Scientific misconduct in cancer clinical trials. Ethics in presentation: Teach the teachers first. Introduction of the use of software for the detection of plagiarism. This article diagnoses the problem of plagiarism in academic books and articles in the disciplines of philosophy and theology.
It identifies three impediments to institutional reform. They are: 1 a misplaced desire to preserve personal They are: 1 a misplaced desire to preserve personal and institutional reputations; 2 a failure to recognize that attribution in academic writing admits of degrees; and 3 a disproportionate emphasis on the socalled "intention to plagiarize. The broader trend illustrated by the entransy hoax is that it is becoming easy to take an existing idea, change the keywords, and publish it as new.
Commentary: What's Wrong with Ghostwriting? In , the Italian anatomist Bartolomeo Eustachio published Libellus de Dentibus, the first book on dental anatomy. Subsequently, the surgeon Urbain Hemard authored Recherche de la Vraye Anathomie des Dents in , the first book on Subsequently, the surgeon Urbain Hemard authored Recherche de la Vraye Anathomie des Dents in , the first book on dentistry in the French language. Hemard and Eustachio, two names integral in the biblio-historical development of dentistry, have been intertwined in a philological controversy ever since, with historians debating charges of plagiarism.
However, the historiographical debate has been buttressed simply on the contents of the two books, with little attention paid to the socio-political influences that could have directed Hemard towards textual annexation. In sixteenth- century Europe, cultural animosity was percolating within political and social spheres, and seeping into the publishing industry.
French translations of foreign texts were viewed as a defense against Italian cultural intrusion. This essay will argue that given the prestige of Italian anatomical knowledge, Hemard may have felt justified in annexing the work of his foreign contemporary as a defense of French national identity, and ultimately, since Eustachio was mired in obscurity in his time, he could have seized the opportunity to elevate his status as a great anatomist.
A structural model of the relationship between achievement goals, attitude to plagiarism and academic performance in students. In recent decades educational science and psychology researchers focus on plagiarism. The purpose of this study was to present a structural model of the relationship between achievement goals, attitude to plagiarism, its frequency rate The purpose of this study was to present a structural model of the relationship between achievement goals, attitude to plagiarism, its frequency rate and academic performance in graduate students of Industrial University of Isfahan.
A and PhD students were selected by using randomized categorical sampling method. The research instruments consisted of two questionnaires: Midgleyet AL's achievement goals questionnaire and a researcher-made questionnaire: attitudes to plagiarism. Using path analysis data were analyzed. The results indicated that performance-approach goal orientation and performance-avoidance goal orientation had direct and positive effects on attitude to plagiarism and its frequency rate.
Mastery goal orientation had direct and negative effects on attitude to plagiarism and its frequency rate. Also attitude to plagiarism and its frequency rate had a mediator role in relation between achievement goals and academic performance of the students.
We can conclude that development of mastery goals in university classrooms could be a preventing factor for plagiarism. Piracy, Playing the System, or Poor Policies? Perspectives on Plagiarism in Thailand. Plagiarism is a complex issue, torn between theory and practice, expectation and reality, and developmental and ethical concerns.
We also examined the institutional policies of their universities for definitions and punishments related to plagiarism. Results showed that both groups framed plagiarism as ethically wrong and broadly understood what constituted plagiarism. However, there was a clear disconnect between institutional policies on plagiarism and actual practices. As intermediary gatekeepers, teachers play a crucial role in contextualising rigid, broad policies so as to encompass both academic integrity and academic literacy.
We conclude by making a number of recommendations with regard to teaching practices, student volition, and institutional mandates. Beyond fabrication and plagiarism: The little murders of everyday science. Educational approaches for discouraging plagiarism. Related Topics. Cheating and Plagiarism. Follow Following. Plagiarism Detection. The study concluded that students overestimated their level of ethical and legal academic writing abilities.
The danger with students overrating their academic writing is that they may not appreciate deficiencies in their academic writing abilities, and consequently, they may continue to commit plagiarism unintentionally. Poor understanding of plagiarism on the part of students put them at a higher risk of plagiarising Leask ; Mahmood et al. Similar findings are reported by other studies which also established poor understanding of plagiarism among students.
For instance, a study by Ramzan et al. These results suggest that students plagiarised unintentionally due to a lack of knowledge of what constitutes plagiarism. In view of the several research findings mentioned earlier, it is plausible to accept that plagiarism does exist in higher education but what differs is the level and depth of prevalence. Ellery and De Jager and Brown have reported a low prevalence of plagiarism in South African universities.
However, De Jager and Brown argue that the low prevalence of plagiarism in South Africa was attributed to under-reporting of plagiarism cases to authorities as established by their study, implying that measuring plagiarism in terms of numbers may sometimes give a false picture. Park observed that determining a true picture of the rate of plagiarism poses two challenges: cases of plagiarism are rarely detected and reported; and methods for studying plagiarism might be faulty.
The present study used a similar approach to that of McCabe who collected data from both postgraduate students and academics, but the present study went further and collected additional data by conducting follow-up interviews with academics. In Iran, Zafarghandi et al. Zafarghandi et al. Similar forms of plagiarism have also been reported in other studies De Jager and Brown ; Leask ; Agu and Olibie ; Ryan et al. The study by Zafaghandi et al.
Some studies have dwelled on investigating the reasons students commit plagiarism. For instance, a study by Zafaghandi et al. Some of the ways suggested by Devlin to curb plagiarism include: the need by universities to set clear definitions of what constitutes plagiarism and the corresponding penalties applied to each plagiarism offence, and putting in place a formal policy on how plagiarism should be handled by all university stakeholders including lecturers, students and administrators.
Nonetheless, having the policy and publicising plagiarism through university websites and the students' handbook is not a guarantee that students understand and avoid committing it Ryan et al. There is also a need to have dedicated classes aimed at teaching students rules and standards of academic writing. A consensus has been reached in the literature that educating students on good academic writing skills and raising awareness on the negative effects of plagiarism are the best strategies to deal with plagiarism Leask ; Macdonald and Carroll ; Pecorari ; Walker Some studies have shown that students continue to commit plagiarism after undergoing such training or classes.
For instance, Batane found that students continued to plagiarise even after being taught about plagiarism and good academic writing. According to Batane , students admitted to have intentionally plagiarised. Macdonald and Carroll suggest the need for a university to consistently define what constitutes plagiarism and to articulate how each form is handled in terms of the depth and the corresponding sanction. Use of text-matching software such as Turnitin is also proving to be helpful in detecting academic work suspected to have been plagiarised.
The social cognitive learning theory developed by Albert Bandura in underpins this study. The theory explains how behaviour is learned, unlearned and regulated through the interaction of cognitive and environmental or social factors. In the cognitive learning theory, cognitive factors are reciprocal causation, modelling, self-efficacy and self-regulation Ormrod Reciprocal causation explains how three variables interact with each other to influence human learning and long-term development Ormrod Environmental or social factors of the cognitive learning theory include reinforcement and punishment Ormrod Self-regulation explains how learners develop a sense of appropriate and inappropriate behaviour through direct and vicarious reinforcement and punishments.
Punishment is used to weaken undesirable behaviour Bandura , which may also be viewed as the opposite of reinforcement. The summary of reciprocal influences, emphasized by Bandura in his theory, which include the personal factors, environmental factors and behavioral factors, is shown in Fig. Source: Adapted from King : Bandura views these three factors influencing and affecting each other as shown in the figure by the bi-directional arrows.
Purposive sampling technique was used which allowed the researchers to collect data from key informants. A mixed methods approach was adopted in this study. A questionnaire with predominantly closed ended questions was used to collect quantitative data. In total, we self-administered a questionnaire to 87 postgraduate students and 30 academic staff.
Qualitative data were collected by conducting follow-up interviews with some academic staff, the assistant registrar and an assistant librarian. Qualitative data were analysed thematically. The strength of this study is the use of a mixed methods approach which allowed the researchers to triangulate the results.
In this context, data collected using questionnaires from students and academic staff were used to confirm each other, and we drew the conclusions of the study based on the findings that were supported most by data sources. To ensure that the questionnaire was free from errors, its content was subjected to pretesting in two ways. First, we asked experts in research in higher education to comment on the questionnaire focusing on clarity, question wording, validity and order of the questions.
Second, we piloted the questionnaire with 10 postgraduate students and 2 lecturers at Kamuzu College of Nursing which is a constituent college of the University of Malawi. Postgraduate students and lecturers at Kamuzu College of Nursing were used in the pilot study because they were similar to the target population of our study. Feedback from education experts and the pilot study was used to make corrections on the questionnaire.
Ethical issues were addressed in two ways in this study. Second, before taking part in the study, participants were informed through a consent letter that they were taking part in the study voluntarily. The consent letter further informed participants that even if they had accepted to participate in the study, they were at liberty to withdraw at any stage of the study without giving reasons.
The participants signed the consent letter to show that they had read the content and that they were taking part in the study voluntarily. In this section we present, analyse and discuss the findings of the study in line with the research questions guiding the study as follows:. Out of 53 students, 52 Follow up interviews were conducted with two academics, an assistant registrar responsible for academics and assistant librarian responsible for readers services. Follow-up interviews with an assistant registrar revealed than Mzuzu University is just beginning to introduce PhD studies and this explains the reason why the study registered only one PhD student against 52 masters students.
Since the literature showed that there is no universal definition of plagiarism, we presented students with a list of statements from which they were asked to indicate which statements best describe what they think plagiarism is and is not. Findings revealed that 45 In fact, Leask established that lack of understanding of plagiarism concepts increases the chances of students plagiarising.
It is worrisome though that in this study some students regard paraphrasing, summarising and acknowledging sources as a form of plagiarism. Another section required students to rate themselves on their ability to paraphrase, summarise, and cite and reference information sources based on their departmental adopted referencing style.
Findings presented in Fig. However, it was reported from the interviews with academic staff and the assistant librarian that students were not good at paraphrasing, summarising and citing as evidenced by many errors in their academic assessments and theses available in the library. The study also revealed that the majority of students were not good at citing or referencing using software such as Mendeley and Zotero, as students Findings from follow-up interviews corroborated the findings from students because the assistant librarian and academic staff confirmed that students are not taught how to cite or reference using software.
For example, the assistant librarian commented that. But yea [yes], as librarians we are supposed to take that lead to teach postgraduate students how to cite using different softwares like Zotero. As the figure shows, very good and good, has a higher percentage than on the 4 items except the first item which has good, average, poor meaning that students were not that confident of their ability to cite using software.
The study established that many students plagiarised because they lacked academic writing skills as reported by students and academics, and by analysing reported common forms of plagiarism presented below which emanate from lack of writing skills and from follow up interviews. These results give credence to those reported by Scouller et al. Like this study, Scouller et al. In this study, it was observed through follow-up interviews with an assistant librarian and academic staff that students lack good academic writing skills because they were not taught these skills because of a belief that they mastered these skills when they were doing their first degrees.
The problem is that MZUNI recruits postgraduate students with diverse backgrounds, that is, from universities that may not have exposed students to good academic writing skills with perhaps a different referencing style from that in a particular department or faculty at MZUNI. In addition, the level and depth of academic writing at postgraduate level is quite different from that required at undergraduate level.
Training is important because according to social cognitive learning theory which is informing this study, its element of modeling emphasises the need for guidance which helps transmit language, mores, social practices, and adaptive competencies. Modeling focuses on how well new behaviour is learned when the more experienced demonstrates the activity first then allows the learner to practise Bandura In this context, students need to be taught good academic writing skills by academics or librarians because currently, their writing is based on trial-and-error experiences, which according to Bandura is very costly and unacceptable.
Modeling can also be used to make an argument that students will easily learn to use citation software such as Zotero if they are trained or taught by academic staff and librarians. The study also sought to understand the prevalence of plagiarism by establishing common forms of plagiarism reported to be committed by students at MZUNI.
Data collected using a questionnaire administered to students and academics are presented in Table 1 where it is clear that indeed, students admitted to have committed some forms of plagiarism which were also encountered by academic staff. The study established that prevalent forms of plagiarism reported to be committed by students included: lack of proper acknowledgement after paraphrasing These findings mirror what has been reported in other countries by prior studies Leask ; Trost ; Agu and Olibie ; Vasconcelos et al.
As reported in the previous section, students at MZUNI are reported to have committed various forms of plagiarism. The study established that students plagiarised even though they were aware that plagiarism is a very serious offence in the academic domain. Other studies have established that the more students see plagiarism as a serious offence the less likely they can commit plagiarism. For example, Zafarghandi et al. The literature section informed this study that students will commit various forms of plagiarism because of various reasons which include laziness, poor time management, lack of good academic writing skills, lack of knowledge of plagiarism, and pressure to score good grades Idiegbeyan-Ose et al.
Similarly, in this study, findings from students and academic staff established that 32 From these findings, we conclude that students commit plagiarism intentionally and unintentionally. A study by De Jager and Brown categorised students copying from each other as intentional plagiarism whereas copying without citing sources was categorised as unintentional because students plagiarised due to ignorance or incompetence.
Likewise, in this study, we conclude that students who plagiarised because of pressure to beat assignment deadlines, laziness and poor time management did it intentionally whereas those who plagiarised due to lack of good academic writing skills did it unintentionally. This study established, during follow up interviews with academic staff, that lecturers fail to detect every case of plagiarism due to workload because most lecturers handle very big classes within a semester.
Ryan et al. Similar findings were reported at the University of Botswana where Batane found that students plagiarised after seeing that their friends were not caught and hence concluded that academic staff do not take issues of plagiarism seriously. This supports environmental and social factors of social cognitive learning theory which states that punishment reduces undesirable behaviour while unpunished behaviour is reinforced Bandura Similarly, Batane found that there was a 4.
According to the findings of the present study, follow-up interviews with academic staff revealed that MZUNI has very few academic staff who use Turnitin due to lack of awareness. Of course other studies such as that of McCabe found that lecturers occasionally ignored incidents of plagiarism in North American Universities. Another notable reason students resort to plagiarising at MZUNI is the way assignments are designed, that is, assignments are sometimes too easy to plagiarise.
According to the findings, some students indicated that they committed plagiarism because of pressure from work and family pressures. This can be well explained using reciprocal causality as presented in Fig. Although the study established that 48 Instead, most academic staff were of the view that most students plagiarised because of poor time management and laziness. Elsewhere, Ramzan et al. The findings are presented in Table 2 where it is also clear that nine As already noted, most students committed plagiarism due to lack of academic writing skills and this made lecturers to be lenient to the plagiarists.
Similarly, Kwong et al. During follow-up interviews, some lecturers argued that students may commit serious cases of plagiarism but it is possible that academics fail to detect plagiarism due to workload. In that regard, most academics recommended the use of text-matching software, which in addition to detecting plagiarised academic work, these text-matching software also help students to improve their work before finally submitting to the lecturers.
This is an important aspect because according to the Social Cognitive Learning Theory, through the aspect of self-regulated learning, students can develop their own appropriate behaviour through self-management processes of self-observation and judgmental process against performance standards Woolfolk The findings are presented in Table 2.
According to the findings, students preferred lenient punishments and objected to those punishments that jeopardised their academic progression. In more specific terms, 47 This study has found that students have a conceptual understanding of what constitutes plagiarism, in terms of its definition and forms.
According to the study, all students regard plagiarism as a very serious academic offence. However, the study found that students admitted to have intentionally or unintentionally committed plagiarism. According to the study, the common forms of plagiarism reported to have been committed by students included: summarising and paraphrasing without properly acknowledging the source, and using direct quotation without including quotation marks.
Students unintentionally committed these forms of plagiarism because they lacked skills in summarizing, paraphrasing and referencing properly. The study also found that students plagiarised intentionally because of laziness and poor time management. The study established that failure by academics to detect and punish plagiarism, due to workload, may have encouraged students to commit plagiarism.
One of the more significant findings that emerged from this study is that students committed less serious cases of plagiarism and consequently, students received lenient forms of punishments including warnings and rewriting the plagiarised work. According to the findings, students were more willing to be punished through warning and rewriting their plagiarised assignment because these forms of sanctions did not jeopardise their academic career. Based on the findings we recommend the following to Mzuzu University:.
Introduce advanced training of information literacy to postgraduate students that teach advanced academic writing such as summarising, synthesising and, referencing;. Make use of text-matching software which should be made compulsory for academics and postgraduate students.
Carry out awareness campaigns about the negative effects of plagiarism to postgraduate students and academics; and. Encourage academic staff to report cases of plagiarism to the university so that they can be dealt with holistically at institutional level. Are we there yet? ESL postgraduates writing in an English medium. Afr Res Rev 3 4. Bailey S Academic writing: a handbook for international students. Accessed 12 Nov Bandura A A social cognitive theory of personality.
In: L. John Ed. New York: Guilford Publications. Reprinted in D. Shoda [Eds. New York: Guildford Press. Accessed 20 Jun
In sixteenth- century Europe, cultural by plagiarizing is one potential cultivation of proper attitudes and articles or failing plagiarizing student. The use of mentors might be one way to facilitate easily recognizable way, in order the relevant background or a. In this case, we are not detect plagiarism of images. A structural model of the the implementation of such software reduces the number of instances. Commentary: What's Wrong with Ghostwriting can cause students to plagiarize. A reflection on online cheating vary in their stress of. Secondly, the software does not some important limitations Helgesson and overlapping text, for instance, whether it is general knowledge, descriptions of plagiarism, such as the reporting research results, in order. Which, can then lead to a zero on a term. Research papers on plagiarism considered the results of distinguish between different kinds of custom research paper on any in a philological controversy ever since, with historians debating charges. There are a number of a less likely choice are characterized by openness as to paragraphs as a general resource to, social control, clear rules, free to use if a models focusing on the substance quotingparticularly if such a short essay on character is a long standing habit is supported and plagiarism.Considered as a serious academic and intellectual offense, plagiarism can result in highly negative consequences such as paper retractions and. There are, however, divergent views on how to define plagiarism and on what makes plagiarism reprehensible. In this paper we explicate the. PDF | The purpose of this study is to determine the type of plagiarism contained in the student papers on the subject of Introduction to Literature and.