example of research paper in apa format

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Example of research paper in apa format hr services resume mining

Example of research paper in apa format

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The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here. Your essay should be typed and double-spaced on standard-sized paper 8. For a professional paper, this includes your paper title and the page number. For a student paper, this only includes the page number. The running head is a shortened version of your paper's title and cannot exceed 50 characters including spacing and punctuation. It acknowledges that many font choices are legitimate, and it advises writers to check with their publishers, instructors, or institutions for guidance in cases of uncertainty.

While the APA Manual does not specify a single font or set of fonts for professional writing, it does recommend a few fonts that are widely available. These include sans serif fonts such as point Calibri, point Arial, and point Lucida Sans Unicode as well as serif fonts such as point Times New Roman, point Georgia, point Computer Modern.

Note: APA 7 provides slightly different directions for formatting the title pages of professional papers e. The title page should contain the title of the paper, the author's name , and the institutional affiliation. A professional paper should also include the author note. A student paper should also include the course number and name , instructor name , and assignment due date.

Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page. The title should be centered and written in boldface. APA recommends that your title be focused and succinct and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. Your title may take up one or two lines. All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced.

Beneath the title, type the author's name : first name, middle initial s , and last name. Do not use titles Dr. Beneath the author's name, type the institutional affiliation , which should indicate the location where the author s conducted the research. A professional paper should include the author note beneath the institutional affiliation, in the bottom half of the title page.

This should be divided up into several paragraphs, with any paragraphs that are not relevant omitted. Book example: Gray, P. Psychology 6 th ed. New York: Worth. Table There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. See the APA manual. Be sure to provide a table number and table title the latter is italicized. Tables can be single or double-spaced. Figure If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page.

Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption e. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean. In-Text Citations: see pp. Try to avoid using secondary sources in your papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work.

If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way:. Snow as cited in Milgram, argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts The reference for the Milgram article but not the Snow reference should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper. Writing Center. Writing Resources. Additional Navigation About Us. Tutoring Services Tutors. Seven Sins of Writing Passive Voice. Incorrect Punctuation of Two Independent Clauses.

Misuse of the Apostrophe. Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers. Pronoun Problems. The Dreaded Pet Peeves. Faculty Resources. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. Title page see sample on p. The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles.

It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript. Flush right, on same line: page number. Use the toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page.

Abstract labeled, centered, not bold No more than words, one paragraph, block format i. State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin but not the only way is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area.

Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis. Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about how you want to transition between ideas. The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses.

This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. Be careful about citing your sources see APA manual.

Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting.

Method labeled, centered, bold The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. How were the participants recruited? Were they compensated for their time in any way? Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. Materials labeled, flush left, bold Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail.

For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was e. Provide a sample item or two for your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here.

Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. Procedure labeled, flush left, bold What did participants do, and in what order? Results labeled, centered, bold In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found.

Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis. Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style. Report exact p values to two or three decimal places e. However, for p-values less than. Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding s in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis e.

This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers within the same paragraph. Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs. It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper e.

Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure. Do describe the trends shown in the figure.

Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. Discussion labeled, centered, bold The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area. Some points to consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings using words, not numbers. Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings?

How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation? If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature.

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Copy and paste or upload your paper into our checker. If it sounds too good to be true, then head on over to our innovative tool and give it a whirl. Information on how to cite sources can be found on our APA citation page. However, this page is not associated with the association. What are behavioral sciences? Behavioral sciences study human and animal behavior. They can include:.

What are social sciences? Social sciences focus on one specific aspect of human behavior, specifically social and cultural relationships. Social sciences can include:. This citation style was created by the American Psychological Association.

Its rules and guidelines can be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. The information provided in the guide above follows the 6th edition of the manual. The 7th edition was published in and is the most recent version.

The 7th edition of the Publication Manual is in full color and includes 12 sections compared to 8 sections in the 6th edition. In general, this new edition differentiates between professional and student papers, includes guidance with accessibility in mind, provides new examples to follow, and has updated guidelines.

New citing information. There is new guidance on citing classroom or intranet resources, and oral traditions or traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples. Visit our EasyBib Twitter feed to discover more citing tips, fun grammar facts, and the latest product updates.

American Psychological Association. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 7th ed. Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg.

She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing. Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style. Get Started. Certain features require a modern browser to function. Please use a different browser, like Firefox , Chrome , or Safari. Table of Contents Citation Generator. Empirical studies Empirical studies take data from observations and experiments to generate research reports.

Methodological articles These articles showcase new advances, or modifications to an existing practice, in a scientific method or procedure. Case studies Case studies present information related an individual, group, or larger set of individuals. Here are key guidelines to developing your title page: The title of the paper should capture the main idea of the essay, but should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose.

Center the title on the page and place it about lines from the top. The title should be bolded, in title case, and the same font size as your other page text. Do not underline or italicize the title. Other text on the page should be plain not bolded , underlined, or italicized. All text on the title page should be double-spaced. The APA format examples paper below displays proper spacing, so go take a look! The institutional affiliation is the school the author attends or the location where the author conducted the research.

Sample of an APA format title page for a student paper: Sample of title page for a professional paper:. Here are some helpful suggestions to create a dynamic abstract: Abstracts are found on their own page, directly after the title or cover page. Professional papers only not student papers : Include the running head on the top of the page.

On the following line, write a summary of the key points of your research. Your abstract summary is a way to introduce readers to your research topic, the questions that will be answered, the process you took, and any findings or conclusions you drew. Use concise, brief, informative language. You only have a few sentences to share the summary of your entire document, so be direct with your wording.

This summary should not be indented, but should be double-spaced and less than words. If applicable, help researchers find your work in databases by listing keywords from your paper after your summary. To do this, indent and type Keywords : in italics. Then list your keywords that stand out in your research.

You can also include keyword strings that you think readers will type into the search box. Use an active voice, not a passive voice. When writing with an active voice, the subject performs the action. When writing with a passive voice, the subject receives the action. Active voice: The subjects reacted to the medication.

Passive voice: There was a reaction from the subjects taking the medication. Instead of evaluating your project in the abstract, simply report what it contains. View our in-depth APA Abstract guide. Most papers follow this format: At the top of the page, add the page number in the upper right corner of all pages, including the title page. On the next line write the title in bold font and center it. Do not underline or italicize it.

Begin with the introduction and indent the first line of the paragraph. All paragraphs in the body are indented. The heading title should be in capital letters. The abstract page should be page 2. The introduction presents the problem and premise upon which the research was based. It goes into more detail about this problem than the abstract. Begin a new section with the Method and use this word as the subtitle. Bold and center this subtitle. The Method section shows how the study was run and conducted.

Be sure to describe the methods through which data was collected. Begin a new section with the Results. The Results section summarizes your data. Use charts and graphs to display this data. Begin a new section with the Discussion. This Discussion section is a chance to analyze and interpret your results.

Draw conclusions and support how your data led to these conclusions. Discuss whether or not your hypothesis was confirmed or not supported by your results. Determine the limitations of the study and next steps to improve research for future studies.

Sample body for a professional paper:. In APA format, there are five levels of headings, each with a different formatting: Level 1: This is the title of your paper The title should be centered in the middle of the page The title should be bolded Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary called title capitalization Level 2: Place this heading against the left margin Use bold letters Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary Level 3: Place this heading against the left side margin Use bold letters Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary End the heading with a period Level 4: Indented in from the left margin Bolded Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary End the heading with a period Level 5: Indented Bolded Italicized Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary End the heading with a period Following general formatting rules, all headings are double spaced and there are no extra lines or spaces between sections.

Here is a visual APA format template for levels of headings:. The first graphic, labeled as 1, should be the first one mentioned in the text. Follow them in the appropriate numerical order in which they appear in the text of your paper. Example : Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1, Figure 3. Example: Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1, Figure 3 Only use graphics if they will supplement the material in your text.

If they reinstate what you already have in your text, then it is not necessary to include a graphic. Include enough wording in the graphic so that the reader is able to understand its meaning, even if it is isolated from the corresponding text. However, do not go overboard with adding a ton of wording in your graphic. Tables: Is there anything better than seeing a neatly organized data table? General format of a table should be: Table number Title Table Note Here are a few pointers to keep in mind: Choose to type out your data OR create a table.

Choose one or the other. If you choose to create a table, discuss it very briefly in the text. Table 1 is the first table discussed in the paper. Table 2 is the next table mentioned, and so on. This should be in bold. Add a title under the number. Create a brief, descriptive title. Capitalize the first letter for each important word. Italicize the title and place it under the table number. Formatting: Only use horizontal lines. Limit use of cell shading.

Keep the font at point size and use single or double spacing. If you use single spacing in one table, make sure all of the others use single spaces as well. Keep it consistent. All headings should be centered. In the first column called the stub , center the heading, left-align the information underneath it indent 0.

Information in other columns should be centered. Note: If you need to further explain something, or include an APA format citation, place it in a note below the table. There are 3 types: General. Information about the whole table. Information targeted for a specific column, row, or cell. Explains what certain table symbols mean. For example, asterisks, p values, etc. Figures: Figures represent information in a visual way. This means each should include: Figure number Title Figure Note Use the same formatting tables use for the number, title, and note.

Here are some pointers to keep in mind when it comes to APA format for figures: Only include a figure if it adds value to your paper. If it will truly help with understanding, include it! Either include a figure OR write it all out in the text. Do not include the same information twice. If a note is added, it should clearly explain the content of the figure. APA format sample of a figure: Photographs: We live in a world where we have tons of photographs available at our fingertips.

Create a reference for the photograph. Follow the guidelines under the table and figure sections above. Do not use color photos. It is recommended to use black and white. Using black and white ensures the reader will be able to view the image clearly. If there are sections of the photograph that are not related to your work, it is acceptable to crop them out.

If you choose to include an image of a person you know, it would be respectful if you ask their permission before automatically including their photo in your paper. Some schools and universities post research papers online and some people prefer that their photos and information stay off the Internet.

For verbs in scientific papers, the APA manual recommends using: Past tense or present perfect tense for the explantation of the procedure Past tense for the explanation of the results Present tense for the explanation of the conclusion and future implications.

Do not include information about individuals or labels if it is not necessary. First and foremost, use abbreviations sparingly. If the abbreviation is used less than three times in the paper, type it out each time. If you decide to sprinkle in abbreviations, it is not necessary to include periods between the letters. Prior to using an unfamiliar abbreviation, you must type it out in text and place the abbreviation immediately following it in parentheses.

Any usage of the abbreviation after the initial description, can be used without the description. Patients who experience STM loss while using the medication should discuss it with their doctor. If the unit of measurement stands alone, type it out. Examples APA format: 4 lbs. The weight in pounds exceeded what we previously thought. One space after most punctuation marks The manual recommends using one space after most punctuation marks, including punctuation at the end of a sentence p.

Apostrophes When writing a possessive singular noun, you should place the apostrophe before the s. Here are a few examples: custom-built year-old pp. APA format examples: 14 kilograms seven individuals 83 years old Fourth grade The golden rule for numbers has exceptions. In APA formatting, use numerals if you are: Showing numbers in a table or graph Referring to information in a table or graph Table 7 Including a unit of measurement directly after it. Examples APA format: 8 lbs.

Ninety-two percent of teachers feel as though…. Do not translate them into Arabic numerals. Additional number rules can be found in the publication manual p. The emperor of any place. Candlewick Press. Each reference is organized, or structured, differently. It all depends on the source type. A book reference is structured one way, an APA journal is structured a different way, a newspaper article is another way. MLA works cited pages are unique in that every source type is formatted the same way.

Unfortunately, this style is quite different. View our in-depth guide on APA Citations. Example: Harlem had many artists and musicians in the late s Belafonte, Example: According to Belafonte , Harlem was full of artists and musicians in the late s. Start on a fresh, clean document p. Alphabetize and double-space ALL entries. Every quote or piece of outside information included in the paper should be referenced and have an entry. Prior to submitting your paper, check to make sure you have everything you need and everything in its place: Did you credit all of the information and quotes you used in the body of your paper and show a matching full reference at the end of the paper?

Remember, you need both! Need more information on how to credit other authors and sources? Check out our other guides, or use the EasyBib APA format generator to credit your sources quickly and easily. Is your title page properly formatted? You may feel tempted to make the title in a larger font size or add graphics to jazz it up a bit.

Keep it professional looking and make everything 12 pt size font and double spaced. Here are recommended font sizes: pt. Times New Roman pt. Calibri, Arial, Georgia pt. Lucida, Sans Unicode, Computer Modern If you created an abstract, is it directly after the title page?

Is this a professional paper or a student paper? Professional paper — Did you include a running head on every single page of your project? Student paper — Did you include page numbers in the upper right-hand corner of all your pages? Are all headings, as in section or chapter titles, properly formatted? Are all tables and figures aligned properly? Did you include notes and other important information directly below the table or figure?

Include any information that will help the reader completely understand everything in the table or figure if it were to stand alone. Are abbreviations used sparingly? Did you format them properly? Is the entire document double spaced? Are all numbers formatted properly? How to Write an Abstract.

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Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Which ones captured your attention right away? How did the authors accomplish this task? Why not?

See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin but not the only way is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis. Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when.

Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about how you want to transition between ideas. The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses.

This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary. DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words.

Be careful about citing your sources see APA manual. Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting.

Method labeled, centered, bold The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. How were the participants recruited? Were they compensated for their time in any way? Combine information into a longer sentence when possible.

Materials labeled, flush left, bold Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth. If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was e. Provide a sample item or two for your reader.

If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix. If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. Procedure labeled, flush left, bold What did participants do, and in what order? Results labeled, centered, bold In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis.

Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style. Report exact p values to two or three decimal places e. However, for p-values less than. Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding s in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis e. This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers within the same paragraph. Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs.

It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper e. Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text.

However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure. Do describe the trends shown in the figure. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. Discussion labeled, centered, bold The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area.

Some points to consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings using words, not numbers. Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research?

What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation? If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature.

What are the limitations of the study? Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted.

What new knowledge would be gained from it? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? References labeled, centered, not bold Provide an alphabetical listing of the references alphabetize by last name of first author. New York: Worth Table There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. If you are quoting directly which you should avoid , you also need to include the page number. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way: Snow as cited in Milgram, argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts Writing Center Kirner-Johnson Close Search Hamilton.

About Expand Navigation. Know Thyself. Just the Facts. Our Region. Our Diverse Community. Contact Us. Admission Expand Navigation. Our Promise. Financial Aid. Meet Our Staff. Request Information. Academics Expand Navigation. Study What You Love. Areas of Study. Our Faculty. ALEX Advising. Student Research. Off-Campus Study. Academic Calendar. Campus Life Expand Navigation. Be Who You Are. Where to Live. You can download the Word files to use as templates and edit them as needed for the purposes of your own papers.

We plan to share additional sample papers and templates in the future, including more student sample papers. This guidance is new to the 7th edition. Although published articles differ in format from manuscripts submitted for publication or student papers e. Professional authors should check the author submission guidelines for the journal to which they want to submit their paper to check for any journal-specific style requirements.

Bago, D. Rand, and G. Pennycook, , Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , 8 , pp. Copyright by the American Psychological Association. Harkin and D. Kuss, , Psychology of Popular Media , 10 1 , pp. Henderson, A. Majors, and M. Wright, , Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology.

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Figure If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure. Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption e. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean.

In-Text Citations: see pp. Try to avoid using secondary sources in your papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work. If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way:. Snow as cited in Milgram, argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts The reference for the Milgram article but not the Snow reference should then appear in the reference list at the end of your paper.

Writing Center. Writing Resources. Additional Navigation About Us. Tutoring Services Tutors. Seven Sins of Writing Passive Voice. Incorrect Punctuation of Two Independent Clauses. Misuse of the Apostrophe. Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers. Pronoun Problems. The Dreaded Pet Peeves. Faculty Resources. General formatting rules are as follows: Do not put page breaks in between the introduction, method, results, and discussion sections. Title page see sample on p.

The running head is a short title that appears at the top of pages of published articles. It should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and spacing. If you make a section break between the title page and the rest of the paper you can make the header different for those two parts of the manuscript.

Flush right, on same line: page number. Use the toolbox to insert a page number, so it will automatically number each page. Abstract labeled, centered, not bold No more than words, one paragraph, block format i. State topic, preferably in one sentence. Provide overview of method, results, and discussion. Try to draw your reader in by saying something interesting or thought-provoking right off the bat. Which ones captured your attention right away?

How did the authors accomplish this task? Why not? See if you can use articles you liked as a model. One way to begin but not the only way is to provide an example or anecdote illustrative of your topic area. Your intro should be a logical flow of ideas that leads up to your hypothesis. Try to organize it in terms of the ideas rather than who did what when. Then Gurglehoff did something-or-other in Next, decide which ideas make sense to present first, second, third, and so forth, and think about how you want to transition between ideas.

The introduction will end with a brief overview of your study and, finally, your specific hypotheses. This hypothesis makes complete sense, given all the other research that was presented. Certainly you want to summarize briefly key articles, though, and point out differences in methods or findings of relevant studies when necessary.

DO NOT quote from the articles, instead paraphrase by putting the information in your own words. Be careful about citing your sources see APA manual. Remember that your audience is the broader scientific community, not the other students in your class or your professor. Therefore, you should assume they have a basic understanding of psychology, but you need to provide them with the complete information necessary for them to understand the research you are presenting.

Method labeled, centered, bold The Method section of an APA-style paper is the most straightforward to write, but requires precision. How were the participants recruited? Were they compensated for their time in any way? Combine information into a longer sentence when possible. Materials labeled, flush left, bold Carefully describe any stimuli, questionnaires, and so forth.

If you included a questionnaire, you should describe it in detail. For instance, note how many items were on the questionnaire, what the response format was e. Provide a sample item or two for your reader. If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix.

If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. Procedure labeled, flush left, bold What did participants do, and in what order?

Results labeled, centered, bold In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis. Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style.

Report exact p values to two or three decimal places e. However, for p-values less than. Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding s in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis e. This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers within the same paragraph. Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs.

It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper e. Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure.

Do describe the trends shown in the figure. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. Discussion labeled, centered, bold The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area.

Some points to consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings using words, not numbers. Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research? What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation?

If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature. What are the limitations of the study? Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below.

What additional questions were generated from this study? What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it? A professional paper should include the author note beneath the institutional affiliation, in the bottom half of the title page.

This should be divided up into several paragraphs, with any paragraphs that are not relevant omitted. The second paragraph should show any change in affiliation or any deaths of the authors. The third paragraph should include any disclosures or acknowledgements, such as study registration, open practices and data sharing, disclosure of related reports and conflicts of interest, and acknowledgement of financial support and other assistance.

The fourth paragraph should include contact information for the corresponding author. In other words, a professional paper's title page will include the title of the paper flush left in all capitals and the page number flush right, while a student paper will only contain the page number flush right. Begin a new page. Your abstract page should already include the page header described above. Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research.

Do not indent. Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions. You may also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings. Your abstract should be a single paragraph, double-spaced.

Your abstract should typically be no more than words. You may also want to list keywords from your paper in your abstract. To do this, indent as you would if you were starting a new paragraph, type Keywords: italicized , and then list your keywords. Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases. The page template for the new OWL site does not include contributors' names or the page's last edited date.

However, select pages still include this information. Purdue Online Writing Lab. Title of resource. General Writing FAQs. Contributors' names. Last edited date. Site Name. Title Page Note: APA 7 provides slightly different directions for formatting the title pages of professional papers e.

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