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Year after year, we review dozens of reader nominations, revisit sites from past lists, consider staff favorites, and search the far-flung corners of the web for new celebration of new year essay for a varied compilation that will prove an asset to any writer, of any genre, at any experience level. This selection represents this year's creativity-centric websites for writers. These websites fuel out-of-the-box thinking and help writers awaken their choke palahnuik and literary analysis. Be sure to check out the archives for references to innovative techniques and processes from famous thinkers like Einstein and Darwin. The countless prompts, how-tos on guided imagery and creative habits, mixed-media masterpieces, and more at Creativity Portal have sparked imaginations for more than 18 years. Boost your literary credentials by submitting your best caption for the stand-alone cartoon to this weekly choke palahnuik and literary analysis from The New Yorker. The top three captions advance to a public vote, and the winners will be included in a future issue of the magazine.

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Carlisle barracks army war college papers

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Military doctrine. Military education. Military policy. Pennsylvania -- Carlisle Barracks. United States. Confirm this request You may have already requested this item. Please select Ok if you would like to proceed with this request anyway. WorldCat is the world's largest library catalog, helping you find library materials online.

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Please enter the message. Please verify that you are not a robot. Would you also like to submit a review for this item? Articles in this issue include:? Countering Violent Extremism in East Africa? Authors: Cadet Christopher Best Date Published: Few substances on Earth are as important to human survival as water, with access to clean fresh water essential to the growth of industry, agriculture, and particularly to human population centers.

Water security will become an increasingly important issue as the global population increases and access to water becomes more limited, and AFRICOM has the opportunity to play a crucial role in African water security given its resources and military connection to various water stressed African states. Army War College is pleased to present this anthology of selected student work from Academic Year representing examples of well-written and in-depth analyses on the vital subject of Information as Power.

This is the sixth volume of an effort that began in The anthology is an important component of an effort to coordinate and recommend the design, development and integration of content and courses related to the information element of power into the curriculum to prepare our students for senior leadership positions.

Broken into sections emphasizing information effects in the cyberspace domain and the cognitive dimension as well as information sharing, the anthology provides a holistic overview of important national security issues in that regard. This journal consists of selected student works taken from the classes of and The themes addressed by these papers follow the headlines of America?

Beyond that they also address less intuitive issues, such as the appropriate relationship between military and civil agencies over a range of domestic situations, and within the military itself between military components within the context of envisioned civil-military response. In some cases, our contributors have reached beyond singular military application to examine existing strategies and evolving conditions surrounding emergency management and other aspects of homeland security.

In all cases what this initial volume contains is a disciplined brand of strategic thinking against issues of import to the defense and security of the homeland. In a world that has finite resources and is increasingly experiencing high competition for these resources, how can these resources be assured, how can conflict over scarce resources be avoided and when can cooperation over resources issues be used to promote peace?

This research report addresses how security organizations throughout the world are, or could be, approaching sustainability. Authors: Kent Butts, Ph. D; Brent Bankus, M. Date Published: The Center for Strategic Leadership's National Security Issues Branch collected and published works from subject matter experts who explore the importance of sustainability and its impact on the Department of Defense in a variety of ways: everything from sustainability and global security issues to sustainability of individual installations.

Sustainability and National Security,? The authors argue that Sustainability provides an invaluable lens for viewing the national security landscape of the United States, and that it can and should be a key element of any foundation for developing U. Authors: Jim Hartman, Ph. Date Published: With the importance of sustainability and its impact on the Department of Defense, CSL's National Security Issues Branch has collected works from subject matter experts who cover the topic in a variety of ways in everything from sustainability and national security to sustainability of installations.

In particular, Dr. Jim Hartman's chapter, "Sustainability and National Security" in the newly published book of the same name, examines the evolution of the Army's sustainability program and its contributions to the national strategic security objectives.

The growing world population and imbalance of natural resources are expected to affect US, as well as Army, interests. Hartman asserts sustainability is the nexus to ensure future security, which can only be achieved through the development and implementation of sound business practices. Hartman opines the Army, as a large institution, is well suited to lead a whole of government approach to sustainability. Authors: Sharon L.

Cardash, Frank J. Cilluffo, and Bert B. Reviewing the extent of the triple threat and efforts to respond to it, both individually and jointly on the part of the Government of Mexico and the United States Government, co-authors Sharon L.

Tussing write: "The question remains This undertaking will be especially challenging at a time of domestic and international economic turbulence and restraint. Granted, policy without resources is rhetoric? Authors: Lieutenant Colonel Bob Bradford Date Published: The financial crisis of shocked markets and led to a global recession. Failure of the financial markets caused economies to shrink resulting in hardship and loss around the world. In our modern connected world, few nations escaped the consequences of the crisis.

This huge financial crisis diminished the economic strength of our nation, with significant implications for our national defense and impacts for our national security. Authors: Lieutenant Colonel Troy Galloway Date Published: China's embrace of globalization in a measured manner is a direct result of the communist nation? This gradualist approach has worked well in moving the economy towards reform while avoiding significant risk.

This paper discusses the linkages that exist between the significant Chinese economic success of the last 30 years and the communist five-year plans that have outlined many of the nation? Authors: Lieutenant Colonel Mark Holzer Date Published: The discussion of how best to deprive terrorist organizations of funding is necessarily broad because of the numerous means people have devised to acquire and move funds for whatever purpose they intend.

How seriously the United States takes this issue can be seen just in the number of statutory provisions that have been adopted and diligence with which we update terror-associated lists that are aimed at depriving terrorists of funds. However, the National Security Strategy's treatment of this topic is very broad and it is discussed only within fairly limited contexts.

This may simply be a realistic assessment of the difficulties we face in trying to dry up terrorist funding streams and the challenges of evaluating our efforts in spite of the fairly broad approach that has been undertaken in the past decade. Authors: Colonel Vance Stewart Date Published: Brazil, a large and populous country, is blessed with an abundance of natural resources and long-standing ties and traditions to Europe; it is seen as a leader among the nations of the South American continent.

Brazil's ascendancy into the world? However, the question remains, is Brazil actually ready to be a world economic leader? In order to answer the question, this paper reviews Brazil's growth over the past ten years, examines relevant economic indicators, and analyzes problem areas that may inhibit or derail future, sustainable progress.

Authors: Colonel James K. Rose Date Published: In today's increasing globalized world there are several rapidly emerging market success stories that many economic and financial analysts are watching with great anticipation. Brazil is one of these of these geo-political risers and it is perhaps the most underestimated of the so-called BRIC countries - Brazil, Russia, India and China. The story behind Brazil's economic growth is a remarkable tale and has multiple strategic implications for the United States as the two countries struggle to define their future bilateral relationship.

The question of what Brazil's rise means for the United States and what are the security implications for the hemisphere are significant. Authors: Cadet Nathaniel Freeland Date Published: Fuel powers the industrial production that strengthens the economy and provides the means to project national power. Reliable sources of energy are imperative to the security of the United States.

Energy security is the primary theme in discussing why increased domestic production of fuel is important in both geopolitical and international relations theory. The energy market within the scope of twenty-first-century globalization is increasingly affected by global interdependence. One only has to look back to when Russia cut off gas to Ukraine to note how potentially detrimental globalization of fuel supply is to a nation's energy security.

Or Both? Authors: Mr. Long known for its influence over critical choke points and sea lines of communication, Africa is increasingly known as a land of vast stretches of under-governed spaces, burgeoning terrorist groups, world-class deposits of strategic minerals and petroleum, and the continent most affected by climate change. It is also known for high population growth rates and troubled governments struggling to maintain legitimacy.

Many of the challenges originate with environmental change and a resource base eroded by high population growth rates, bad governmental policy, and environmental degradation. But, in resource rich Southern Africa, the regional country of Botswana is considered a success story. With fewer natural resources and a landlocked country, Botswana has historically been known as a champion of the environment and has been steadily making progress towards economic independence chiefly through sound fiscal decisions, diversifying its economy and attacking government corruption.

This international event set the tone for the importance of the conference and exemplified the value of international, civil-military cooperation in all phases of disaster management. The primary aim of the conference was to review the major environmental security issues facing the region and engage in a policy-oriented dialogue that examined joint civil-military environmental security efforts.

Kent Hughes Butts, Mr. Brent Bankus, and 2nd Lieutenant Adam Norris Date Published: The vitality of a powerful nation depends upon its ability to secure access to the strategic resources necessary to sustain its economy and produce effective weapons for defense. This is especially true for the world's two largest economies, those of the United States and China, both similarly import dependent for large quantities of their strategic minerals.

Because China's economy and resource import dependence continue to grow at a high rate it has adopted a geopolitical strategy to secure strategic resources. China's resulting role in the mineral trade has increased Western security community concern over strategic minerals to its highest point since the end of the Cold War.

Authors: Professor Bernard F. Griffard Date Published: A government's failure to understand the impact of global variables on the domestic environment can result in major destabilizing events. As military officers progress in rank and responsibility, their perspectives must evolve. It is in a nation's self-interest to ensure its senior military leaders recognize the role that global trends and variables, and the strategic challenges they present, play in the development of a national security framework.

James O. Kievit Date Published: Following the U. Initially, despite the preference of the military officers on the ground to have some other entity be responsible for governance, that responsibility fell largely, if not exclusively, on U. In order to assist selected future senior leaders to be better prepared for such responsibilities, the U. Army War College began offering an elective course entitled "U.

Authors: Colonel Samuel White, Jr. Date Published: The National Security Strategy marked a change in emphasis in United States foreign policy direction after more than a decade of continuous military engagement in Afghanistan and Iraq. While a strong and capable military is still the cornerstone of U.

In addressing this concept, the Center for Strategic Leadership partners with universities from around the country to educate and develop future diplomats who will be part of this vanguard. A highlight of these important partnerships is the International Strategic Crisis Negotiation Exercise. But CSL also offers other experiential learning and education possibilities for both graduate-level international relations students as well as current Foreign Service professionals. Through interaction, the War College builds long-term partnerships with like-minded institutions - institutions which share the same educational, enrichment and outreach objectives and who focus on developing strategic leaders and decision makers.

Kevin Cogan Date Published: The preservation of the electric grid is central to the defense of the United States. To assess the state of preparedness of the nation in the event of the loss of critical infrastructure, especially the electrical and communications infrastructure, the Center of Strategic Leadership at the U. Army War College conducted a three day workshop which assembled a body of subject matter experts, civic leaders, and electric industry providers to create awareness, discuss threat postures, and recommend actions to better prepare for the possibility of a critical infrastructure failure or collapse of the electrical grid and associated electronic devices due to either a solar storm, electromagnetic pulse EMP , or a cyber attack.

Department of Defense is reliant on complex information systems that utilize global computer networks for rapid sharing of information and the operation of critical infrastructure. As dependence on these vulnerable networks increase, commanders must be directly involved because of the great operational impact of network failure or degradation. However, there is concern that many senior leaders are being thrust into an area for which they are poorly equipped. It is imperative that academic institutions provide cyberspace education opportunities for future commanders as well as government and private sector leaders.

Army War College, conducted a three-day workshop to explore the cyberspace issues that should be addressed in senior service college-level education and similar senior leader education programs. This study provides a comprehensive report on the proceedings of the workshop. Authors: Marcela Ramirez and Dr. Kent Butts Date Published: The economic vitality of the South American region is threatened by the effects of climate change.

Climate change often exacerbates existing environmental crises such as drought, water scarcity and soil degradation, intensify land use conflicts especially in the Andean and Amazon Regions and trigger environmentally induced migration. Glaciers are retreating and natural disasters such as floods and earthquakes are becoming more frequent and severe, exacting a heavy toll on the population and the economic infrastructure of the region.

Successful adaptation measures may require multilateral cooperation to preempt these destabilizing affects before they impact on government legitimacy and threaten regional security. While civilian agencies will normally be the lead for proactively addressing climate change adaptation, they may be insufficient, or absent in distant frontier and border areas where only the military is present. In efforts to address these regional concerns, the U. Southern Command co-hosted two climate change-related events in South America.

The first one in Colombia was focused on climate change adaptation, and the second in Peru, was focused on low carbon sustainable economies, both events emphasizing civil-military collaboration on the issues. Authors: Prof. Bert B. This year's event was constructed around the challenges of achieving Unity of Effort in preparing for and responding to catastrophic events.

Kent Butts Date Published: Today, with its impact on water and food security and governmental legitimacy, climate change adaptation has emerged as a leading regional security issue and major concern to regional governments and their populations. This team has taken the lead in addressing the security dimensions of climate change adaptation in the Central America and Caribbean Region.

Authors: Marcela Ramirez Date Published: The principles of environmental stewardship and sustainability support environmental protection. Environmental protection is the application of human ingenuity and resources, through the disciplines of science and engineering, as required by environmental protection laws, regulations, and policies, to protect the natural environment. The objectives of these conferences include supporting host nations in building institutional capacities; increase sustainability and resilience of partner nations to natural disasters; identifying cooperative civil-military venues and provide recommendations on military engineering and environmental challenges facing the AOR, in addition to creating strategic alliances throughout the region.

Bernard F. Griffard and Dr. Craig Nation Date Published: As Montenegro approaches its fifth anniversary of independence, the nation is actively pursuing membership in both the NATO and the EU, and looks to become a useful, contributing partner in both organizations. As part of that effort, over the past three years the U. Army War College's traveling contact teams have assisted the Armed Forces of Montenegro in the areas of joint staff structure, strategic planning processes, and national strategy reviews.

As they strengthened their internal processes, the Montenegrin Ministry of Defense and the Armed Forces General Staff have come to recognize the key role that interagency cooperation plays in the execution of national policy and in the response to natural and manmade disasters. Army War College USAWC is pleased to present this anthology of selected student work from Academic Year representing examples of well-written and in-depth analyses on the vital subject of Information as Power.

We hope that this effort will serve to inform the broader body of knowledge as the Nation strives to operate effectively within the global information environment and to counter current and potentially future adversaries who exploit it. Griffard and Colonel Ret. James W. Shufelt, Jr. Date Published: Today, in the States of the former Yugoslavia, national security teams are wrestling with the challenges of parallel political and military transformations.

As a group, these countries have opted to align their futures with the West and the European Community. Whether NATO members, candidate members, or Partnership for Peace PfP participants, they are actively seeking assistance with strategic planning and professional military education. In less than a year the MMI will begin its new curriculum for cadets to complete a four-year bachelor's degree program in public administration. To prepare the faculty members in developing the curriculum, the MMI is hosting a series of lectures from subject matter experts to assist in curriculum preparation.

To that end, the MMI invited Dr. As with the evolution of living organisms, after nine years each JIACG's development was directly impacted by its environment and among the Combatant Commands not even the name remains the same. At the request of the U. Authors: Professor B. Griffard, Colonel Michael S. Chesney, and Lieutenant Colonel Gregory D. Hillebrand Date Published: By the very nature of their missions, the world? The ability to?

Authors: Ms. Marcela Ramirez Date Published: Threats to state and human security result from, political and military, and gangs but also social, economic and environmental issues. These and an ever widening array of factors, from the proliferation of small arms and drugs trafficking, to transnational threats like water pollution, natural disasters, the spread of diseases and climate change, all contribute to actual and perceived insecurity.

Bradshaw, Jr. Date Published: Building trust and cooperation between the military and civilian sectors of the nations of South America is an essential step in the continuation of their progress as democracies. Authors: Lieutenant Colonel Vincent R. Lindenmeyer and Dr. Marybeth P. Griffard Date Published: Within the Balkan region there is a shared desire for integration into the European Community.

A prerequisite for such integration is the modernization of the national security apparatus. For this reason, Serbia has a certain urgency to transform its national military organization. Authors: Dennis Murphy Date Published: How does cyberspace impact the military operational environment? Army War College's Center for Strategic Leadership CSL has developed close relationships with several prestigious educational institutions in order to assist in the joint development of realistic experiential learning in national security issues conducted at the strategic level of leadership.

Hummel, Editors Date Published: Africa is a very large continent, one with 53 independent states fraught with a troubled and complex historical geography. While most Americans have a general sense that modern Africa is beset with difficulty, there is little real understanding of Africa.

It seems that one of the reasons Americans don? The editors of this book hope to help turn attention towards this continent, one with an enormous amount of environmental value and human potential even though it is beset with serious problems which, if not solved, will continue to seriously degrade both. They offer it as the fruit of the geographer? Walsh School of Foreign Service engaged in the sixth annual edition of the International Strategic Crisis Negotiation Exercise, held over the course of two days in early November.

Griffard and Prof. Tussing Date Published: With the world's population in almost constant motion, migration is an everyday reality. According to the United Nations, the global number of migrants more than doubled in recent years offering both opportunities and complications for governments. However, the absence of integrated border management procedures leaves the door open to trafficking in human beings, transnational narco-crime, smuggling, and terrorism, all of which pose direct threats to government stability.

Resolving this problem is both resource intensive and politically sensitive. Authors: Deirdre Collings and Rafal Rohozinski Date Published: In recent years, adversaries, armed with new media capabilities and an information-led warfighting strategy, have proven themselves capable of challenging the most powerful militaries in the world. Twitter, YouTube, Facebook and blogs have arguably become as important to the strategic outcome of military operations as bullets, troops and air power.

For a majority of Americans and western Europeans, sufficient food is readily accessible and its cost is a relatively small percentage of their annual income. This, however, is not the case for almost a billion people around the world, including large numbers in the strategically important states of Egypt, India, China, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Indonesia, Pakistan and Ethiopia. In these countries, and in others, food insecurity has been or is a contributor to regional or domestic instability.

Dennis M. Murphy Date Published: While massive amounts of information can provide the opportunity to broaden and expand thought, it also can, and does, overwhelm people already constrained by time as they juggle the daily requirements of life. Authors: Lieutenant Colonel George P. McDonnell Date Published: The likelihood that the United States, alone or as part of a coalition, will undertake stability operations in fragile of failed states remains as high today as it did a decade ago.

If true, then the U. Unfortunately, the Army's current doctrine on PRTs contains ambiguity and omissions that detract from its effectiveness. As the body of knowledge on this subject expands future revisions to FM , Stability Operations, need to overcome current shortcomings. While to some degree changing national and international conditions make many of those changes understandable, an argument can be made for the need to recapture the 'military government' essentials found in the document.

Griffard, Dr. Craig Nation, and Colonel James W. As affirmed by the NATO Secretary General, NATO membership not only brings benefits, but also responsibilities, one of which is the provision of forces capable of operating effectively within an Alliance command structure. In support of this effort, and under the auspices of the U. Army War College sent a three person team to Tirana, Albania to conduct a workshop on integrated force planning concepts and procedures. John F. Troxell Date Published: United States Africa Command USAFRICOM is keenly aware that for small or emerging nations military modernization initiatives have domestic, regional, and international impacts on a nation's public, trade, finance, aid, and foreign policies.

The ongoing U. In this increasingly complex security context, commanders must develop a broad understanding of the evolving "whole of government" approach in the conduct of operations within a full spectrum environment. Authors: Colonel Retired Arthur L. Date Published: Since the United States and Mongolia established diplomatic relations in , a strong, dynamic and growing cooperative partnership has developed, one based on shared values and a commitment to democracy.

One of the most successful cooperative exchanges between the two countries occurred recently with the execution of a bilateral disaster response training program, a progressive, multi-phased, joint training project that spanned the early months of Authors: Major P John A.

Mowchan Date Published: There is mounting evidence that one of the long-term effects of Russia's incursion into the neighboring state of Georgia last year is taking shape in Moscow's recent reenergized efforts to transform the Collective Security Treaty Organization CSTO into to a more cohesive militarized security alliance. While still in the preliminary phase of development, Moscow's initiative most likely has a two-fold purpose: to help increase collective security within Eurasia, and to counter and ultimately limit U.

Authors: Lieutenant Colonel Art M. The specific purpose of this workshop was to assist the Army Staff in analyzing strategic choices and the impact these choices have on the development of a future National Grand Strategy by taking an in-depth look at the various strategic choices that the United States must face in the future development and employment of land power.

This includes establishing public-private partnerships to tackle the issues affecting national and regional security issues such as food security. It was a collaborative interagency effort that brought together participants from a variety of national and international organizations in addition to the Department of Defense. Participants included members from the Department of State, U. Agency for International Development, the U.

Authors: Kevin J. Cogan and William O. Waddell Date Published: Military operations, capabilities, and the speed of events have been changing with great intensity for the last decade. With this rapid change in military capabilities, a new way of considering the command and control C2 of units and systems in order to effectively meet the opponent and have an advantage in the conflict is needed.

The old ways of conducting business and being constrained semantically have no place in current and future warfare and will negatively influence the potential of success. The analogy of organic chemistry seems to be an excellent fit for the concepts of organizational configuration, especially when agility is required to meet emerging operational concepts. The ability to focus the organization towards the objective and to enable all essential elements of power to converge on the opponent with agility will be the "New Chemistry" of C2.

Authors: Kent H. Butts Date Published: Explore China's developing interest in African stability and long-term access to African resources. The expense and extent of Chinese efforts to garner natural resources in various African locales seems to indicate an intent not to compete on the open market for resources, but rather to own them and their associated infrastructure outright so as to create a secure source of supply. Bankus and Butts examine China's efforts in Africa through the lens of the three variables that have characterized U.

Authors: Dennis M. Murphy Date Published: It's time for a doctrinal pause to allow a clean slate review of information operations, strategic communication and, yes, cyberspace operations. Such a review may find that simpler is better. Craig Nation and Colonel Daniel G. Grey Date Published: A USAWC faculty team recently led senior leaders of the Albanian Armed Forces through discussions on developing a national security strategy and a national military strategy.

Using the War College's strategic model process as a foundation, the combined seminar turned "theory" into "practice. Murphy Date Published: Cell phones and Internet access have made the military operating environment increasingly transparent. Add to that the expectation of Soldiers to access to social media sites and the complexity of Operations Security dramatically increases, demanding Commander emphasis as never before.

Authors: Jeffrey L. Caton, Blane R. Clark, Jeffrey L. Groh, Dennis M. Authors: Marcela Ramirez, Colonel Ret. Art Bradshaw, and Dr. The conference increased cooperation between United States Government USG agencies, the civilian and military leadership of Caribbean states, and the academic community on environmental engineering issues and disaster response activities in the region, and established new relationships for further collaboration.

Murphy Date Published: If the United States military hopes to fight and win in a future information environment dominated by new media it must fully understand both the opportunities and challenges of that environment. This includes the ability to exploit new media to achieve military objectives and defeat an adversary's skilled use of it. Authors: Barton Kunstler, Ph. Date Published: The "human singularity" refers to the integration of technology into the human body so that levels of mental acuity and physical ability eclipse all previous known levels.

This monograph deals with novel models of leadership and associated skills which will be necessary to deal with a broad front of converging technologies such as nanotechnology, bioengineering, supercomputing, materials development, and robotics that may make these "singularities" commonplace. Authors: Noel Hendrickson, Ph. Date Published: Counterfactual reasoning is the process of evaluating conditional claims about alternate possibilities and their consequences.

This monograph discusses the need for a comprehensive system of counterfactual reasoning to establish whether underlying assumptions are plausible. Such a system would have immense potential for analytic transformation as it would unite or replace a series of existing techniques of assessing alternate possibilities Complete publication.

Griffard, Colonel James W. Shufelt, Jr, and Mr. In support of these efforts the U. Over the past 18 months, it has provided seminar traveling contact teams TCTs in support of the U. To better understand the security challenges faced by smaller states this paper looks at recent seminars conducted in Moldova and Montenegro. The goal of any emergency response is to assess, react, and recover from an emergency so that local communities can resume normal activities as quickly and effectively as possible.

But how does an organization like a state emergency management agency better prepare itself to accomplish an effective all hazards response? The answer lies at least partially in an effective collective staff training and evaluation program.

Tussing Date Published: Congressional mandate and Executive Branch direction have combined to task the military as never before in support of civil authorities in disaster response. Within that military, no organization will have a greater set of responsibilities in coordinating these commitments than a newly empowered National Guard Bureau.

Dennis Murphy Date Published: The role of the state's National Guard in domestic crisis response continues to evolve, especially in its relation to the responsibilities of other agencies both governmental and non-governmental. An assessment of that evolution reveals some important issues and potential solutions. Scott Forster and Prof. Tussing Date Published: Under of its new charter, the National Guard Bureau has been empowered with greater access, greater representation, and greater responsibility.

Concurrently, it has inherited a primary role in coordinating the strengths of the Guard with other essential stakeholders in the military's support to civil authorities. Kievit Date Published: Response to domestic crises is a burden most often borne by active duty armed forces organizations and reserve forces, such as the state's Army and Air National Guards, but there are many other auxiliary forces that can contribute to crisis response.

However, current federal law places some significant limitations on the use of these auxiliary forces for Defense Support to Civil Authorities. How to maxmize access to and contributions by all available reserve elements was the focus of Work Group 4. Griffard Date Published: Over the past 45 years changes in the strategic environment require land forces that are capable of more than just attacking and defending. Within the 21st century environment, shaping the civil situation to accomplish the strategic endstate is just as important as combat success.

Transforming a nation's military to face these challenges requires both recognition of the need for change and determination to accomplish that change. With this in mind the Land Forces Symposium brought together military representatives from 22 countries within the U. Doug Campbell, COL Phil Evans and LTC Art Loureiro Date Published: A definition of Strategy is that it is about the choices a nation makes given a particular strategic environment, and the trends shaping our future strategic environment point toward an era that some have labeled "persistent conflict".

The Workshop explored the various choices available to the United States involving the use of the elements of national power as depicted in the DIME model Diplomatic, Informational, Military, and Economic. Griffard, Colonel William R. Applegate and Colonel Patrick O. For a country once described by Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck as no more than a "geographical expression," this was a reward for a long tortuous journey through history. Using the perspective of an eyewitness to the Albania of the late 's, this paper identifies the progress made by the Albanian Armed Forces over the past 11 years and why they earned NATO membership.

The objective of this year's workshop is to assist in ongoing foresight efforts by bringing together experts from the military, national security and intelligence communities, academia and the private sector to present papers on global trends that will offer significant challenges and opportunities for United States and its allies well into the 21st century and to exchange ideas and showcase studies on "futuring" methods. For more information, review the concept paper or contact: Mr.

Bill Wimbish or Mr. Pat Cohn Complete publication. Authors: John B. Alexander, Ph. D Date Published: For decades, events in Central and South America have rarely broken through the consciousness of any administration, let alone the American people. Were it not for illegal immigration or drug busts, there would be almost no news from Latin America on mainstream television. Globally, only the unpopulated Antarctic seems to have less coverage.

Although information on pending trouble and catastrophe, has been resident inside the intelligence community and there have been individuals shouting warnings, most tragically fell upon is falling on deaf ears. Similarly, today the necessary information about discordant events throughout Latin America is available to the intelligence community and policymakers.

The time has passed in ignoring a tinder box ready to ignite and for executing minor, disjointed tactical interventions. Rather, the United States needs a strategic shift in policy if we are to foster harmonious relations with our southern neighbors and hope to stem the tide of a far larger manifestation of crime and terrorism. John Alexander discusses multinational concerns and major demographic and political shifts that are already occurring in this region and why they are important to North American national interests.

Included are international issues that combine social, economic, political, and security factors that should be of concern to everyone. He artfully connects the dots that clearly indicate that the generally unrecognized tensions in Latin America are integrally intertwined with global issues. New media has made the job of the warfighter infinitely more complex. Groh, David J. Smith, Cynthia E. Ayers, William O. This is the second volume of an effort that began in Authors: Colonel Scott Spellmon and Lieutenant Colonel Pete Andrysiak Date Published: In Counterinsurgency the sixth paradox states: "The host nation doing something tolerably is normally better than us doing it well.

The authors describe the origins of the CERP program, its initial role in improving governance capacity in Iraq, and present an alternative method commanders can employ in their unit CERP program to achieve more positive effects in their governance line of operation. Authors: Michael J. Metrinko Date Published: The upcoming Afghani elections are essential to the country's political development, and are a major step in the peaceful transmission of power.

However, lack of security, pervasive corruption, reluctance to finance the effort,and disagreement over timing impact the feasibility of holding elections. While none of these factors in and of themselves is sufficient to prevent the upcoming elections, taken in combination they present a formidable challenge. Murphy Date Published: The unfortunate truth about Strategic Communication is that we know it's important, but we don't quite know what it is Kent H.

Butts, Colonel Arthur L. USA, Retired , and Mr. Working within the context of U. Africa Command's strategic vision, the series is examining how the Army can leverage sustainability as an approach to engaging African nations. The event, centered on examining future complex security issues through creative and holistic analysis and decision making across the elements of national power Diplomatic, Informational, Military and Economic.

The workshop's purpose was to identify relevant work that will assist strategic and high-operational level decision makers, planners, and analysts within the Joint, Interagency, Intergovernmental, and Multinational community in "outside the box" consideration and critical analysis of national, military, and intelligence issues.

Representatives from U. Government agencies, think tanks, academia, international organizations, and the private sector participated. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld was making this statement: "Today we lack metrics to know if we are winning or losing the global war on terror," the RAND journal Studies in Conflict and Terrorism was already attempting to address his concern. Wars are composed of battles, so presumably the war on terror is composed - at least in part - of battles against terrorist cells.

But how can one tell if those battles have been won? How can we measure that? In this monograph, the author lays out a mathematical model for answering these questions. Although not meant to be all inclusive, he shows through his examples, some uses, details and suggestions for possible improvements in current processes. If one accepts the formalism of the model, with a few additional and reasonable assumptions, one can ask, "What is the structure of the 'perfect' terrorist cell?

Which terrorist cells are most robust? Which cells are least likely to be disrupted if a certain number of its members have been captured or killed? Authors: Christine A. They also require a deep understanding of our own cultural biases, so that we see clearly while looking through our own cultural lens. While there may be a single "truth" out there, most of what we "see" and our adversaries "see" is perception, not truth.

Although we have achieved some of our primary objectives in these areas, we have often only achieved first order results at the expense of longer-term strategic goals. In some cases, we have failed to achieve our desired results and have created unintended consequences because of a lack of a systems perspective and the ability to see patterns and understand complex systems on a strategic scale and a lack understanding different cultural context and cognitive dimensions.

Our nation has done much to meet that threat, yet much more still needs to be done. Balancing security concerns against those of individual liberties, ensuring parallel commitments to law enforcement and defense remain complementary but distinct, are just two of the issues of concern. In this spirit, the U. The conference was an ambitious endeavor, designed to draw on a cross-section of experience from the partner institutions, their supporters, and their audiences in addressing the issues at hand.

This volume is a reflection of those discussions. Bill Waddell and Mr. This year's workshop provided international scholars from various organizationsand institutions across government, academia and the private sectorthe opportunity to present papers on topics and issues that explorecomplexity in the future global security environment.

This year'sworkshop was the second in a series of annual futures academic workshopssponsored by the National Intelligence University, Office of the Directorof National Intelligence. The three-day event centered on examining futurecomplex security issues through creative and holistic analysis and decisionmaking across the elements of national power Diplomatic, Informational, Militaryand Economic.

Kent Hughes Butts and Mr. Arthur L. The purpose of this Professional Military Education oriented workshop was to determine how the Wilson Center could provide educational resources and support to military educators and researchers who identify the role of the military element of power in responding to environmental security challenges, determining policy implications of this involvement, and identifying roles and missions for further research.

The forum addressed pressing concerns surrounding military response and recovery operations conducted by the military's active and reserve components following major disasters within the United States. The symposium utilized four work groups, with each group addressing a different issue. This paper is the product of one of the work groups. The symposium utilized four work groups with each group addressing a different issue.

James Kievit and Mr. Anton K. Smith, U. Department of State Date Published: The global jihadist insurgency is undercutting the modern states system. Rebalancing focus on the instruments of national power is key to containing and shaping instability in the Middle East. The author calls for better understanding of the cultural and historical differences between the West and the rest of the world; understanding the primacy of economic development over political process; and alliances with regional states.

Griffard Date Published: Without a doubt planning for the post-major combat operations phases in Afghanistan and Iraq lacked prescience; yet there remains a requirement to kill terrorists while attempting the win the hearts and minds of the extremists. How to accomplish this was the topic of discussion for the senior ground force commanders from 22 nations attending the second annual U. Campbell, PhD, U. Army National Guard Date Published: Nearly years of American military tradition, from the colonial period until , created a deeply engrained facility with unconventional warfare.

Since World From the Pequot War in , to the Seminole Wars in the early nineteenth century, the Apache campaigns after the Civil War, and in twentieth century small wars from the Philippines to Vietnam, the mandate for human intelligence has been a key component of unconventional warfare.

Since World War Two, the wider military has lost this expertise and comfort with unconventional operations, with the Special Operations community taking on the sole proprietorship of this role. The top research paper in the USAWC Research Competition captures the experience, and lessons, of fighting on the western plains after the Civil War, and the creation of the Philippine Scouts at the beginning of the twentieth century.

The author critically analyzes the history of communications architecture acquisition before OIF and the inadequacy of current acquisition cycle times to keep pace with the rapid advances in technology, and specifically addresses three insights derived from his research. Bob Barnes Date Published: In order to prepare future military leaders for emerging operations and the implications and application of technology to the battlespace, students at the U. Army War College were provided opportunity to discuss and experience autonomous and robotic technology.

Experts from the field provided seminar groups with presentations on current and emerging technology, along with discussions on strategic implications concerning the use of autonomous capabilities in warfare. In conjunction with these presentations, a large scale exhibit of robotic vehicles was conducted for students, staff, faculty, and the community writ large.

This highly successful workshop brought together interested international leaders and scholars from across various government, military, intelligence, academic and business communities to share their views on the application and use of the Proteus Insights and other new and innovative concepts, processes and methods.

The Proteus Workshop Report provides a detailed discussion of the workshop highlights and proceedings. Authors: Editors: Prof. Murphy, Dr. Groh, Colonel D. Smith, and Prof. The compilation serves not only to showcase the efforts of the College but to inform the broader body of knowledge as the Nation struggles to operate effectively within the current information environment and to counter an adversary who so effectively exploits it. Bill Wimbish Date Published: The United States Army War College, in collaboration with the Office of the Director, National Intelligence DNI , will conduct an academic workshop to explore the complexity of the future global security environment, its discrete threats and opportunities, and examine new and emerging Proteus related strategies and processes to meet 21st century U.

This workshop's overall purpose is to vet and exchange ideas through presentation of submitted papers. Griffard and Colonel Dale Eikmeier Date Published: The current absence of an institutionalized process for long-range national security planning has placed Belize at a strategic disadvantage. To reduce risk and achieve Vision , Belize is developing an integrated national security architecture that provides long-range planning and interagency coordination capability.

Success in this area will allow Belize to take the lead in the development of a regional security strategy. Army War College at Carlisle Barracks. This workshop was the culmination of a year of inaugural activities and was focused on providing experts from various organizations across the Department of Defense, Interagency, academia and the private and corporate sectors the opportunity to present papers on topics and issues related to the Proteus Insights that addressed future strategic national security challenges.

Authors: Dave Cammons, John B. Army War College? Previous case studies have quite adequately covered the? This is the essence of land warfare, and why this study is so important. Volume I, entitled? Tisserand III. This transformation is a long way from being completed; however, the maneuver phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom demonstrated the emerging power and potential of information-networked forces. This volume is meant to provide the military reader with two sets of insights: first, an introductory view of implications of network centric warfare for the operational and strategic levels of war, and second, a series of six short tactical-level battle stories or vignettes that can be used to further the study of network centric warfare tenets and to illustrate the impact of new technologies on organizations, leaders, and combat effectiveness.

Authors: Deirdre Collings and Rafal Rohozinski Date Published: The workshop on which this report is based occurred at an interesting historical juncture, just prior to the release of the updated Information Operations doctrine, and draft Counterinsurgency doctrine, as well as the formal adoption of Security, Stability, Transition and Reconstruction Operations SSTRO as an accepted DOD transition mission.

The insights and record of debate contained within this report reflect the tensions, frustrations and expectations among senior practitioners during a time of rapid change and mounting challenges. The report captures important insights and points to the complexity and scope of the challenges. In this way provides elements of a roadmap for engagement. Please click on either the Full Version link or the Abridged Version link to access the respective copies of the report. Griffard and Colonel Dale C.

Eikmeier Date Published: This paper reports on the continuing process to develop Belize's roadmap to , as exercised during the second strategy formulation workshop.

Think, that popular masters content topics share your

By Sumit Ganguly and Carol Evans. Summer issue of Parameters just released. Read it Now. Jason Healey, The lessons of counterinsurgency have deeper implications for cyber conflict than previous research has identified. Two decades of experience in Iraq and Afghanistan provide insights into the cyber strategy of defending forward including treating major cybersecurity and technology companies as host-nation partners and focusing on winning the hearts and minds of global netizens.

Download Now. Ryan J. Scott, Odelle J. Means, and Patricia M. Shields, The US military has a historical precedence for dealing with a pandemic while simultaneously conducting largescale combat operations. Two twentieth-century examples assess the extent to which the military adapted operations following an influenza outbreak, and make clear military and civilian leaders must balance strategic objectives when facing threat multipliers such as COVID Nina Jankowicz and Henry Collis, The framework of Enduring Information Vigilance will help ally and partner governments deny advantages adversaries gain through their use of information operations in our new global perpetual information environment.

This approach recognizes the persistent threat, unifies responses within and between governments, and resolves societal fissures toward a more global democratic information environment. Chris Mason, The Origins of the American Military Coup of Charles J. Dunlap Jr. US Allies in both regions face remarkably similar threats requiring similar operational concepts, capabilities, and technologies.

Further, these Allies must hedge against the specter of US abandonment. Carol V. Evans, Bernard F. Griffard and Dr. Craig Nation Date Published: As Montenegro approaches its fifth anniversary of independence, the nation is actively pursuing membership in both the NATO and the EU, and looks to become a useful, contributing partner in both organizations.

As part of that effort, over the past three years the U. Army War College's traveling contact teams have assisted the Armed Forces of Montenegro in the areas of joint staff structure, strategic planning processes, and national strategy reviews.

As they strengthened their internal processes, the Montenegrin Ministry of Defense and the Armed Forces General Staff have come to recognize the key role that interagency cooperation plays in the execution of national policy and in the response to natural and manmade disasters. Army War College USAWC is pleased to present this anthology of selected student work from Academic Year representing examples of well-written and in-depth analyses on the vital subject of Information as Power.

We hope that this effort will serve to inform the broader body of knowledge as the Nation strives to operate effectively within the global information environment and to counter current and potentially future adversaries who exploit it. Griffard and Colonel Ret. James W. Shufelt, Jr. Date Published: Today, in the States of the former Yugoslavia, national security teams are wrestling with the challenges of parallel political and military transformations.

As a group, these countries have opted to align their futures with the West and the European Community. Whether NATO members, candidate members, or Partnership for Peace PfP participants, they are actively seeking assistance with strategic planning and professional military education.

In less than a year the MMI will begin its new curriculum for cadets to complete a four-year bachelor's degree program in public administration. To prepare the faculty members in developing the curriculum, the MMI is hosting a series of lectures from subject matter experts to assist in curriculum preparation.

To that end, the MMI invited Dr. As with the evolution of living organisms, after nine years each JIACG's development was directly impacted by its environment and among the Combatant Commands not even the name remains the same. At the request of the U. Authors: Professor B. Griffard, Colonel Michael S. Chesney, and Lieutenant Colonel Gregory D.

Hillebrand Date Published: By the very nature of their missions, the world? The ability to? Authors: Ms. Marcela Ramirez Date Published: Threats to state and human security result from, political and military, and gangs but also social, economic and environmental issues. These and an ever widening array of factors, from the proliferation of small arms and drugs trafficking, to transnational threats like water pollution, natural disasters, the spread of diseases and climate change, all contribute to actual and perceived insecurity.

Bradshaw, Jr. Date Published: Building trust and cooperation between the military and civilian sectors of the nations of South America is an essential step in the continuation of their progress as democracies. Authors: Lieutenant Colonel Vincent R. Lindenmeyer and Dr. Marybeth P. Griffard Date Published: Within the Balkan region there is a shared desire for integration into the European Community.

A prerequisite for such integration is the modernization of the national security apparatus. For this reason, Serbia has a certain urgency to transform its national military organization. Authors: Dennis Murphy Date Published: How does cyberspace impact the military operational environment? Army War College's Center for Strategic Leadership CSL has developed close relationships with several prestigious educational institutions in order to assist in the joint development of realistic experiential learning in national security issues conducted at the strategic level of leadership.

Hummel, Editors Date Published: Africa is a very large continent, one with 53 independent states fraught with a troubled and complex historical geography. While most Americans have a general sense that modern Africa is beset with difficulty, there is little real understanding of Africa. It seems that one of the reasons Americans don? The editors of this book hope to help turn attention towards this continent, one with an enormous amount of environmental value and human potential even though it is beset with serious problems which, if not solved, will continue to seriously degrade both.

They offer it as the fruit of the geographer? Walsh School of Foreign Service engaged in the sixth annual edition of the International Strategic Crisis Negotiation Exercise, held over the course of two days in early November.

Griffard and Prof. Tussing Date Published: With the world's population in almost constant motion, migration is an everyday reality. According to the United Nations, the global number of migrants more than doubled in recent years offering both opportunities and complications for governments. However, the absence of integrated border management procedures leaves the door open to trafficking in human beings, transnational narco-crime, smuggling, and terrorism, all of which pose direct threats to government stability.

Resolving this problem is both resource intensive and politically sensitive. Authors: Deirdre Collings and Rafal Rohozinski Date Published: In recent years, adversaries, armed with new media capabilities and an information-led warfighting strategy, have proven themselves capable of challenging the most powerful militaries in the world. Twitter, YouTube, Facebook and blogs have arguably become as important to the strategic outcome of military operations as bullets, troops and air power.

For a majority of Americans and western Europeans, sufficient food is readily accessible and its cost is a relatively small percentage of their annual income. This, however, is not the case for almost a billion people around the world, including large numbers in the strategically important states of Egypt, India, China, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Indonesia, Pakistan and Ethiopia. In these countries, and in others, food insecurity has been or is a contributor to regional or domestic instability.

Dennis M. Murphy Date Published: While massive amounts of information can provide the opportunity to broaden and expand thought, it also can, and does, overwhelm people already constrained by time as they juggle the daily requirements of life. Authors: Lieutenant Colonel George P. McDonnell Date Published: The likelihood that the United States, alone or as part of a coalition, will undertake stability operations in fragile of failed states remains as high today as it did a decade ago.

If true, then the U. Unfortunately, the Army's current doctrine on PRTs contains ambiguity and omissions that detract from its effectiveness. As the body of knowledge on this subject expands future revisions to FM , Stability Operations, need to overcome current shortcomings. While to some degree changing national and international conditions make many of those changes understandable, an argument can be made for the need to recapture the 'military government' essentials found in the document.

Griffard, Dr. Craig Nation, and Colonel James W. As affirmed by the NATO Secretary General, NATO membership not only brings benefits, but also responsibilities, one of which is the provision of forces capable of operating effectively within an Alliance command structure.

In support of this effort, and under the auspices of the U. Army War College sent a three person team to Tirana, Albania to conduct a workshop on integrated force planning concepts and procedures. John F. Troxell Date Published: United States Africa Command USAFRICOM is keenly aware that for small or emerging nations military modernization initiatives have domestic, regional, and international impacts on a nation's public, trade, finance, aid, and foreign policies.

The ongoing U. In this increasingly complex security context, commanders must develop a broad understanding of the evolving "whole of government" approach in the conduct of operations within a full spectrum environment. Authors: Colonel Retired Arthur L. Date Published: Since the United States and Mongolia established diplomatic relations in , a strong, dynamic and growing cooperative partnership has developed, one based on shared values and a commitment to democracy.

One of the most successful cooperative exchanges between the two countries occurred recently with the execution of a bilateral disaster response training program, a progressive, multi-phased, joint training project that spanned the early months of Authors: Major P John A. Mowchan Date Published: There is mounting evidence that one of the long-term effects of Russia's incursion into the neighboring state of Georgia last year is taking shape in Moscow's recent reenergized efforts to transform the Collective Security Treaty Organization CSTO into to a more cohesive militarized security alliance.

While still in the preliminary phase of development, Moscow's initiative most likely has a two-fold purpose: to help increase collective security within Eurasia, and to counter and ultimately limit U. Authors: Lieutenant Colonel Art M. The specific purpose of this workshop was to assist the Army Staff in analyzing strategic choices and the impact these choices have on the development of a future National Grand Strategy by taking an in-depth look at the various strategic choices that the United States must face in the future development and employment of land power.

This includes establishing public-private partnerships to tackle the issues affecting national and regional security issues such as food security. It was a collaborative interagency effort that brought together participants from a variety of national and international organizations in addition to the Department of Defense. Participants included members from the Department of State, U. Agency for International Development, the U.

Authors: Kevin J. Cogan and William O. Waddell Date Published: Military operations, capabilities, and the speed of events have been changing with great intensity for the last decade. With this rapid change in military capabilities, a new way of considering the command and control C2 of units and systems in order to effectively meet the opponent and have an advantage in the conflict is needed. The old ways of conducting business and being constrained semantically have no place in current and future warfare and will negatively influence the potential of success.

The analogy of organic chemistry seems to be an excellent fit for the concepts of organizational configuration, especially when agility is required to meet emerging operational concepts. The ability to focus the organization towards the objective and to enable all essential elements of power to converge on the opponent with agility will be the "New Chemistry" of C2. Authors: Kent H. Butts Date Published: Explore China's developing interest in African stability and long-term access to African resources.

The expense and extent of Chinese efforts to garner natural resources in various African locales seems to indicate an intent not to compete on the open market for resources, but rather to own them and their associated infrastructure outright so as to create a secure source of supply. Bankus and Butts examine China's efforts in Africa through the lens of the three variables that have characterized U. Authors: Dennis M. Murphy Date Published: It's time for a doctrinal pause to allow a clean slate review of information operations, strategic communication and, yes, cyberspace operations.

Such a review may find that simpler is better. Craig Nation and Colonel Daniel G. Grey Date Published: A USAWC faculty team recently led senior leaders of the Albanian Armed Forces through discussions on developing a national security strategy and a national military strategy.

Using the War College's strategic model process as a foundation, the combined seminar turned "theory" into "practice. Murphy Date Published: Cell phones and Internet access have made the military operating environment increasingly transparent. Add to that the expectation of Soldiers to access to social media sites and the complexity of Operations Security dramatically increases, demanding Commander emphasis as never before.

Authors: Jeffrey L. Caton, Blane R. Clark, Jeffrey L. Groh, Dennis M. Authors: Marcela Ramirez, Colonel Ret. Art Bradshaw, and Dr. The conference increased cooperation between United States Government USG agencies, the civilian and military leadership of Caribbean states, and the academic community on environmental engineering issues and disaster response activities in the region, and established new relationships for further collaboration.

Murphy Date Published: If the United States military hopes to fight and win in a future information environment dominated by new media it must fully understand both the opportunities and challenges of that environment. This includes the ability to exploit new media to achieve military objectives and defeat an adversary's skilled use of it. Authors: Barton Kunstler, Ph. Date Published: The "human singularity" refers to the integration of technology into the human body so that levels of mental acuity and physical ability eclipse all previous known levels.

This monograph deals with novel models of leadership and associated skills which will be necessary to deal with a broad front of converging technologies such as nanotechnology, bioengineering, supercomputing, materials development, and robotics that may make these "singularities" commonplace.

Authors: Noel Hendrickson, Ph. Date Published: Counterfactual reasoning is the process of evaluating conditional claims about alternate possibilities and their consequences. This monograph discusses the need for a comprehensive system of counterfactual reasoning to establish whether underlying assumptions are plausible. Such a system would have immense potential for analytic transformation as it would unite or replace a series of existing techniques of assessing alternate possibilities Complete publication.

Griffard, Colonel James W. Shufelt, Jr, and Mr. In support of these efforts the U. Over the past 18 months, it has provided seminar traveling contact teams TCTs in support of the U. To better understand the security challenges faced by smaller states this paper looks at recent seminars conducted in Moldova and Montenegro. The goal of any emergency response is to assess, react, and recover from an emergency so that local communities can resume normal activities as quickly and effectively as possible.

But how does an organization like a state emergency management agency better prepare itself to accomplish an effective all hazards response? The answer lies at least partially in an effective collective staff training and evaluation program. Tussing Date Published: Congressional mandate and Executive Branch direction have combined to task the military as never before in support of civil authorities in disaster response.

Within that military, no organization will have a greater set of responsibilities in coordinating these commitments than a newly empowered National Guard Bureau. Dennis Murphy Date Published: The role of the state's National Guard in domestic crisis response continues to evolve, especially in its relation to the responsibilities of other agencies both governmental and non-governmental. An assessment of that evolution reveals some important issues and potential solutions. Scott Forster and Prof.

Tussing Date Published: Under of its new charter, the National Guard Bureau has been empowered with greater access, greater representation, and greater responsibility. Concurrently, it has inherited a primary role in coordinating the strengths of the Guard with other essential stakeholders in the military's support to civil authorities.

Kievit Date Published: Response to domestic crises is a burden most often borne by active duty armed forces organizations and reserve forces, such as the state's Army and Air National Guards, but there are many other auxiliary forces that can contribute to crisis response. However, current federal law places some significant limitations on the use of these auxiliary forces for Defense Support to Civil Authorities.

How to maxmize access to and contributions by all available reserve elements was the focus of Work Group 4. Griffard Date Published: Over the past 45 years changes in the strategic environment require land forces that are capable of more than just attacking and defending. Within the 21st century environment, shaping the civil situation to accomplish the strategic endstate is just as important as combat success. Transforming a nation's military to face these challenges requires both recognition of the need for change and determination to accomplish that change.

With this in mind the Land Forces Symposium brought together military representatives from 22 countries within the U. Doug Campbell, COL Phil Evans and LTC Art Loureiro Date Published: A definition of Strategy is that it is about the choices a nation makes given a particular strategic environment, and the trends shaping our future strategic environment point toward an era that some have labeled "persistent conflict".

The Workshop explored the various choices available to the United States involving the use of the elements of national power as depicted in the DIME model Diplomatic, Informational, Military, and Economic. Griffard, Colonel William R. Applegate and Colonel Patrick O. For a country once described by Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck as no more than a "geographical expression," this was a reward for a long tortuous journey through history.

Using the perspective of an eyewitness to the Albania of the late 's, this paper identifies the progress made by the Albanian Armed Forces over the past 11 years and why they earned NATO membership. The objective of this year's workshop is to assist in ongoing foresight efforts by bringing together experts from the military, national security and intelligence communities, academia and the private sector to present papers on global trends that will offer significant challenges and opportunities for United States and its allies well into the 21st century and to exchange ideas and showcase studies on "futuring" methods.

For more information, review the concept paper or contact: Mr. Bill Wimbish or Mr. Pat Cohn Complete publication. Authors: John B. Alexander, Ph. D Date Published: For decades, events in Central and South America have rarely broken through the consciousness of any administration, let alone the American people. Were it not for illegal immigration or drug busts, there would be almost no news from Latin America on mainstream television. Globally, only the unpopulated Antarctic seems to have less coverage.

Although information on pending trouble and catastrophe, has been resident inside the intelligence community and there have been individuals shouting warnings, most tragically fell upon is falling on deaf ears. Similarly, today the necessary information about discordant events throughout Latin America is available to the intelligence community and policymakers.

The time has passed in ignoring a tinder box ready to ignite and for executing minor, disjointed tactical interventions. Rather, the United States needs a strategic shift in policy if we are to foster harmonious relations with our southern neighbors and hope to stem the tide of a far larger manifestation of crime and terrorism.

John Alexander discusses multinational concerns and major demographic and political shifts that are already occurring in this region and why they are important to North American national interests. Included are international issues that combine social, economic, political, and security factors that should be of concern to everyone.

He artfully connects the dots that clearly indicate that the generally unrecognized tensions in Latin America are integrally intertwined with global issues. New media has made the job of the warfighter infinitely more complex. Groh, David J. Smith, Cynthia E. Ayers, William O. This is the second volume of an effort that began in Authors: Colonel Scott Spellmon and Lieutenant Colonel Pete Andrysiak Date Published: In Counterinsurgency the sixth paradox states: "The host nation doing something tolerably is normally better than us doing it well.

The authors describe the origins of the CERP program, its initial role in improving governance capacity in Iraq, and present an alternative method commanders can employ in their unit CERP program to achieve more positive effects in their governance line of operation. Authors: Michael J. Metrinko Date Published: The upcoming Afghani elections are essential to the country's political development, and are a major step in the peaceful transmission of power. However, lack of security, pervasive corruption, reluctance to finance the effort,and disagreement over timing impact the feasibility of holding elections.

While none of these factors in and of themselves is sufficient to prevent the upcoming elections, taken in combination they present a formidable challenge. Murphy Date Published: The unfortunate truth about Strategic Communication is that we know it's important, but we don't quite know what it is Kent H. Butts, Colonel Arthur L. USA, Retired , and Mr. Working within the context of U. Africa Command's strategic vision, the series is examining how the Army can leverage sustainability as an approach to engaging African nations.

The event, centered on examining future complex security issues through creative and holistic analysis and decision making across the elements of national power Diplomatic, Informational, Military and Economic. The workshop's purpose was to identify relevant work that will assist strategic and high-operational level decision makers, planners, and analysts within the Joint, Interagency, Intergovernmental, and Multinational community in "outside the box" consideration and critical analysis of national, military, and intelligence issues.

Representatives from U. Government agencies, think tanks, academia, international organizations, and the private sector participated. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld was making this statement: "Today we lack metrics to know if we are winning or losing the global war on terror," the RAND journal Studies in Conflict and Terrorism was already attempting to address his concern. Wars are composed of battles, so presumably the war on terror is composed - at least in part - of battles against terrorist cells.

But how can one tell if those battles have been won? How can we measure that? In this monograph, the author lays out a mathematical model for answering these questions. Although not meant to be all inclusive, he shows through his examples, some uses, details and suggestions for possible improvements in current processes.

If one accepts the formalism of the model, with a few additional and reasonable assumptions, one can ask, "What is the structure of the 'perfect' terrorist cell? Which terrorist cells are most robust? Which cells are least likely to be disrupted if a certain number of its members have been captured or killed? Authors: Christine A.

They also require a deep understanding of our own cultural biases, so that we see clearly while looking through our own cultural lens. While there may be a single "truth" out there, most of what we "see" and our adversaries "see" is perception, not truth. Although we have achieved some of our primary objectives in these areas, we have often only achieved first order results at the expense of longer-term strategic goals. In some cases, we have failed to achieve our desired results and have created unintended consequences because of a lack of a systems perspective and the ability to see patterns and understand complex systems on a strategic scale and a lack understanding different cultural context and cognitive dimensions.

Our nation has done much to meet that threat, yet much more still needs to be done. Balancing security concerns against those of individual liberties, ensuring parallel commitments to law enforcement and defense remain complementary but distinct, are just two of the issues of concern. In this spirit, the U. The conference was an ambitious endeavor, designed to draw on a cross-section of experience from the partner institutions, their supporters, and their audiences in addressing the issues at hand.

This volume is a reflection of those discussions. Bill Waddell and Mr. This year's workshop provided international scholars from various organizationsand institutions across government, academia and the private sectorthe opportunity to present papers on topics and issues that explorecomplexity in the future global security environment. This year'sworkshop was the second in a series of annual futures academic workshopssponsored by the National Intelligence University, Office of the Directorof National Intelligence.

The three-day event centered on examining futurecomplex security issues through creative and holistic analysis and decisionmaking across the elements of national power Diplomatic, Informational, Militaryand Economic. Kent Hughes Butts and Mr. Arthur L. The purpose of this Professional Military Education oriented workshop was to determine how the Wilson Center could provide educational resources and support to military educators and researchers who identify the role of the military element of power in responding to environmental security challenges, determining policy implications of this involvement, and identifying roles and missions for further research.

The forum addressed pressing concerns surrounding military response and recovery operations conducted by the military's active and reserve components following major disasters within the United States. The symposium utilized four work groups, with each group addressing a different issue. This paper is the product of one of the work groups.

The symposium utilized four work groups with each group addressing a different issue. James Kievit and Mr. Anton K. Smith, U. Department of State Date Published: The global jihadist insurgency is undercutting the modern states system. Rebalancing focus on the instruments of national power is key to containing and shaping instability in the Middle East. The author calls for better understanding of the cultural and historical differences between the West and the rest of the world; understanding the primacy of economic development over political process; and alliances with regional states.

Griffard Date Published: Without a doubt planning for the post-major combat operations phases in Afghanistan and Iraq lacked prescience; yet there remains a requirement to kill terrorists while attempting the win the hearts and minds of the extremists. How to accomplish this was the topic of discussion for the senior ground force commanders from 22 nations attending the second annual U. Campbell, PhD, U.

Army National Guard Date Published: Nearly years of American military tradition, from the colonial period until , created a deeply engrained facility with unconventional warfare. Since World From the Pequot War in , to the Seminole Wars in the early nineteenth century, the Apache campaigns after the Civil War, and in twentieth century small wars from the Philippines to Vietnam, the mandate for human intelligence has been a key component of unconventional warfare.

Since World War Two, the wider military has lost this expertise and comfort with unconventional operations, with the Special Operations community taking on the sole proprietorship of this role. The top research paper in the USAWC Research Competition captures the experience, and lessons, of fighting on the western plains after the Civil War, and the creation of the Philippine Scouts at the beginning of the twentieth century. The author critically analyzes the history of communications architecture acquisition before OIF and the inadequacy of current acquisition cycle times to keep pace with the rapid advances in technology, and specifically addresses three insights derived from his research.

Bob Barnes Date Published: In order to prepare future military leaders for emerging operations and the implications and application of technology to the battlespace, students at the U. Army War College were provided opportunity to discuss and experience autonomous and robotic technology. Experts from the field provided seminar groups with presentations on current and emerging technology, along with discussions on strategic implications concerning the use of autonomous capabilities in warfare.

In conjunction with these presentations, a large scale exhibit of robotic vehicles was conducted for students, staff, faculty, and the community writ large. This highly successful workshop brought together interested international leaders and scholars from across various government, military, intelligence, academic and business communities to share their views on the application and use of the Proteus Insights and other new and innovative concepts, processes and methods.

The Proteus Workshop Report provides a detailed discussion of the workshop highlights and proceedings. Authors: Editors: Prof. Murphy, Dr. Groh, Colonel D. Smith, and Prof. The compilation serves not only to showcase the efforts of the College but to inform the broader body of knowledge as the Nation struggles to operate effectively within the current information environment and to counter an adversary who so effectively exploits it. Bill Wimbish Date Published: The United States Army War College, in collaboration with the Office of the Director, National Intelligence DNI , will conduct an academic workshop to explore the complexity of the future global security environment, its discrete threats and opportunities, and examine new and emerging Proteus related strategies and processes to meet 21st century U.

This workshop's overall purpose is to vet and exchange ideas through presentation of submitted papers. Griffard and Colonel Dale Eikmeier Date Published: The current absence of an institutionalized process for long-range national security planning has placed Belize at a strategic disadvantage.

To reduce risk and achieve Vision , Belize is developing an integrated national security architecture that provides long-range planning and interagency coordination capability. Success in this area will allow Belize to take the lead in the development of a regional security strategy. Army War College at Carlisle Barracks. This workshop was the culmination of a year of inaugural activities and was focused on providing experts from various organizations across the Department of Defense, Interagency, academia and the private and corporate sectors the opportunity to present papers on topics and issues related to the Proteus Insights that addressed future strategic national security challenges.

Authors: Dave Cammons, John B. Army War College? Previous case studies have quite adequately covered the? This is the essence of land warfare, and why this study is so important. Volume I, entitled? Tisserand III. This transformation is a long way from being completed; however, the maneuver phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom demonstrated the emerging power and potential of information-networked forces.

This volume is meant to provide the military reader with two sets of insights: first, an introductory view of implications of network centric warfare for the operational and strategic levels of war, and second, a series of six short tactical-level battle stories or vignettes that can be used to further the study of network centric warfare tenets and to illustrate the impact of new technologies on organizations, leaders, and combat effectiveness.

Authors: Deirdre Collings and Rafal Rohozinski Date Published: The workshop on which this report is based occurred at an interesting historical juncture, just prior to the release of the updated Information Operations doctrine, and draft Counterinsurgency doctrine, as well as the formal adoption of Security, Stability, Transition and Reconstruction Operations SSTRO as an accepted DOD transition mission. The insights and record of debate contained within this report reflect the tensions, frustrations and expectations among senior practitioners during a time of rapid change and mounting challenges.

The report captures important insights and points to the complexity and scope of the challenges. In this way provides elements of a roadmap for engagement. Please click on either the Full Version link or the Abridged Version link to access the respective copies of the report. Griffard and Colonel Dale C. Eikmeier Date Published: This paper reports on the continuing process to develop Belize's roadmap to , as exercised during the second strategy formulation workshop.

Initiated by the Government of Belize, and supported by the United States' Southern Command, the national security strategy NSS formulation process workshop series is a model for drawing on the expertise of a nation's international partners to create the necessary synergies for the successful formulation of a national strategy. Bert Tussing, Colonel James Roth and Colonel Retired Richard Dillon Date Published: In times of severe domestic crisis, the United States military is expected to be the quintessential support mechanism for response and recovery.

A vital element of those efforts should be the Reserve Component; but recent history has seen the reserves misapplied, or overlooked in catastrophic response, perhaps when they were needed most. How to properly employ our Nation's military reserves in response to a domestic crisis was the focus of the fifth annual Reserve Component Symposium: Improving the Military's Domestic Response: Leveraging the Reserves. Accurate public information is critical. Managing expectations and positively influencing perceptions by proactive education and training is equally important.

Senior military commanders must provide accurate messages in conjunction with actions and images that instill confidence. In the end, Strategic Communication is commander's business. Griffard Date Published: Belize is uniquely positioned to be the link between Central America and the Caribbean regions.

As a stable democracy Belize is in a position to promote good governance in both regions. However, the country has challenges that cannot be properly addressed in the absence of a cohesive national security strategy NSS. Terry Klapakis, Dr. Kent Hughes Butts, and Colonel Ret. Art Bradshaw Date Published: The Department of Defense's continued review of the United States capability and capacity for combating terrorism has identified significant gaps and areas for improvement.

The interagency representatives learned lessons from how the military element of power has been successfully used to support interagency efforts addressing local conditions that terrorists seek to exploit. Bill Wimbish Date Published: The Department of Defense has launched numerous initiatives to develop scenarios, models, simulations, and games to educate and assist strategic and operational intelligence analysts and decision-makers in dealing with future asymmetric and idiosyncratic complexity, especially as it relates to technology, social values, cultural norms, beliefs and human behavior.

Protean Media is a "light" and low cost RPE, designed to model complex adaptive systems and naturally evolving events. This Game is a systems approach to human conflict. The Protean Media is not a total panacea for gaming or modeling complexity; however, it establishes the foundation for others to build upon. Michael Cross, Editor. Educator and operator development will continue to be advanced through the annual Education Workshops.

This report is a verbatim transcript, complete with slides, of that workshop. Kent Hughes Butts and Colonel Ret. Covering a vast area in the Pacific Ocean region, it is the home of the majority of the world's active volcanoes and a series of dynamic tectonic plates that produce frequent, sometimes violent seismic events.

While this is a fact of life in the region, the Tsunami of December provided additional impetus for the region's nations to explore additional measures for disaster preparedness. Bill Wimbish and Mr. Bill Waddell Date Published: The United States Army War College, in collaboration with the Office of the Director, National Intelligence DNI , will conduct an academic workshop to explore the complexity of the future global security environment, its discrete threats and opportunities, and examine new and emerging Proteus related strategies and processes to meet 21st century U.

Concerns about U. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict offers a unique, parallel case study to explore successes, missteps, and missed opportunities of the use of information as an element of power during a counterinsurgency. Academicians, Department of Defense military and civilians, and representatives of U. Jeffrey C. Reynolds, Editors Date Published: To be successful, the United States combating terrorism policy must include the synchronized use of defense, diplomacy and development to address the multiple elements of a combating terrorism strategy.

This includes the underlying conditions that terrorists seek to exploit to undermine the legitimacy of governments and facilitate terrorist recruiting campaigns. As valuable as the attack and disrupt mission may be, it fails to help at risk countries establish conditions that counter ideological support to terrorism and promote regional stability. This book examines the strategies, interagency process and regional approaches of the United States combating terrorism effort, emphasizes the importance of addressing the underlying conditions in supporting mainstream Muslim efforts to reject violent extremism, and makes policy recommendations to improve this effort.

Bert Tussing, Prof. Seeking to validate this approach and assist in the development of implementing activities was the approach of the Center for Strategic Leadership's fourth annual Reserve Component workshop, Reinforcing the First Line of Defense: The Role of the National Guard in Critical Infrastructure Protection, conducted on August Workshop participants examined the perspective of agencies and entities within and outside of the Department of Defense and used these perspectives as a springboard for the follow-on workshop groups to examine a series of questions to discern potential paths the National Guard might take, or reject, in support of Critical Infrastructure Protection.

A final plenary session provided the assembled participants an opportunity to review and critique the individual work groups' findings and insights. Authors: Tammy S. Schultz and M. Cross Date Published: Changing dynamics in peace and stability operations in locations such as Kosovo, Bosnia, Afghanistan, and Iraq, has shifted conditions in field operations.

The changing environment requires educational institutions, both military and civilian, to reevaluate and adjust their curricula and educational programs. Educators and key leaders from the military services, the Joint Staff, international and non-government organizations, interagency offices, and centers of higher education came together to explore possible strategies to improve education for senior leaders engaged in peace and stability operations.

Bert Tussing, Editor, and Mr. The workshop, also entitled In Support of the Common Defense, attracted participants from a wide range of government and civilian organizations and agencies invested in the tasks associated with protecting the Nation? The workshop and this collection of essays concentrates on the public and private perspectives on CIP and the partnerships required to establish strong infrastructure protection policies and programs.

Bert Tussing and Dr. The symposium brought together a distinguished panel of retired flag and general officers and government officials to engage in an examination of the issues focusing on the question of how the interagency process can be improved to better address the War on Terrorism. Western Democracy versus Communism. Purpose and the Kremlin Design," and it argued that the basic conflict was between ideas?

Today, the war of ideas is Western Democracy versus Salafi Islam. Al Qaeda is the main enemy, with our main effort targeted to a particular geographic region? This is oversimplified, but there is some merit in such a mental picture. Buss Date Published: Over the past 15 years, the United States has been involved in seven major post-conflict reconstruction and stabilization operations. On each mission, our government has struggled to provide a responsive and enduring solution.

The consequences have been the unnecessary loss of life, damage to infrastructure, and higher eventual costs for reconstructionand stabilization. Our unpreparedness to respond to the instability in post-war Iraq has met with sharp criticism. In response to these failings, the Bush administration established the U. William Waddell Date Published: The Department of Defense is in the middle of a transition with regard to the strategic command, control, communications and computer systems being used at the Joint Operational and Strategic levels of warfighting and planning.

This transition affects the USAWC areas of education, collaboration, and outreach as students prepare for future leadership roles. Within this context Mr. Waddell discusses the projected transition in strategic C4, identifying the emerging tools and capabilities in JC2, and also discuss emerging capabilities in the areas of force planning and collaboration systems.

He focuses on the impact of the use of these tools and capabilities at the U. Army War College for education, research, and outreach. Kent Hughes Butts and Prof. Tussing Date Published: One of the four goals of the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism is to "Diminish the underlying conditions that terrorists seek to exploit. Co-sponsored by U.

Griffard, COL Ret. Art Bradshaw, Dr. Kent Hughes Butts Date Published: Effective disaster preparedness planning at the national and regional levels is a "high payoff" investment that governments can make in anticipation of large-scale natural or man-made disasters. The Indonesian area earthquake and tsunami and the resulting national, regional, and international response efforts energized the nations of South Asia to take a serious look at their disaster preparedness planning processes and at the critical gaps exposed by the magnitude of the disaster.

Dennis Murphy Date Published: The first Gulf War was conducted with legacy systems straddling the industrial and emergent information age. The major combat operations phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom OIF , on the other hand, put into practice information age constructs and theory for the first time in warfare and was an unprecedented success in its speed and lethality. The impact of that network enabled campaign often referred to as Network Centric Warfare is the topic of a study conducted by the Center for Strategic Leadership, U.

Department of Defense. The study will be completed by the fall of , but first drafts of the study hint at valuable operational and strategic insights Complete publication. Alex Sonski, and Mr. Reynolds Date Published: Environmental Security provides a low-cost, non-threatening opportunity for multi-lateral international and interagency cooperation and communication. Executing environmental security missions creates positive new roles for the military and builds governmental legitimacy in the eyes of the people.

To maintain access and use, the U. Central Command and its Gulf Region partners must deny outside organizations the ability to influence these requirements through terrorism. Essential to this will be information sharing and shared capabilties. To facilitate this endstate, theater security cooperation initiatives that promote regional collaboration are underway to improve national disaster preparedness capabilities and effective disaster preparedness training with partner nations.

Examines the potential expansion of the military's role in the National Response Plan and suggests some planning, policy and procedural improvements. In addition to this paper you may want to read the associated reports of the three specific scenarios portrayed in the workshop. If you find this paper useful you may want to read the reports of the other two scenarios biological and dirty bomb attacks.

If you find this paper useful you may want to read the reports of the other two scenarios nuclear and biological attacks. Turner, and Dr. Kent Butts Date Published: Southeast Asia faces five maritime security challenges: piracy, maritime terrorism, transnational criminal trafficking operations, refugees and illegal migration, and protecting energy routes. The workshop identified opportunities for regional defense security cooperation in responding to maritime and marine resource threats.

The scenario portrayed a pandemic influenza outbreak transmitted to residents of Johnstown, Pennsylvania by a young boy who acquired the virus during a family vacation in Japan. If you find this paper useful you may want to read the reports of the other two scenarios nuclear and dirty bomb attacks. Authors: Butts, Griffard, Turner, and Wheatley, eds. It contains the attendee list. It contains the conference agenda. It contains an explanation of the acronyms used within the report.

It contains: Introduction and Welcoming Remarks Maj. George J. It contains: Introduction and Opening Remarks Dr. Nasser Mohammed Al-Ali Complete publication. Annette L. Sobel, M. Jackie Hux Cain Complete publication. Craig T. Abdul Wahab Al-Mosleh Complete publication. A Medical Perspective Brig. Regional Training and Exercises, V. This workshop focused on multilateral cooperation in developing regional approaches to building governmental legitimacy and creating conditions inhospitable to terrorism.

The Royal Thai Army RTA has taken a significant role in developing low-cost technologies that help rural communities address the important issues of poverty, food security, health, and the erosion of valuable topsoil. The program stresses sustainability, self-sufficiency, self-reliance, and economic and social progress. As a result of these efforts, support for the Thai government has increased dramatically and the ability of dissident groups to operate within the country has been significantly curtailed.

This unique form of military support to civil authority has been praised by the national government for its effectiveness in reducing poverty and creating conditions unfavorable to radical ideology. Butts, Bernard F. Griffard, Curtis W.