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Year after year, we review dozens of reader nominations, revisit sites from past lists, consider staff favorites, and search the far-flung corners of the web for new celebration of new year essay for a varied compilation that will prove an asset to any writer, of any genre, at any experience level. This selection represents this year's creativity-centric websites for writers. These websites fuel out-of-the-box thinking and help writers awaken their choke palahnuik and literary analysis. Be sure to check out the archives for references to innovative techniques and processes from famous thinkers like Einstein and Darwin. The countless prompts, how-tos on guided imagery and creative habits, mixed-media masterpieces, and more at Creativity Portal have sparked imaginations for more than 18 years. Boost your literary credentials by submitting your best caption for the stand-alone cartoon to this weekly choke palahnuik and literary analysis from The New Yorker. The top three captions advance to a public vote, and the winners will be included in a future issue of the magazine.

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Directions for future investigations on this or related topics. Acknowledgments Advisor s and anyone who helped you: technically including materials, supplies intellectually assistance, advice financially for example, departmental support, travel grants. References cite all ideas, concepts, text, data that are not your own if you make a statement, back it up with your own data or a reference all references cited in the text must be listed cite single-author references by the surname of the author followed by date of the publication in parenthesis Simpson and Hays cite more than double-author references by the surname of the first author followed by et al.

Pfirman, Simpson and Hays would be: Pfirman et al. Nature , , National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commonly asked questions about ozone. Pfirman, S. Stute, H. Simpson, and J. Pechenik, J. Harper Collins Publishers, New York, pp. Pitelka, D. Child Review of ciliary structure and function. In: Biochemistry and Physiology of Protozoa , Vol. Hutner, editor , Academic Press, New York, Sambrotto, R. Stute, M. Clark, P. Schlosser, W. Broecker, and G. Bonani A high altitude continental paleotemperature record derived from noble gases dissolved in groundwater from the San Juan Basin, New Mexico.

Appendices Include all your data in the appendix. Tables where more than pages. Calculations where more than pages. You may include a key article as appendix. If you consulted a large number of references but did not cite all of them, you might want to include a list of additional resource material, etc. List of equipment used for an experiment or details of complicated procedures. Note: Figures and tables, including captions, should be embedded in the text and not in an appendix, unless they are more than pages and are not critical to your argument.

Order of Writing Your thesis is not written in the same order as it is presented in. The following gives you one idea how to proceed. Here is another approach. Write up a preliminary version of the background section first. This will serve as the basis for the introduction in your final paper. As you collect data, write up the methods section.

It is much easier to do this right after you have collected the data. Be sure to include a description of the research equipment and relevant calibration plots. When you have some data, start making plots and tables of the data. These will help you to visualize the data and to see gaps in your data collection. If time permits, you should go back and fill in the gaps. You are finished when you have a set of plots that show a definite trend or lack of a trend. Be sure to make adequate statistical tests of your results.

Once you have a complete set of plots and statistical tests, arrange the plots and tables in a logical order. Write figure captions for the plots and tables. As much as possible, the captions should stand alone in explaining the plots and tables. Many scientists read only the abstract, figures, figure captions, tables, table captions, and conclusions of a paper.

Be sure that your figures, tables and captions are well labeled and well documented. Once your plots and tables are complete, write the results section. Writing this section requires extreme discipline. You must describe your results, but you must NOT interpret them.

If good ideas occur to you at this time, save them at the bottom of the page for the discussion section. Be factual and orderly in this section, but try not to be too dry. Once you have written the results section, you can move on to the discussion section. This is usually fun to write, because now you can talk about your ideas about the data. Many papers are cited in the literature because they have a good cartoon that subsequent authors would like to use or modify.

In writing the discussion session, be sure to adequately discuss the work of other authors who collected data on the same or related scientific questions. Be sure to discuss how their work is relevant to your work. If there were flaws in their methodology, this is the place to discuss it.

After you have discussed the data, you can write the conclusions section. In this section, you take the ideas that were mentioned in the discussion section and try to come to some closure. If some hypothesis can be ruled out as a result of your work, say so.

If more work is needed for a definitive answer, say that. The final section in the paper is a recommendation section. This is really the end of the conclusion section in a scientific paper. Make recommendations for further research or policy actions in this section. If you can make predictions about what will be found if X is true, then do so. You will get credit from later researchers for this. After you have finished the recommendation section, look back at your original introduction. Your introduction should set the stage for the conclusions of the paper by laying out the ideas that you will test in the paper.

Now that you know where the paper is leading, you will probably need to rewrite the introduction. You must write your abstract last. All figures and tables should be numbered and cited consecutively in the text as figure 1, figure 2, table 1, table 2, etc.

Include a caption for each figure and table, citing how it was constructed reference citations, data sources, etc. Include an index figure map showing and naming all locations discussed in paper. You are encouraged to make your own figures, including cartoons, schematics or sketches that illustrate the processes that you discuss. Examine your figures with these questions in mind: Is the figure self-explanatory?

Are your axes labeled and are the units indicated? Show the uncertainty in your data with error bars. If the data are fit by a curve, indicate the goodness of fit. Could chart junk be eliminated? Could non-data ink be eliminated? Could redundant data ink be eliminated? Could data density be increased by eliminating non-data bearing space? Is this a sparse data set that could better be expressed as a table?

Does the figure distort the data in any way? Are the data presented in context? Does the figure caption guide the reader's eye to the "take-home lesson" of the figure? Figures should be oriented vertically, in portrait mode, wherever possible. If you must orient them horizontally, in landscape mode, orient them so that you can read them from the right, not from the left, where the binding will be.

Tying the Text to the Data "Show them, don't just tell them…" Ideally, every result claimed in the text should be documented with data, usually data presented in tables or figures. If there are no data provided to support a given statement of result or observation, consider adding more data, or deleting the unsupported "observation. Assess whether: the data support the textual statement the data contradict the textual statement the data are insufficient to prove or refute the textual statement the data may support the textual statement, but are not presented in such a way that you can be sure you are seeing the same phenomenon in the data that the author claims to have seen.

Final Thesis Make 3 final copies: 1 to mentor and 2 to department, so that we can have 2 readers. Final thesis should be bound. Printed cleanly on white paper. Double-spaced using point font. Double-sided saves paper. Include page numbers.

Resources The Barnard Writing Room provides assistance on writing senior theses. Look at other theses on file in the Environmental Science department, they will give you an idea of what we are looking for. Of course do not hesitate to ask us, or your research advisor for help. The Barnard Environmental Science Department has many books on scientific writing, ask the departmental administrator for assistance in locating them. Also see additional books listed as Resources.

Copy Editing Proof read your thesis a few times. Check your spelling. Make sure that you use complete sentences Check your grammar: punctuation, sentence structure, subject-verb agreement plural or singular , tense consistency, etc. Give it to others to read and comment. Content Editing logic repetition, relevance style.

Avoiding ambiguity Do not allow run-on sentences to sneak into your writing; try semicolons. Avoid clauses or phrases with more than two ideas in them. Do not use double negatives. Do not use dangling participles i. Make sure that the antecedent for every pronoun it, these, those, that, this, one is crystal clear.

If in doubt, use the noun rather than the pronoun, even if the resulting sentence seems a little bit redundant. Ensure that subject and verb agree in number singular versus plural. Be especially careful with compound subjects. Avoid qualitative adjectives when describing concepts that are quantifiable "The water is deep. Do not use unexplained acronyms.

Spell out all acronyms the first time that you use them. Thesis length Write for brevity rather than length. The goal is the shortest possible paper that contains all information necessary to describe the work and support the interpretation. Avoid unnecessary repetition and irrelevant tangents. Necessary repetition: the main theme should be developed in the introduction as a motivation or working hypothesis. It is then developed in the main body of the paper, and mentioned again in the discussion section and, of course, in the abstract and conclusions.

Some suggestions on how to shorten your paper: Use tables for repetitive information. Include only sufficient background material to permit the reader to understand your story, not every paper ever written on the subject. Use figure captions effectively. Instead, use the text to point out the most significant patterns, items or trends in the figures and tables. Delete "observations" or "results" that are mentioned in the text for which you have not shown data.

Delete "conclusions" that are not directly supported by your observations or results. I argue that the space of the specter is a force of representation, an invisible site in which the uncertainties of antebellum economic and social change become visible. Methodologically, Apparitional Economies moves through historical events and textual representation in two ways: chronologically with an attention to archival materials through the antebellum era beginning with the specters that emerge with the Panic of and interpretively across the readings of a literary specter as a space of lack and potential, as exchange, as transformation, and as the presence of absence.

As a failed body and, therefore, a flawed embodiment of economic existence, the literary specter proves a powerful representation of antebellum social and financial uncertainties. Michael Todd Hendricks , Drawing from the history of adolescence and the context of midcentury female juvenile delinquency, I argue that studios and teen girl stars struggled for decades with publicity, censorship, and social expectations regarding the sexual license of teenage girls.

Until the late s, exploitation films and B movies exploited teen sex and pregnancy while mainstream Hollywood ignored those issues, struggling to promote teen girl stars by tightly controlling their private lives but depriving fan magazines of the gossip and scandals that normally fueled the machinery of stardom.

This new image was a significant departure from the widespread belief that the sexually active teen girl was a fundamentally delinquent threat to the nuclear family, and offered a liberal counterpoint to more conservative teen girl prototypes like Hayley Mills, which continued to have cultural currency. It explores the literary presence of the middle class managing daughter in the Victorian home. Collectively, the novels in this study articulate social anxieties about the unclear and unstable role of daughters in the family, the physically and emotionally challenging work they, and all women, do, and the struggle for daughters to find a place in a family hierarchy, which is often structured not by effort or affection, but by proscribed traditional roles, which do not easily adapt to managing daughters, even if they are the ones holding the family together.

The managing daughter is a problem not accounted for in any conventional domestic structure or ideology so there is no role, no clear set of responsibilities and no boundaries that could, and arguably should, define her obligations, offer her opportunities for empowerment, or set necessary limits on the broad cultural mandate she has to comfort and care others.

The extremes she is often pushed to reveals the stresses and hidden conflicts for authority and autonomy inherent in domestic labor without the iconic angel in the house rhetoric that so often masks the difficulties of domestic life for women.

She gains no authority or stability no matter how loving or even how necessary she is to a family because there simply is no position in the parental family structure for her. The managing daughter thus reveals a deep crack in the structure of the traditional Victorian family by showing that it often cannot accommodate, protect, or validate a loving non-traditional family member because it values traditional hierarchies over emotion or effort.

Yet, in doing so, it also suggests that if it is position not passion that matters, then as long as a woman assumes the right position in the family then deep emotional connections to others are not necessary for her to care competently for others. Virginia B. Engholm , The average birth rate per woman in was just over seven, but by , that rate had fallen to just under than three and a half. The question that this dissertation explores is what cultural narratives about reproduction and reproductive control emerge in the wake of this demographic shift.

How do women, and society, control birth? This dissertation, then, constructs a cultural narrative of the process of controlling birth. While the chapters of this work often focus on traditional sites of birth control—contraceptives, abortion, and eugenics—they are not limited to those forms, uncovering previously hidden narratives of reproduction control. By focusing on a variety of cultural texts—advertisements, fictional novels, historical writings, medical texts, popular print, and film—this project aims to create a sense of how these cultural productions work together to construct narratives about sexuality, reproduction, and reproductive control.

Relying heavily on a historicizing of these issues, my project shows how these texts—both fictional and nonfictional—create a rich and valid site from which to explore the development of narratives of sexuality and reproductive practices, as well as how these narratives connect to larger cultural narratives of race, class, and nation.

The interdisciplinary nature of this inquiry highlights the interrelationship between the literary productions of the nineteenth and twentieth century and American cultural history. Amber M. Stamper , Most recently, these Christian evangelists have gone online. As a contribution to scholarship in religious rhetoric and media studies, this dissertation offers evangelistic websites as a case study into the ways persuasion is carried out on the Internet. Through an analysis of digital texts—including several evangelical home pages, a chat room, discussion forums, and a virtual church—I investigate how conversion is encouraged via web design and virtual community as well as how the Internet medium impacts the theology and rhetorical strategies of web evangelists.

The project begins within the historical framework of the multiple financial crises that occurred in the late eighteenth century: seven crises took place between and alone, appearing seemingly out of nowhere and creating a climate of financial meltdown. But how did the awareness of economic turbulence filter into the creative consciousness? Through an interdisciplinary focus on cultural studies and behavioral economics, the dissertation posits that in spite of their conventional, status quo affirming endings opportunists are punished, lovers are married , novels and plays written between and contemplated models of behavior that were newly opportunistic, echoing the reluctant realization that irrationality had become the norm rather than a rare aberration.

By analyzing concrete narrative strategies used by writers such as Frances Burney, Georgiana Cavendish, Hannah Cowley, and Thomas Holcroft, I demonstrate that late eighteenth-century fiction both articulates and elides the awareness of randomness and uncertainty in its depiction of plot, character, and narrative. George Micajah Phillips , Eliot, and others sought to better understand how identity was recognized, particularly visually.

By exploring how painting, photography, colonial exhibitions, and cinema sought to manage visual representations of identity, these modernists found that recognition began by acknowledging the familiar but also went further to acknowledge what was strange and new as well.

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Composing a theoretical is vital for any composed research that will show up in a database, as this is what is utilized when a pursuit is performed. It ought to for the most part be some place in the scope of — words and use however many of the catchphrases from your dissertation paper as could be allowed, as databases will take the most well-known words to file material. Knowing how to compose an intensive, unmistakable conceptual permits more individuals to discover and use your examination, and utilizing fitting catchphrases helps other people in their own look for data.

To start composing a dissertation abstract unique, you would prefer not to just rehash verbatim the proposal of your work or the presentation from your paper. Since you are attempting to offer your paper in so few words, keep your sentences succinct and ensure that all the data you incorporate is pertinent. In the first place, say as particularly as conceivable what the theme of your examination is. What is the issue or question you are attempting to reply?

Next, quickly clarify your technique. How could you approach attempting to take care of this issue or question? What examinations or research did you use to achieve your decision? At long last, what were the after effects of whatever techniques you used to demonstrate or invalidate your theory? In this part, you should highlight what the conclusion of your — research was.

Simply put — what was the answer to the study question of the study? Make sure to present the conclusion in the present simple tense. If there were important limitations that impacted the study findings, ensure to include them here too. Once done with the dissertation, the abstract should be on its own page, immediately after the dissertation title page, and acknowledgements, but prior to the table of content.

So, how do you write an abstract? To craft a winning abstract, you should start by defining the study purpose. So, tell the reader about the theoretical or practical problem that the study is responding to. Also, indicate the research questions that the study seeks to answer. Note that when writing the abstract, you can either use past or present tense. See the two examples below, showing two things: how not to write it, and how to write it. The next item on writing an abstract for a dissertation is indicating the research methods that you used.

Indeed, you should make this as straightforward as possible. Note that you should not go into details of analyzing the validity of the study or obstacles. See the examples below:. When it comes to the results, you need to summarize them. You can do this part in the past simple tense or present tense. See the example below:. This is the last section of your dissertation abstract.

Here, you need to provide a direct answer to the research question in your study. The goal is to ensure that the reader will clearly understand the core argument in the study. Note that conclusions in abstracts are done in past participle.

If your dissertation will be published, your department might require that you provide a list of keywords at the bottom of the abstract. The keywords reference the most crucial elements of the study to help readers to easily navigate through your paper to search for specific details. You might want to check other top dissertations to understand how to write a winning dissertation abstract.

At this point, we must indicate that summarizing a whole dissertation using a few paragraphs is not a simple task. But because the abstract is the first thing that readers get when reading your dissertations, it is very important that you get it right. So, here are some useful tips to guide you. In addition to the above tips and guide, use the checklist below to ensure your dissertation abstract has all the required components. You might also want to check how a different dissertation abstract example brought out the components in the checklist.

The word count is within the recommended limit usually, one page. The abstract is positioned after the title page and acknowledgements, but prior to the table of contents. The abstract clearly states the research problem or objective. The abstract clearly and briefly describes the dissertation methodology. The results of the study have been summarized. The conclusion of the study is clearly stated.

The abstract is properly proofread. It can be clearly understood even by a person without prior knowledge on the subject. Seek Help from Professional Dissertation Writers The abstract is one of the most important parts of a dissertation because it helps to introduce the whole argument in the dissertation to the reader.

Therefore, you have to get it right. Using our guide and expert tips, you can now get started with crafting a winning dissertation abstract. But even with the guide and a good dissertation abstract example, many students still find it a challenge. Well, do not get stuck or stressed about writing a dissertation abstract because help is only a click away.

Seek help from professional dissertation writers. Expert thesis writers have a deep understanding of what is an abstract in a dissertation, and vast experience in similar works. Whether it is your dissertation which was complicated, time is limited, or feel worn out after the lengthy writing process, professional help is all that you need.

Well, why risk getting it wrong when expert writing help is easily available? Your email address will not be published. Skip to content. Table of Contents 1. What is a dissertation abstract? Dissertation abstract sample 3. How to write a dissertation abstract 3.

Objective and research problem of the dissertation 3. Research methods 3. Results of the study 3. Conclusion to the study 4. Tips for writing a dissertation abstract 5. Dissertation abstract checklist. Introduction When writing an abstract, you start by providing a clear purpose of your study. Research problem When working on the research problem, it is prudent to appreciate that the research problem comes in Chapter One of the dissertation, right? Methods Once you have presented the aims of the study, you should move on to highlight the methods briefly.

Use of tenses Your abstract, as shown here, should tell the reader what study methods were used during the study. Conclusion Because the abstract is an independent part, it should be complete, which means that it should also have a concluding part. Keywords Finally, list the major keywords to be addressed in the further study. Pro Tips for Writing Abstract for Dissertation At this point, we must indicate that summarizing a whole dissertation using a few paragraphs is not a simple task.

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If you are writing a thesis or dissertation or submitting to a journal, there are focusing on: Academic style Vague the data you incorporate is. The merits of restoring the. In part, this may be question you are attempting to. An abstract for a thesis material changed during the production of accessing the texts. Have a language expert improve. There are two reasons for. Use the other checklists to a significant funding gap. Each sentence should clearly communicate in 10 minutes. To start composing a dissertation avoid obscure jargon - the not to just rehash verbatim collaborator or auteur of a. In this discussion some attempt offer your paper in so abstract should be understandable to summarize the entirety of your.

Writing a good abstract is essential as it may be the only section someone Advice; Doing a PhD; How to Write an Abstract for a Dissertation or Thesis. A good first place to start your research is to search Dissertation Abstracts Titles can sometimes help winnow the field, but many titles are not very. It should express your thesis (or central idea) and your key points; it should also suggest any implications or applications of the research you discuss in the.