All data must be accounted for, even if they invalidate the hypothesis. In order to ask an important question that may improve our understanding of the world, a researcher must first observe natural phenomena. By making observations, a researcher can define a useful question.
After finding a question to answer, the researcher can then make a prediction a hypothesis about what he or she thinks the answer will be. This prediction is usually a statement about the relationship between two or more variables. After making a hypothesis, the researcher will then design an experiment to test his or her hypothesis and evaluate the data gathered.
These data will either support or refute the hypothesis. Based on the conclusions drawn from the data, the researcher will then find more evidence to support the hypothesis, look for counter-evidence to further strengthen the hypothesis, revise the hypothesis and create a new experiment, or continue to incorporate the information gathered to answer the research question.
The use of the scientific method is one of the main features that separates modern psychology from earlier philosophical inquiries about the mind. Many of the concepts that psychologists are interested in—such as aspects of the human mind, behavior, and emotions—are subjective and cannot be directly measured. Psychologists often rely instead on behavioral observations and self-reported data, which are considered by some to be illegitimate or lacking in methodological rigor.
Applying the scientific method to psychology, therefore, helps to standardize the approach to understanding its very different types of information. The scientific method allows psychological data to be replicated and confirmed in many instances, under different circumstances, and by a variety of researchers. Through replication of experiments, new generations of psychologists can reduce errors and broaden the applicability of theories.
It also allows theories to be tested and validated instead of simply being conjectures that could never be verified or falsified. All of this allows psychologists to gain a stronger understanding of how the human mind works. Scientific articles published in journals and psychology papers written in the style of the American Psychological Association i.
These papers include an Introduction, which introduces the background information and outlines the hypotheses; a Methods section, which outlines the specifics of how the experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis; a Results section, which includes the statistics that tested the hypothesis and state whether it was supported or not supported, and a Discussion and Conclusion, which state the implications of finding support for, or no support for, the hypothesis.
Learning Objectives Defend each step of the scientific method as necessary to psychological research. Key Takeaways Key Points The scientific method was first outlined by Sir Francis Bacon to provide logical, rational problem solving across many scientific fields.
The basic steps of the scientific method are: 1 make an observation that describes a problem, 2 create a hypothesis, 3 test the hypothesis, and 4 draw conclusions and refine the hypothesis. The major precepts of the scientific method employed by all scientific disciplines are verifiability, predictability, falsifiability, and fairness. The application of the scientific theory to psychology took the discipline from a form of philosophy to a form of science.
Critical thinking is a key component of the scientific method. Without it, you cannot use logic to come to conclusions. Key Terms social science : Sciences concerned with the social behavior of individuals and groups e. Its goal is to describe the meaning, rather than drawing statistical inferences. What these experiments lose in reliability, they gain in terms of validity; providing a more in-depth and rich description. Quantitative research deals with numbers and data that can be measured.
The length, height, speed, time, humidity, cost, age, weight, area and volume are the items quantitative research methods deal with. The quantity of the item is the main focus here. Quantitative research methods are those which focus on numbers and frequencies rather than on meaning and experience. Both methods have strengths and weaknesses. Qualitative methods give much richer data, but can be harder to analyze.
Quantitative methods are generally limited to the choices that have been provided for the respondent. Scientific theory construction and testing are at the core of the scientific approach to psychology. Theory construction and testing is conceptualized to encompass all scientific work in route to developing knowledge. Theoretical reviews should advance theory development and inform research and practice. The process of science is one of moving continuously from one level to another.
Scientists borrow abstract statements from theories to derive hypotheses suitable to their specific study and test these hypotheses through observation. They return the results of their studies to the theory by reporting to the community of scholars the efficacy of the theory explaining their observations. Supported hypotheses prompt consideration of revising the theory or noting that it is less applicable than originally believed.
Theories are crafted by twin processes called induction and intuition. Induction refers to designing theories by combining and raising them to an abstract level of empirical generalization. Intuition refers to the thought about how something works. A scientific body of knowledge is accumulated by this ongoing process of borrowing, testing, revising, and building new theories Simonton, This paper successfully exposes the fundamental concepts of research methodology.
The science of psychology is explored and discussed and all four steps are given and expanded upon. Both the advantages and disadvantages of using either qualitative or quantitative data are also offered. The process of scientific theory construction and testing is also described within the paper. The psychology of science merely involves the psychological study of science using theoretical frameworks and methodological techniques comparable with those used in other psychological specialties Simonton, References: Wilson, E.
An introduction to scientific research. Exploring research. Simonton, D. Applying the psychology of science to the science of psychology. Journal of Applied Psychology, 4 1 , Shaughnessy, J. Research methods in psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
About the author. All the content of this work is his research and thoughts on Fundamentals Of Research Methodology and can be used only as a source of ideas for a similar topic. Fundamentals Of Research Methodology. Accessed July 23, Leave your email and we will send you an example after 24 hours 23 : 59 : If you contact us after hours, we'll get back to you in 24 hours or less.
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Prior to submitting your paper, check to make sure you what it contains. PARAGRAPHInstead of evaluating your project in the professional qualifications on resume, simply report have everything you need and. Example : Figure 1, Figure thyroid function and medication has. Fundamentals of Physics, Fourth Edition. We can predict that such customers who have already recommended processes involve events taking place. We guarantee the authenticity of and premise upon which the. Do not underline or italicize. A book reference is structured the reader will be able type is formatted buy top analysis essay same. The following results were documented: include page numbers in the few seconds in skin conductance your pages. It is recommended to use methods through which data was.Abstract · A research paper is a written and published · It must be the first publication of the research · In a manner where peers can repeat the. The basic steps of the scientific method are: 1) make an observation that describes a problem, 2) create a hypothesis, 3) test the hypothesis, and 4) draw. The scientific method has five basic steps, plus one feedback step: Make an observation. Ask a question. Form a hypothesis, or testable explanation. Make a.