results section should then tackle the primary research questions, one at a time.
Again, there should be a clear organization. One approach would be to answer the most general questions and then proceed to answer more specific ones. Another would be to answer the main question first and then to answer secondary ones. Regardless, Bem  suggests the following basic structure for discussing each new result:. Notice that only Step 3 necessarily involves numbers.
The rest of the steps involve presenting the research question and the answer to it in words. In fact, the basic results should be clear even to a reader who skips over the numbers. The discussion is the last major section of the research report. Discussions usually consist of some combination of the following elements:.
The discussion typically begins with a summary of the study that provides a clear answer to the research question. In a short report with a single study, this might require no more than a sentence. In a longer report with multiple studies, it might require a paragraph or even two. The summary is often followed by a discussion of the theoretical implications of the research. Do the results provide support for any existing theories? If not, how can they be explained? Although you do not have to provide a definitive explanation or detailed theory for your results, you at least need to outline one or more possible explanations.
In applied research—and often in basic research—there is also some discussion of the practical implications of the research. How can the results be used, and by whom, to accomplish some real-world goal? Perhaps there are problems with its internal or external validity. Perhaps the manipulation was not very effective or the measures not very reliable. Perhaps there is some evidence that participants did not fully understand their task or that they were suspicious of the intent of the researchers.
Now is the time to discuss these issues and how they might have affected the results. But do not overdo it. All studies have limitations, and most readers will understand that a different sample or different measures might have produced different results. Unless there is good reason to think they would have, however, there is no reason to mention these routine issues.
Instead, pick two or three limitations that seem like they could have influenced the results, explain how they could have influenced the results, and suggest ways to deal with them. Most discussions end with some suggestions for future research. If the study did not satisfactorily answer the original research question, what will it take to do so? What new research questions has the study raised? This part of the discussion, however, is not just a list of new questions.
It is a discussion of two or three of the most important unresolved issues. This means identifying and clarifying each question, suggesting some alternative answers, and even suggesting ways they could be studied. Finally, some researchers are quite good at ending their articles with a sweeping or thought-provoking conclusion.
However, this kind of ending can be difficult to pull off. It can sound overreaching or just banal and end up detracting from the overall impact of the article. It is often better simply to end when you have made your final point although you should avoid ending on a limitation.
All references cited in the text are then listed in the format presented earlier. They are listed alphabetically by the last name of the first author. If two sources have the same first author, they are listed alphabetically by the last name of the second author. If all the authors are the same, then they are listed chronologically by the year of publication. Everything in the reference list is double-spaced both within and between references.
Appendices, tables, and figures come after the references. An appendix is appropriate for supplemental material that would interrupt the flow of the research report if it were presented within any of the major sections. An appendix could be used to present lists of stimulus words, questionnaire items, detailed descriptions of special equipment or unusual statistical analyses, or references to the studies that are included in a meta-analysis.
Each appendix begins on a new page. After any appendices come tables and then figures. Tables and figures are both used to present results. Figures can also be used to illustrate theories e. Each table and figure appears on its own page. A brief explanatory title, with the important words capitalized, appears above each table. Each figure is given a brief explanatory caption, where aside from proper nouns or names only the first word of each sentence is capitalized.
More details on preparing APA-style tables and figures are presented later in the book. Figures The main purpose of these figures is to illustrate the basic organization and formatting of an APA-style empirical research report, although many high-level and low-level style conventions can be seen here too.
A type of research article which describes one or more new empirical studies conducted by the authors. The third page of a manuscript containing the research question, the literature review, and comments about how to answer the research question.
However, visual design is often assessed using self-report scale, which are vulnerable to a few pitfalls. Because self-report questionnaires are often reliant on introspection and honesty, it is difficult to confidently rely on self-report questionnaires to make important decisions. This study aims to ensure the validity of a visual design assessment instrument Visual Aesthetics of Websites Inventory: Short version by examining its relationship with biometric variables , like galvanic skin response, pupillometry, and fixation information.
Overall, we found that both average fixation duration and pupil dilation differed when participants viewed web pages with lower visual design ratings compared to web pages with a higher visual design rating. Keywords : usability, visual design, websites, eye tracking, pupillometry, self-report, VisAWI.
On the page after the title page if a student paper or the abstract if a professional paper , begin with the body of the paper. Try our automatic generator and watch how we create APA citation format references for you in just a few clicks. Headings p. In addition, headings provide readers with a glimpse to the main idea, or content, they are about to read. Following general formatting rules, all headings are double spaced and there are no extra lines or spaces between sections.
First and foremost, the only reason why any graphics should be added is to provide the reader with an easier way to see or read information, rather than typing it all out in the text. Lots of numbers to discuss? Try organizing your information into a chart or table. Pie charts, bar graphs, coordinate planes, and line graphs are just a few ways to show numerical data, relationships between numbers, and many other types of information.
Instead of typing out long, drawn out descriptions, create a drawing or image. Many visual learners would appreciate the ability to look at an image to make sense of information. You may also place tables and figures within the text just after it is mentioned. Is there anything better than seeing a neatly organized data table? We think not!
If you have tons of numbers or data to share, consider creating a table instead of typing out a wordy paragraph. Tables are pretty easy to whip up on Google Docs or Microsoft Word. We know putting together a table is pretty tricky. Scroll down and look at the additional tables in the essay in APA format example found below. Figures represent information in a visual way. They differ from tables in that they are visually appealing.
Photographs found through Google Images, social media, stock photos made available from subscription sites, and tons of other various online sources make obtaining photographs a breeze. We can even pull out our cell phones, and in just a few seconds, take pictures with our cameras. Photographs are simple to find, and because of this, many students enjoy using them in their papers. If you have a photograph you would like to include in your project, here are some guidelines from the American Psychological Association.
Writing a paper for scientific topics is much different than writing for English, literature, and other composition classes. Science papers are much more direct, clear, and concise. This section includes key suggestions, explains how to write in APA format, and includes other tidbits to keep in mind while formulating your research paper. Research experiments and observations rely on the creation and analysis of data to test hypotheses and come to conclusions.
While sharing and explaining the methods and results of studies, science writers often use verbs. Further details are in the publication manual p. We tested the solution to identify the possible contaminants. Researchers often test solutions by placing them under a microscope.
Notice that the first sentence is in the past tense while the second sentence is in the present tense. This can be confusing for readers. Our APA formatter creates your references in just a few clicks. APA citation format is easier than you think thanks to our innovative, automatic tool. Even though your writing will not have the same fluff and detail as other forms of writing, it should not be boring or dull to read.
The Publication Manual suggests thinking about who will be the main reader of your work and to write in a way that educates them. The American Psychological Association strongly objects to any bias towards gender, racial groups, ages of individuals or subjects, disabilities, and sexual orientation pp. Thanks to helpful tools and features, such as the spell checker, in word processing programs, most of us think we have everything we need right in our document.
However, quite a few helpful features are found elsewhere. Where can you find a full grammar editor? Right here, on EasyBib. The EasyBib Plus paper checker scans your paper for spelling, but also for any conjunction , determiner, or adverb out of place. Try it out and unlock the magic of an edited paper. Abbreviations can be tricky. Readers need to pause and comprehend the meaning of abbreviations and quite often stumble over them. The manual recommends using one space after most punctuation marks, including punctuation at the end of a sentence p.
The official APA format book was primarily created to aid individuals with submitting their paper for publication in a professional journal. Many schools adopt certain parts of the handbook and modify sections to match their preference. To see an example of an APA format research paper, with the spacing we believe is most commonly and acceptable to use, scroll down and see section D.
Example of APA format for commas: The medication caused drowsiness, upset stomach, and fatigue. When writing a possessive singular noun, you should place the apostrophe before the s. For possessive plural nouns, the apostrophe is placed after the s. Em dashes long dash are used to bring focus to a particular point or an aside.
There are no spaces after these dashes p. Use en dashes short dash in compound adjectives. Do not place a space before or after the dash. Here are a few examples:. Science papers often include the use of numbers, usually displayed in data, tables, and experiment information. The golden rule to keep in mind is that numbers less than 10 are written out in text.
If the number is more than 10, use numerals. Need help with other writing topics? Our plagiarism checker is a great resource for anyone looking for writing help. Say goodbye to an out of place noun , preposition , or adjective, and hello to a fully edited paper. Not doing so can be considered plagiarism , possibly leading to a failed grade or loss of a job. APA style is one of the most commonly used citation styles used to prevent plagiarism.
References are placed on the final page of a research project. These are found within your paper, anytime a quote or paraphrase is included. They usually only include the name of the author and the date the source was published. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is even discussed in the book, The Emperor of Any Place. A writer must use both types in a paper. If you cite something in the text, it must have a full reference on the final page of the project.
Where there is one, there must be the other! Middle initial. Year published. Title of source. For more information on APA format for sources and how to reference specific types of sources, use the other guides on EasyBib. Looking for a full visual of a page of references?
Scroll down and take a peek at our APA format essay example towards the bottom of this page. Did you find the perfect quote or piece of information to include in your project? Way to go! Displaying where the original information came from is much easier than you think. This allows the reader of your work to see where the information originated.
APA allows for the use of two different forms of in-text citation, parenthetical and narrative Both forms of citation require two elements:. Parenthetical citations are the more commonly seen form of in-text citations for academic work, in which both required reference elements are presented at the end of the sentence in parentheses.
Narrative citations allow the author to present one or both of the required reference elements inside of the running sentence, which prevents the text from being too repetitive or burdensome. When only one of the two reference elements is included in the sentence, the other is provided parenthetically. According to Belafonte , Harlem was full of artists and musicians in the late s. If there are two authors listed in the source entry, then the parenthetical reference must list them both:.
There is also more information in the official manual in chapter 8. You might want to also check out his guide on parenthetical citing. Would you benefit from having a tool that helps you easily generate citations that are in the text? Check out EasyBib Plus! An APA format reference page is easier to create than you probably think.
We go into detail on how to create this page on our APA reference page. Here are some pointers to keep in mind when it comes to the references page in APA format:. Try it out! Prior to submitting your paper, check to make sure you have everything you need and everything in its place:. Congratulations for making it this far! Can we offer one last suggestion? We promise it will only take a minute. Copy and paste or upload your paper into our checker. If it sounds too good to be true, then head on over to our innovative tool and give it a whirl.
Information on how to cite sources can be found on our APA citation page. However, this page is not associated with the association. What are behavioral sciences? Behavioral sciences study human and animal behavior. They can include:. What are social sciences?
Social sciences focus on one specific aspect of human behavior, specifically social and cultural relationships. Social sciences can include:. This citation style was created by the American Psychological Association. Its rules and guidelines can be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
The information provided in the guide above follows the 6th edition of the manual. The 7th edition was published in and is the most recent version. The 7th edition of the Publication Manual is in full color and includes 12 sections compared to 8 sections in the 6th edition.
In general, this new edition differentiates between professional and student papers, includes guidance with accessibility in mind, provides new examples to follow, and has updated guidelines. New citing information. There is new guidance on citing classroom or intranet resources, and oral traditions or traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples.
Visit our EasyBib Twitter feed to discover more citing tips, fun grammar facts, and the latest product updates. American Psychological Association. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 7th ed. Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib.
Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing. Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style. Get Started. Certain features require a modern browser to function. Please use a different browser, like Firefox , Chrome , or Safari. Table of Contents Citation Generator. Empirical studies Empirical studies take data from observations and experiments to generate research reports.
Methodological articles These articles showcase new advances, or modifications to an existing practice, in a scientific method or procedure. Case studies Case studies present information related an individual, group, or larger set of individuals.
Here are key guidelines to developing your title page: The title of the paper should capture the main idea of the essay, but should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. Center the title on the page and place it about lines from the top. The title should be bolded, in title case, and the same font size as your other page text.
Do not underline or italicize the title. Other text on the page should be plain not bolded , underlined, or italicized. All text on the title page should be double-spaced. The APA format examples paper below displays proper spacing, so go take a look!
The institutional affiliation is the school the author attends or the location where the author conducted the research. Sample of an APA format title page for a student paper: Sample of title page for a professional paper:. Here are some helpful suggestions to create a dynamic abstract: Abstracts are found on their own page, directly after the title or cover page.
Professional papers only not student papers : Include the running head on the top of the page. On the following line, write a summary of the key points of your research. Your abstract summary is a way to introduce readers to your research topic, the questions that will be answered, the process you took, and any findings or conclusions you drew.
Use concise, brief, informative language. You only have a few sentences to share the summary of your entire document, so be direct with your wording. This summary should not be indented, but should be double-spaced and less than words.
If applicable, help researchers find your work in databases by listing keywords from your paper after your summary. To do this, indent and type Keywords : in italics. Then list your keywords that stand out in your research. You can also include keyword strings that you think readers will type into the search box. Use an active voice, not a passive voice. When writing with an active voice, the subject performs the action. When writing with a passive voice, the subject receives the action. Active voice: The subjects reacted to the medication.
Passive voice: There was a reaction from the subjects taking the medication. Instead of evaluating your project in the abstract, simply report what it contains. View our in-depth APA Abstract guide. Most papers follow this format: At the top of the page, add the page number in the upper right corner of all pages, including the title page.
On the next line write the title in bold font and center it. Do not underline or italicize it. Begin with the introduction and indent the first line of the paragraph. All paragraphs in the body are indented. The heading title should be in capital letters. The abstract page should be page 2. The introduction presents the problem and premise upon which the research was based. It goes into more detail about this problem than the abstract.
Begin a new section with the Method and use this word as the subtitle. Bold and center this subtitle. The Method section shows how the study was run and conducted. Be sure to describe the methods through which data was collected. Begin a new section with the Results. The Results section summarizes your data.
Use charts and graphs to display this data. Begin a new section with the Discussion. This Discussion section is a chance to analyze and interpret your results. Draw conclusions and support how your data led to these conclusions. Discuss whether or not your hypothesis was confirmed or not supported by your results. Note that even if you do use headings, APA recommends against using an "Introduction" heading; they say that since the introduction always appears at the start, there's no need for a heading to mark it as such.
Nothing missing per se, but I have a question Do all citations need to be done as in-text citations? Thanks Kelly. You include an in-text citation whenever you quote or paraphrase a source in your text.
Then all of the sources you cite are also listed on the reference page at the end of your paper. You can read more about in-text citations here , and about the reference page here. There's no specific limit to how long your paragraphs can be in APA style; they suggest that if a paragraph is longer than one double-spaced A4 page, it risks "losing readers' attention," so it might be best to avoid paragraphs of that length.
In general, just try to start new paragraphs at logical points: when you start to address a new topic or develop a new part of your argument, for example. Hello, Thank you for the information. Could you please let me know if the references list in Apa 7edition, words count in the paper? This isn't really something that APA decides, but rather your university or the instructor who set the word count.
Generally, though, words in the reference list don't count towards your word count—only words in the text. How do I get rid of the Scribbr mark at the bottom corner of each page? If you double-click on the area at the bottom of the page the footer , you should then be able to select the Scribbr logo directly and delete it, which should automatically remove it on all pages. Thanks for the useful information! I had a question about the reference list.
As the "author" is the same? You can find more information about this here , under "Single-author works. I have to write three short essays as part of the application process for a psychology program. Two of the three essays are personal. I have been looking for guidelines for this situation but have not found anything so far.
I have written many academic papers using the APA format and citation style but never an "about me" essay. Do you have any advice? Can you point me to the right resource? I have ordered the latest APA guidebook but it has not yet arrived. You may find our article on writing a personal statement helpful, as well as our article on statements of purpose. APA guidelines are more about writing research papers than personal statements.
You should of course follow general APA formatting guidelines if you've been asked to, but feel free to include more personal details and opinions and to disregard guidelines related to the reporting of research results. The information of figures and table is wrong. A table heading is needed above the table and a figure heading is below. The standards you're referring to are those of 6th edition APA Style, whereas this article covers the 7th edition.
You can find our article on tables and figures in APA 6 here. Hi there! I am writing my doctoral dissertation on APA 7th and need to know if the first page of the dissertation i. Thanks :D! Standard numerals 1, 2, Thank you for the above information - it is very helpful. However, I am still not clear on this requirement from my professor - Include page numbers in the citation.
Does that mean to put the page number in the body of the paper, i. Cindy used the circle chart pg. Page numbers should appear after the author and year in your in-text citation, which is placed directly after the relevant information. For example: "Cindy used the circle chart Smith, , p. Our full guide to APA in-text citations includes various examples of citations with page numbers. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations! Have a language expert improve your writing.
Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! APA Citation Generator. This article reflects the APA 7th edition guidelines. Click here for APA 6th edition guidelines. What is your plagiarism score? Compare your paper with over 60 billion web pages and 30 million publications.
What font and font size is used in APA format? For example: Times New Roman 12pt. Arial 11pt. Calibri 11pt. Georgia 11pt. How do I cite in APA format? Should I include page numbers on every page? Who uses APA style? Is this article helpful?
Raimo Streefkerk Raimo is an expert in explaining plagiarism and citing sources. He has been writing helpful articles since and is continuously improving Scribbr's Citation Generators. Other students also liked. APA title page cover page An APA title page student version , includes the title, author's name and affiliation, course name, instructor name, and due date.
Start citing with Scribbr! Hi Anthony, The template shouldn't be in Spanish. Karen Ryan Danielian April 28, at AM One of my articles' author, refers to other researchers or thoughts by others in the field. Karen Reply. Hi Karen, To cite the sources mentioned in a source you're reading, the best way is always to find the original source and cite it directly.
Thanks Kelly Reply. Hi Kelly, You include an in-text citation whenever you quote or paraphrase a source in your text. Michael Ouellette April 10, at AM Hi, I was wondering what is typically considered too long for paragraph length? Hi Michael, There's no specific limit to how long your paragraphs can be in APA style; they suggest that if a paragraph is longer than one double-spaced A4 page, it risks "losing readers' attention," so it might be best to avoid paragraphs of that length.
Thank you Reply. Hi Anahita, This isn't really something that APA decides, but rather your university or the instructor who set the word count. I really appreciate your help! Hi Lori, If you double-click on the area at the bottom of the page the footer , you should then be able to select the Scribbr logo directly and delete it, which should automatically remove it on all pages. Hope that helps! Gabi March 26, at AM Thanks for the useful information!
Generally, though, words in the was full of artists and out in text and place. One of my articles' author, to be true, then head the paper, type it out tool and give it a. Page numbers should appear after check to make sure you your in-text citation, which is. Case studies Case studies present on writing a personal statement specifically social and cultural relationships. Here is a visual APA below popular masters admission paper topics proper spacing, so. However, I am still not clear on this requirement from my professor - Include page for a professional paper:. Any usage of the abbreviation papers : Include the running. We go into detail on in-text citations hereand on our APA reference page. Most papers follow this format: At the top of the comes to APA format for Referring to information in a if it adds value to being too repetitive or burdensome. Copy and paste or upload apa psychology research papers should be double-spaced.Browse and read free articles from APA Journals across the field of psychology, selected by the editors as the must-read content. APA Publishing Insider is a free monthly newsletter with tips on APA Style, open science initiatives, active calls for papers, research summaries, and more. APA Sample Paper: Experimental Psychology. Media File: APA Sample Paper: Experimental Psychology Research Papers. Writing a Research Paper.