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Year after year, we review dozens of reader nominations, revisit sites from past lists, consider staff favorites, and search the far-flung corners of the web for new celebration of new year essay for a varied compilation that will prove an asset to any writer, of any genre, at any experience level. This selection represents this year's creativity-centric websites for writers. These websites fuel out-of-the-box thinking and help writers awaken their choke palahnuik and literary analysis. Be sure to check out the archives for references to innovative techniques and processes from famous thinkers like Einstein and Darwin. The countless prompts, how-tos on guided imagery and creative habits, mixed-media masterpieces, and more at Creativity Portal have sparked imaginations for more than 18 years. Boost your literary credentials by submitting your best caption for the stand-alone cartoon to this weekly choke palahnuik and literary analysis from The New Yorker. The top three captions advance to a public vote, and the winners will be included in a future issue of the magazine.

Anti pleasure dissertation fanfiction lean product development thesis

Anti pleasure dissertation fanfiction

Webinar, April Moderator, "Computational Speculations" panel. April August San Diego State University, October Attendee, Medieval Association of the Pacific. University of San Diego, March Online Workshop, April Hudson Strode Program in Renaissance Studies.

Webinar, March Bowling Green State University. Courageous Conversation Speaker Series. Attendee, "Fandom and Race. The Berkely Center for New Media. Attendee, "Shakespeare, Race, and Pedagogy. Webinar, February Attendee, RaceB4Race: Education. Webinar, January Webinar, October Attendee, "Shakespeare and Indigeneity. The Mahindra Humanities Center, Harvard. Webinar, September Attendee, "Teaching in the Wake of Racial Violence. Webinar, August Attendee, "Race and Disability in Shakespeare's Othello.

American Shakespeare Center. The National Humanities Center. Birkbeck College, London. The Folger Library. Kelley, and Josh Kun. Webinar, June Webinar, May Rosales Meza. Attendee, "Race Before Race 3: Appropriations. Recent News. White supremacy both led to and is reinscribed by colonialism, which is the seizing of land, power, and culture from Indigenous people.

White supremacy is upheld through political, social and cultural institutions, such as policing, mass incarceration, media representation, and education. For instance, if a writing assignment calls for students to analyze a text through a potentially ableist lens, a critical uptake may be a student writing a piece about why the assignment is ableist instead of actually performing the expected assignment.

In fandoms, a critical uptake may be a fanfiction that critiques racism in a fantasy television show, such as Game of Thrones , by focusing on the lived experiences and positionalities of characters of color who are overlooked in the source text. Disruptakes are the actions the original genre composers take to force other composers to second-guess or rethink their uptakes, uptakes that may seem second-nature, as defined by Dylan Dryer For example, a teacher may pass out a test in class that asks students to not fill out the test until they finish reading all the questions.

The last question, then, is for students to hand in a blank test with just their name at the top in order to pass. Genre, as defined by Carolyn Miller in , are social actions that are rhetorical, recurring, and contextual. Instead of viewing genres as boxes within which we fit texts into, this view of genres provides a more fluid understanding of genre conventions, especially in disciplinary or institutional contexts. There are also particular ideologies embedded within genres. RGS is similar to performance studies, which builds out of feminism and gender studies; like gender, genre is viewed as a series of actions that are expected and ideological, but individuals may challenge these actions or reimagine these actions.

A field in writing and rhetoric that understands genre as a social action and performance within particular contexts and institutions. RGS is often used in educational settings, such as writing courses, to not only help students participate within particular genres, but understanding the ideologies that drive certain genre conventions.

RGS is also used to analyze texts as generic, or actions and performances within particular contexts and ideologies. The anticipated genre response to another genre, as deemed appropriate by context. Uptake demonstrates the interdependent relationship between genres, in one genre may anticipate another generic response, while the generic response often follows a set of conventions that seem like common sense.

Within the context of fandoms, the term uptake has a different connotation as appropriate responses to particular genres are defined within and reinscribed through the actual communities. Uptake may be a particular fanfiction genre in response to a source text or a fanfiction in response to community discourse; uptake may also be the comments on a fanfiction. The genre that prompts an uptake and has a particular anticipated response, as defined by Dylan Dryer The uptake affordance is usually created by a person who has stake in the potential uptake as well as a set of expectations around how their text will be taken up.

An example of an uptake affordance is a writing assignment designed in a First Year Writing course; the instructor usually has a particular set of expectations in designing this assignment and expects students to fulfill these expectations. The actual artifact to be studied, as defined by Dylan Dryer In this project, the fanfictions within the corpora are the uptake artifacts.

The actual act of responding to a genre with another genre, as defined by Dylan Dryer In this project, I turn to interviews with fan authors to better understand their choices during their uptake enactment to better understand which re-actions are deemed appropriate or anticipated and why, as well as the ways in which these re-actions reinscribe or challenge dominant ideologies.

Communities and networks that are built and revolve around critiquing or disliking a source text or cultural icon. Antifandoms often revolve around notions of morality and critiquing texts due to their own moral standings or positionality. Antifandoms are particularly important, as Rebecca Wanzo argues, for Black fans who build their communities and networks through their critiques of white supremacy upheld in a popular culture text. The source text upon which fandoms build.

For instance, in the Game of Thrones canon, it is canon that Jon Snow and Daenerys Targaryen form a romantic relationship in season 8; canon refers both to this fact about the source text as well as the source text itself. Fans who critique systems of power — such as heteronormativity, racism, ableism, and misogyny — in the canon text, in their communities, and in larger social and cultural climates.

Every fan can be a critical fan; what matters are the practices they implement to reimagine or resist these systems. Critical fans may have an array of identities that they use to mark themselves, such as feminists, anti-racists, activists, and revolutionaries. Critical fandoms and critical fan studies, then, prioritize fan practices that actively challenge white supremacy, gender inequality, heteronormativity, and ableism in the source texts, fandoms, and fan studies.

Communities and networks that are built and revolve around loving a source text or cultural icon. There are several types of fandoms, such as curative or transformative fandoms. Curative fandoms are built around knowing everything about the source text, such as a subreddit dedicated to analyzing a television show. Meanwhile, there are transformative fandoms, where the goal is to reimagine the source text in some way.

This includes forms such as fan art, fanfiction, and fan vids. These fandoms are not always separate, as transformative fandom practices often require knowledge about and analysis of the source material. Fiction written by a fan of a cultural material — such as a television show or movie — or icon — such as a celebrity or athlete. Fanfiction is usually written text published on a website, disseminated through zines, or even kept private.

Usually, fanfiction is shared within a community or across communities of other fans who engage with it through reading, commenting, beta-ing revising , collaborating, translating, and other forms of engagement. Ship, short for relationship, describes when a fan imagines two or more characters in a romantic relationship. Slashfic refers to pairing two characters, usually of the same gender, together through fandom activities.

For instance, some scholars are interested why fans, especially lesbian and straight women, often ship two male characters? Why are fans less likely to ship two women characters together? A collection of texts to be used for research purposes. A corpus is the singular collection of texts, while corpora refers to multiple collections.

Analyzing trends across a corpus to get a more distant view of overall patterns in a collection of texts. There are different types of methods for analysis, including word counts, collocation, concordances, topic modeling, and word embedding model. Data Information organized in a particular way. Data can be qualitative descriptive, usually textual or quantitative numerical.

In the humanities, data is usually qualitative with some quantitative data. Data about data. Metadata is usually found in information about an individual text in an entire corpus. For example, if a book is considered data for your research, the metadata would be the bibliographic information about said book the author, publication year, editorial press, etc.

For the CFT, the metadata are the information that describes each fanfiction, such as the publication date or the characters used in the fanfiction. Qualitative coding is a method for analyzing thematic patterns across qualitative data and marking up these patterns in order to count them. For the CFT, I used qualitative coding methods to mark up patterns across the interviews from the six fan authors.

This section of the CFT reviews the literature across fan studies and rhetorical genre studies. I provide brief histories of each discipline, demonstrate the specific sub-fields and authors off whom I build, and explicitly create links across these disciplines. While fan studies has its own academic, peer-reviewed journal — Transformative Works and Cultures — scholars typically engage with fandoms and fan practices through their own disciplines.

There are so many more disciplines, such as psychology and anthropology, that have taken up examining fan practices. However, for the sake of keeping this literature review brief, I focus on fan studies as it applies to writing and rhetorical genre studies RGS. In fan communities, there are all different forms of composing, communicating and performing such as fanfiction, fan art, fan-made music videos, analyzing source texts, cosplaying, attending conventions, and more. Fan composing practices are also ever-changing, transforming alongside the technologies and platforms used to communicate.

For instance, before the internet became a household technology, fanzines were disseminated at conventions or through snail-mail. Fans relied on snail mail and print technologies for fanzines, and now they use internet publishing platforms; some of these platforms, like AO3, are designed and maintained by fans, themselves. Fans use technology affordances to carve out their own spaces. Fan communities and social practices exist across technologies, platforms, and spaces; the types of practices also widely vary based on fandom, technology, and space constraints and affordances.

Attempting to capture or define fan community practices is an almost impossible endeavor, which has led to the explosion of fan studies scholarship across the disciplines. Rukmini Pande describes fandoms as:. For fans, the source text is not a stagnant piece of work, but instead a space to play and explore.

In this section, I will trace fan studies history, look to scholars who have examined fan literacies and rhetorical practices, and finally move to define critical fandoms carrington, ; Booth, ; Lothian, ; Pande, Feminists were analyzing and celebrating fan practices before fan studies became an official academic discipline with a peer-reviewed journals, conferences, and edited collections dedicated to fan cultures.

Fan studies became canonized in academia thanks to media and culture studies scholar, Henry Jenkins. In his seminal book, Textual Poachers , bridges media studies, fan studies, and cultural studies. Since Jenkins book, there has been a rise of the commodification of fandoms — as seen through products like Funko Pop and the wealth of material goods available for fans to purchase — that often make companies, not fan communities, money.

The paradigm Jenkins writes within is the very paradigm he seems to advocate against. He celebrates fan cultures as separate from academia, yet approaches theorizing about fan cultures through a heavily theoretical lens, replicating the discourse and obtuse knowledge he critiques.

Sara Ahmed in Living a Feminist Life emphasizes the importance of citation as a political practice, especially citing women, queer scholars, and scholars of color. A paradigm shift occurred in fan studies because of the proliferation of the internet and online culture, fandoms as a space to study performance and queer theory, as well as a recognition of fandoms as spaces for critique Lancaster, ; Hills, ; Jones, Unlike her predecessors, Jones addresses that cult television shows invite slashfic readings because there are anti-heteronormative logics embedded in these shows.

This paradigm shift views fandoms not as inherently subversive or resistant, but rather building off what the canonical source text offers. Of course, there are fandom practices that are subversive, and as fan studies continues to develop, scholars address fandoms as heterogenous and in need of critiquing Jones, ; carrington; Booth, ; Wanzo, ; Hampton, ; Lothian, Feminist, queer, and anti-racist fans carved out their spaces separate from even dominant fan ideologies, fandoms like in science fiction where White men characters are centralized.

Examining the divisions and tensions within fandoms demonstrates how fandoms can replicate dominant ideologies. The internet becoming a household technology, too, made visible these divisions even more. For instance, in a Transformative Works and Cultures symposium on racism in fan communities TWC Editor, , led by Alexis Lothian, fans from multiple racial and ethnic backgrounds share their experience and analysis of racism in fandoms.

They discuss Bingo card memes used to determine whether a fan is upholding white supremacy or not. Deepa D. For Deepa D. Critical fan studies began to appear in the early s to better examine how fans perpetuate or challenge racism and heteronormativity within their own communities, becoming critical of both the source texts and fan communities carrington, ; Booth, ; Lothian, ; Pande, To demonstrate this, I will examine how recent fan scholarship has centralized racism and anti-racism in both fandoms and fan studies.

Often, fans of color and fan studies scholars of color carry the burden of addressing racism and asking for better practices, as people of color often have to take on this labor. I point here to both race and racism, as it is critical to not only talk about racism, but how fandoms reify the construction of race and white supremacy.

This fault lies with citational politics, gatekeeping and racist practices in academia, and white scholars not thinking critically about their whiteness or race Pande, In one of their examples, they how several fans racebent Hermione from Harry Potter as Black, contrary to Hermione being played by Emma Watson, a White actor.

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University of San Diego, March Online Workshop, April Hudson Strode Program in Renaissance Studies. Webinar, March Bowling Green State University. Courageous Conversation Speaker Series. Attendee, "Fandom and Race. The Berkely Center for New Media. Attendee, "Shakespeare, Race, and Pedagogy. Webinar, February Attendee, RaceB4Race: Education.

Webinar, January Webinar, October Attendee, "Shakespeare and Indigeneity. The Mahindra Humanities Center, Harvard. Webinar, September Attendee, "Teaching in the Wake of Racial Violence. Webinar, August Attendee, "Race and Disability in Shakespeare's Othello. American Shakespeare Center. The National Humanities Center. Birkbeck College, London. The Folger Library. Kelley, and Josh Kun. Webinar, June Webinar, May Rosales Meza. Attendee, "Race Before Race 3: Appropriations.

Recent News. Words and More for Creative Writing Series. Anti-Racist Reading Lists. Student of the Month: Vera Bell. Humanities Collections and Reference Resources. Targeted Research Area Grants. Public Humanities Projects. This includes forms such as fan art, fanfiction, and fan vids. These fandoms are not always separate, as transformative fandom practices often require knowledge about and analysis of the source material.

Fiction written by a fan of a cultural material — such as a television show or movie — or icon — such as a celebrity or athlete. Fanfiction is usually written text published on a website, disseminated through zines, or even kept private. Usually, fanfiction is shared within a community or across communities of other fans who engage with it through reading, commenting, beta-ing revising , collaborating, translating, and other forms of engagement.

Ship, short for relationship, describes when a fan imagines two or more characters in a romantic relationship. Slashfic refers to pairing two characters, usually of the same gender, together through fandom activities. For instance, some scholars are interested why fans, especially lesbian and straight women, often ship two male characters?

Why are fans less likely to ship two women characters together? A collection of texts to be used for research purposes. A corpus is the singular collection of texts, while corpora refers to multiple collections. Analyzing trends across a corpus to get a more distant view of overall patterns in a collection of texts.

There are different types of methods for analysis, including word counts, collocation, concordances, topic modeling, and word embedding model. Data Information organized in a particular way. Data can be qualitative descriptive, usually textual or quantitative numerical.

In the humanities, data is usually qualitative with some quantitative data. Data about data. Metadata is usually found in information about an individual text in an entire corpus. For example, if a book is considered data for your research, the metadata would be the bibliographic information about said book the author, publication year, editorial press, etc.

For the CFT, the metadata are the information that describes each fanfiction, such as the publication date or the characters used in the fanfiction. Qualitative coding is a method for analyzing thematic patterns across qualitative data and marking up these patterns in order to count them. For the CFT, I used qualitative coding methods to mark up patterns across the interviews from the six fan authors.

This section of the CFT reviews the literature across fan studies and rhetorical genre studies. I provide brief histories of each discipline, demonstrate the specific sub-fields and authors off whom I build, and explicitly create links across these disciplines. While fan studies has its own academic, peer-reviewed journal — Transformative Works and Cultures — scholars typically engage with fandoms and fan practices through their own disciplines.

There are so many more disciplines, such as psychology and anthropology, that have taken up examining fan practices. However, for the sake of keeping this literature review brief, I focus on fan studies as it applies to writing and rhetorical genre studies RGS. In fan communities, there are all different forms of composing, communicating and performing such as fanfiction, fan art, fan-made music videos, analyzing source texts, cosplaying, attending conventions, and more.

Fan composing practices are also ever-changing, transforming alongside the technologies and platforms used to communicate. For instance, before the internet became a household technology, fanzines were disseminated at conventions or through snail-mail. Fans relied on snail mail and print technologies for fanzines, and now they use internet publishing platforms; some of these platforms, like AO3, are designed and maintained by fans, themselves.

Fans use technology affordances to carve out their own spaces. Fan communities and social practices exist across technologies, platforms, and spaces; the types of practices also widely vary based on fandom, technology, and space constraints and affordances. Attempting to capture or define fan community practices is an almost impossible endeavor, which has led to the explosion of fan studies scholarship across the disciplines. Rukmini Pande describes fandoms as:.

For fans, the source text is not a stagnant piece of work, but instead a space to play and explore. In this section, I will trace fan studies history, look to scholars who have examined fan literacies and rhetorical practices, and finally move to define critical fandoms carrington, ; Booth, ; Lothian, ; Pande, Feminists were analyzing and celebrating fan practices before fan studies became an official academic discipline with a peer-reviewed journals, conferences, and edited collections dedicated to fan cultures.

Fan studies became canonized in academia thanks to media and culture studies scholar, Henry Jenkins. In his seminal book, Textual Poachers , bridges media studies, fan studies, and cultural studies. Since Jenkins book, there has been a rise of the commodification of fandoms — as seen through products like Funko Pop and the wealth of material goods available for fans to purchase — that often make companies, not fan communities, money. The paradigm Jenkins writes within is the very paradigm he seems to advocate against.

He celebrates fan cultures as separate from academia, yet approaches theorizing about fan cultures through a heavily theoretical lens, replicating the discourse and obtuse knowledge he critiques. Sara Ahmed in Living a Feminist Life emphasizes the importance of citation as a political practice, especially citing women, queer scholars, and scholars of color. A paradigm shift occurred in fan studies because of the proliferation of the internet and online culture, fandoms as a space to study performance and queer theory, as well as a recognition of fandoms as spaces for critique Lancaster, ; Hills, ; Jones, Unlike her predecessors, Jones addresses that cult television shows invite slashfic readings because there are anti-heteronormative logics embedded in these shows.

This paradigm shift views fandoms not as inherently subversive or resistant, but rather building off what the canonical source text offers. Of course, there are fandom practices that are subversive, and as fan studies continues to develop, scholars address fandoms as heterogenous and in need of critiquing Jones, ; carrington; Booth, ; Wanzo, ; Hampton, ; Lothian, Feminist, queer, and anti-racist fans carved out their spaces separate from even dominant fan ideologies, fandoms like in science fiction where White men characters are centralized.

Examining the divisions and tensions within fandoms demonstrates how fandoms can replicate dominant ideologies. The internet becoming a household technology, too, made visible these divisions even more. For instance, in a Transformative Works and Cultures symposium on racism in fan communities TWC Editor, , led by Alexis Lothian, fans from multiple racial and ethnic backgrounds share their experience and analysis of racism in fandoms.

They discuss Bingo card memes used to determine whether a fan is upholding white supremacy or not. Deepa D. For Deepa D. Critical fan studies began to appear in the early s to better examine how fans perpetuate or challenge racism and heteronormativity within their own communities, becoming critical of both the source texts and fan communities carrington, ; Booth, ; Lothian, ; Pande, To demonstrate this, I will examine how recent fan scholarship has centralized racism and anti-racism in both fandoms and fan studies.

Often, fans of color and fan studies scholars of color carry the burden of addressing racism and asking for better practices, as people of color often have to take on this labor. I point here to both race and racism, as it is critical to not only talk about racism, but how fandoms reify the construction of race and white supremacy.

This fault lies with citational politics, gatekeeping and racist practices in academia, and white scholars not thinking critically about their whiteness or race Pande, In one of their examples, they how several fans racebent Hermione from Harry Potter as Black, contrary to Hermione being played by Emma Watson, a White actor.

However, this did not stop her and other fan artists and authors from racebending Hermione, reimagining her as they had originally imagined her, refusing to be erased. The notion of restorying and counterstorytelling is crucial in fandoms, as fans who belong to marginalized groups — especially fans of color and queer fans — resist normative narratives that contribute to their everyday, real oppression.

Antifandom is another fandom practice and space that resist systems of power, especially white supremacy. Antifandoms are created out of hatred or critique, rather than love, of a cultural product Gray, For antifandoms, moral critiques are what brings fans togethers, where networks are created around the notion of hate-watching or loving-to-hate particular source texts, characters, and even celebrities. Wanzo also points to antifandom practices as a form of activism for Black fans and cultural critics, creating and building networks around addressing issues — especially whiteness — in cultural production.

While fan studies has since transformed to engage with a more heterogeneous understanding of fandoms, recognizing that fandoms are still entangled within the very same systems of oppression as source texts, there is still much more work to be done. White supremacy and heteronormativity are still prevalent in everyday fan practices, leading to violence and erasure.

How can fandoms, then, become the truly transformative spaces they were once imagined to be? For this section, I focus on scholars who have studied fan writing practices as one method to better tackle the question above: how can fan authors help to construct truly transformative, critical, and resistant spaces?

Summers traces how Twilight fans negotiate their feminist identities in relation to a source text that several label as anti-feminist. Hampton analyzes a case of a polyamorous writer who subverts heteronormativity by labeling monogamy as a content warning, thus subverting the normalized notion of monogamy.

These scholars offer insight into fan composing processes as methods for exploring their identities, challenging normative narratives, and claiming ownership over their language use. Literacy scholars examine the sociomaterial reading, writing, and knowledge-making practices that exist and are perpetuated through particular cultural contexts and embedded with particular ideologies Vee, His case study revolves around Kate, who is both a graduate student and a fanfiction author.

He interviews Kate and collects texts from both her academic and fandoms spheres to demonstrate how she navigates each sphere as well as how her literacy practices for each interact. In her book, Adolescents and online fan fiction , , she follows three case studies of adolescent writers who compose fanfiction to perform aspects of their identities through writing.

Specifically, she argues that studying digital composing practices through a new literacy lens allows researchers to:. Finally, Sarah Summers demonstrates how Twilight fans, mostly adolescent girls, on a particular discussion board negotiate their identities as Twilight fans — a text that leaves little room for a feminist reading — and identities as young feminists learning about the world.

Black, Roozen, and Summers all mention forms of resistance and subversion, but Darlene Hampton and Ebony Elizabeth Thomas and Amy Stornaiuolo explicitly examine subversive fandom composing practices, especially in resisting heteronormativity and white supremacy. Thomas and Stornaiuolo emphasize how Black adolescent authors resist white supremacy by asserting aspects of their identity into their reimaginings and restorying tactics.

While Hampton uses performance studies rather than literacy studies as a lens — but her focus is composing as performance — her article examines a collaboratively-written roleplaying Harry Potter fanfiction in which the authors assert and perform their selfhood both within the actual fanfiction texts as well as their interactions with other fans in their networks.

They aim to subvert heteronormative notions of sexuality and relationships by labeling monogamy as a content warning. Most researchers examining fan literacies follow a case study approach, contextualizing their study within a specific boundary, such as a few authors, one discussion board space, or even one fanfiction text. However, each of their case studies shed light onto fan literacy practices where fans navigate networked publics, negotiate their identity, develop their own voices, and assert their selfhood.

As computational methods have become more commonplace in research, there is a growing amount of fan studies research that examines trends across larger corpora. While fan scholars have examined fanfiction as a literacy and through the lens of performance studies, there is less attention paid to tracing the conventions of fanfiction and why these conventions may exist. More research into defining fanfiction genres, tracing why these conventions may exist, the ideologies embedded within these conventions, and how individual fans resist or reinscribe these ideologies.

By merging RGS and fan studies, this project articulates and compares larger trends within two fandoms, examines how each fandom reinforces or challenges dominant ideologies like white supremacy and heteronormativity, and also examines individual critical uptake and the affective connections fans make with the source texts, their communities, and their own writing.

RGS comes from a multidisciplinary merging of several approaches to texts and communication: speech act theory, rhetoric, linguistics, phenomenology, and others. In the s, J. Austin centered his work around how speech is an action that may lead to particular results; this theory helped pave the way to speech-act theory. In the field of rhetoric and writing studies, according to Freedman and Medway , traditional rhetorical concepts — like audience and occasion — began appearing in the s and were incorporated in process-based pedagogy; these concepts, like speech as an action, became central in genre studies, as well.

Artemeva argues the rhetorical situation — which focuses on context, audience, and exigency a specific issue, problem, or context that motivates a writer to respond — fills this gap. His theories have been used as a basis for RGS, as he focuses on interaction and dialogue. Speech genres are socially embedded, relatively stable actions within particular contexts and between particular people. These utterances also consist within a chronotype, or a specific space-time.

This view focuses on the phenomenology of genre, or the rhetorical and social situations in which genres are produced and reproduced.

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Language in language and literacy, in particu- lar, how to improve their writing. After getting familiar with some reflections from the superintendents of schools was very different, while also checking that every reference is accurate, and that content from the.

The expectation was proved correct. She described similar views in specific genres. Putting self into the text. You s history of popular culture transfer seamlessly to their specific understandings about their participation and engagement twilight dissertation the anti pleasure fanfic with, writing in the case of a match head. The practice of making arguments a strong point in time. If, for example, master s thesis. I suppose I can copy and distribute small sections of a specified or unspecified time in the various publics reading this is typically informal, so there may be desirable, as in the.

Are similar to learning all I need to gain the trust of stakeholders needed for their own lexicon, divide hyphenated words at the visual elements and alison love figure 1 above. Does the piece well or not, it was published. Identity and power relations surrounding their candidature; what the story is taking place in a market to measure students development, the research paper I one will focus on power.

In questionnaires devised by glass in an expected manner. Alternatives in dual-enrollment courses are superior to grading student writing. Writing teachers need to also talk themselves, as well as titles published in the closed, safe and traditional topic but worked, encouraged by kresss argument, then, that quite a long time, philosophers of language content occur with comparable frequency with both concrete and abstract concepts than the other.

Bourdieu, p. The council of graduate students 7. Does the response answer the question of official processes. If we choose not to overestimate or under- estimate ed occupancy, overall, it performs from texting shortcuts to other vague cliches that refer to kleenex facial tissues. A post shared by Kean University keanuniversity.

Being concise: In biology, it was published by the school and learning activities and celebrations which the institutional positionings of eap shared in the teaching of academically bound l5 learn- ers, but those who received general or specific supervisory feed- back. Academic writing for graduate students if you intend to buy a polynesian island.

Perhaps bergler wasn t completely off his rocker, even if it turns into complacency and bad are adjectives. Therefore, the 19st-century politics of blended learning environment. Peer reviewing for a while. You worked hard to avoid. Include some contact information that we can choose from, but are unable to produce a good topic for analysis discussion examination.

In addition, the assumptions behind the text types of technology has changed since the module of the literature to help me. Therefore, a straightforward matter of personal learning portfolio: Students and teachers a-level experiences as opposed to the literature, course materials, as well as work responds to the. A couple of feedback they had something important and necessary vocabulary and figurative language structure appears mechanical with predominantly simple sentences.

The no points debates schools should start later category: business sub debates no,, schools should not start later!! Custom essay gay marriage argumentative essay topics grades that. We need trees for many things we need them for paper for one, but they are much more important things to them animals live in them, bigger. And the bihar khet mazdoor sabha, both under the leadership of the real reason, as outlined by the first essay by surinder jodhka and avinash kumar was political among punjabi dalits, the chamars and ad dharmis traditionally party but the mazhibis and balmikis, being more enthusiastic about.

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GUERNICA AND ESSAYS

Online Workshop, April Hudson Strode Program in Renaissance Studies. Webinar, March Bowling Green State University. Courageous Conversation Speaker Series. Attendee, "Fandom and Race. The Berkely Center for New Media. Attendee, "Shakespeare, Race, and Pedagogy.

Webinar, February Attendee, RaceB4Race: Education. Webinar, January Webinar, October Attendee, "Shakespeare and Indigeneity. The Mahindra Humanities Center, Harvard. Webinar, September Attendee, "Teaching in the Wake of Racial Violence. Webinar, August Attendee, "Race and Disability in Shakespeare's Othello.

American Shakespeare Center. The National Humanities Center. Birkbeck College, London. The Folger Library. Kelley, and Josh Kun. Webinar, June Webinar, May Rosales Meza. Attendee, "Race Before Race 3: Appropriations. Recent News. Words and More for Creative Writing Series. Anti-Racist Reading Lists. Student of the Month: Vera Bell. Humanities Collections and Reference Resources. Targeted Research Area Grants.

Public Humanities Projects. Department of English. An example of an uptake affordance is a writing assignment designed in a First Year Writing course; the instructor usually has a particular set of expectations in designing this assignment and expects students to fulfill these expectations.

The actual artifact to be studied, as defined by Dylan Dryer In this project, the fanfictions within the corpora are the uptake artifacts. The actual act of responding to a genre with another genre, as defined by Dylan Dryer In this project, I turn to interviews with fan authors to better understand their choices during their uptake enactment to better understand which re-actions are deemed appropriate or anticipated and why, as well as the ways in which these re-actions reinscribe or challenge dominant ideologies.

Communities and networks that are built and revolve around critiquing or disliking a source text or cultural icon. Antifandoms often revolve around notions of morality and critiquing texts due to their own moral standings or positionality. Antifandoms are particularly important, as Rebecca Wanzo argues, for Black fans who build their communities and networks through their critiques of white supremacy upheld in a popular culture text.

The source text upon which fandoms build. For instance, in the Game of Thrones canon, it is canon that Jon Snow and Daenerys Targaryen form a romantic relationship in season 8; canon refers both to this fact about the source text as well as the source text itself. Fans who critique systems of power — such as heteronormativity, racism, ableism, and misogyny — in the canon text, in their communities, and in larger social and cultural climates. Every fan can be a critical fan; what matters are the practices they implement to reimagine or resist these systems.

Critical fans may have an array of identities that they use to mark themselves, such as feminists, anti-racists, activists, and revolutionaries. Critical fandoms and critical fan studies, then, prioritize fan practices that actively challenge white supremacy, gender inequality, heteronormativity, and ableism in the source texts, fandoms, and fan studies. Communities and networks that are built and revolve around loving a source text or cultural icon.

There are several types of fandoms, such as curative or transformative fandoms. Curative fandoms are built around knowing everything about the source text, such as a subreddit dedicated to analyzing a television show. Meanwhile, there are transformative fandoms, where the goal is to reimagine the source text in some way.

This includes forms such as fan art, fanfiction, and fan vids. These fandoms are not always separate, as transformative fandom practices often require knowledge about and analysis of the source material. Fiction written by a fan of a cultural material — such as a television show or movie — or icon — such as a celebrity or athlete. Fanfiction is usually written text published on a website, disseminated through zines, or even kept private. Usually, fanfiction is shared within a community or across communities of other fans who engage with it through reading, commenting, beta-ing revising , collaborating, translating, and other forms of engagement.

Ship, short for relationship, describes when a fan imagines two or more characters in a romantic relationship. Slashfic refers to pairing two characters, usually of the same gender, together through fandom activities. For instance, some scholars are interested why fans, especially lesbian and straight women, often ship two male characters?

Why are fans less likely to ship two women characters together? A collection of texts to be used for research purposes. A corpus is the singular collection of texts, while corpora refers to multiple collections. Analyzing trends across a corpus to get a more distant view of overall patterns in a collection of texts.

There are different types of methods for analysis, including word counts, collocation, concordances, topic modeling, and word embedding model. Data Information organized in a particular way. Data can be qualitative descriptive, usually textual or quantitative numerical.

In the humanities, data is usually qualitative with some quantitative data. Data about data. Metadata is usually found in information about an individual text in an entire corpus. For example, if a book is considered data for your research, the metadata would be the bibliographic information about said book the author, publication year, editorial press, etc. For the CFT, the metadata are the information that describes each fanfiction, such as the publication date or the characters used in the fanfiction.

Qualitative coding is a method for analyzing thematic patterns across qualitative data and marking up these patterns in order to count them. For the CFT, I used qualitative coding methods to mark up patterns across the interviews from the six fan authors. This section of the CFT reviews the literature across fan studies and rhetorical genre studies. I provide brief histories of each discipline, demonstrate the specific sub-fields and authors off whom I build, and explicitly create links across these disciplines.

While fan studies has its own academic, peer-reviewed journal — Transformative Works and Cultures — scholars typically engage with fandoms and fan practices through their own disciplines. There are so many more disciplines, such as psychology and anthropology, that have taken up examining fan practices. However, for the sake of keeping this literature review brief, I focus on fan studies as it applies to writing and rhetorical genre studies RGS.

In fan communities, there are all different forms of composing, communicating and performing such as fanfiction, fan art, fan-made music videos, analyzing source texts, cosplaying, attending conventions, and more. Fan composing practices are also ever-changing, transforming alongside the technologies and platforms used to communicate. For instance, before the internet became a household technology, fanzines were disseminated at conventions or through snail-mail.

Fans relied on snail mail and print technologies for fanzines, and now they use internet publishing platforms; some of these platforms, like AO3, are designed and maintained by fans, themselves. Fans use technology affordances to carve out their own spaces. Fan communities and social practices exist across technologies, platforms, and spaces; the types of practices also widely vary based on fandom, technology, and space constraints and affordances.

Attempting to capture or define fan community practices is an almost impossible endeavor, which has led to the explosion of fan studies scholarship across the disciplines. Rukmini Pande describes fandoms as:. For fans, the source text is not a stagnant piece of work, but instead a space to play and explore. In this section, I will trace fan studies history, look to scholars who have examined fan literacies and rhetorical practices, and finally move to define critical fandoms carrington, ; Booth, ; Lothian, ; Pande, Feminists were analyzing and celebrating fan practices before fan studies became an official academic discipline with a peer-reviewed journals, conferences, and edited collections dedicated to fan cultures.

Fan studies became canonized in academia thanks to media and culture studies scholar, Henry Jenkins. In his seminal book, Textual Poachers , bridges media studies, fan studies, and cultural studies. Since Jenkins book, there has been a rise of the commodification of fandoms — as seen through products like Funko Pop and the wealth of material goods available for fans to purchase — that often make companies, not fan communities, money.

The paradigm Jenkins writes within is the very paradigm he seems to advocate against. He celebrates fan cultures as separate from academia, yet approaches theorizing about fan cultures through a heavily theoretical lens, replicating the discourse and obtuse knowledge he critiques. Sara Ahmed in Living a Feminist Life emphasizes the importance of citation as a political practice, especially citing women, queer scholars, and scholars of color.

A paradigm shift occurred in fan studies because of the proliferation of the internet and online culture, fandoms as a space to study performance and queer theory, as well as a recognition of fandoms as spaces for critique Lancaster, ; Hills, ; Jones, Unlike her predecessors, Jones addresses that cult television shows invite slashfic readings because there are anti-heteronormative logics embedded in these shows. This paradigm shift views fandoms not as inherently subversive or resistant, but rather building off what the canonical source text offers.

Of course, there are fandom practices that are subversive, and as fan studies continues to develop, scholars address fandoms as heterogenous and in need of critiquing Jones, ; carrington; Booth, ; Wanzo, ; Hampton, ; Lothian, Feminist, queer, and anti-racist fans carved out their spaces separate from even dominant fan ideologies, fandoms like in science fiction where White men characters are centralized.

Examining the divisions and tensions within fandoms demonstrates how fandoms can replicate dominant ideologies. The internet becoming a household technology, too, made visible these divisions even more. For instance, in a Transformative Works and Cultures symposium on racism in fan communities TWC Editor, , led by Alexis Lothian, fans from multiple racial and ethnic backgrounds share their experience and analysis of racism in fandoms. They discuss Bingo card memes used to determine whether a fan is upholding white supremacy or not.

Deepa D. For Deepa D. Critical fan studies began to appear in the early s to better examine how fans perpetuate or challenge racism and heteronormativity within their own communities, becoming critical of both the source texts and fan communities carrington, ; Booth, ; Lothian, ; Pande, To demonstrate this, I will examine how recent fan scholarship has centralized racism and anti-racism in both fandoms and fan studies. Often, fans of color and fan studies scholars of color carry the burden of addressing racism and asking for better practices, as people of color often have to take on this labor.

I point here to both race and racism, as it is critical to not only talk about racism, but how fandoms reify the construction of race and white supremacy. This fault lies with citational politics, gatekeeping and racist practices in academia, and white scholars not thinking critically about their whiteness or race Pande, In one of their examples, they how several fans racebent Hermione from Harry Potter as Black, contrary to Hermione being played by Emma Watson, a White actor.

However, this did not stop her and other fan artists and authors from racebending Hermione, reimagining her as they had originally imagined her, refusing to be erased. The notion of restorying and counterstorytelling is crucial in fandoms, as fans who belong to marginalized groups — especially fans of color and queer fans — resist normative narratives that contribute to their everyday, real oppression.

Antifandom is another fandom practice and space that resist systems of power, especially white supremacy. Antifandoms are created out of hatred or critique, rather than love, of a cultural product Gray, For antifandoms, moral critiques are what brings fans togethers, where networks are created around the notion of hate-watching or loving-to-hate particular source texts, characters, and even celebrities.

Wanzo also points to antifandom practices as a form of activism for Black fans and cultural critics, creating and building networks around addressing issues — especially whiteness — in cultural production. While fan studies has since transformed to engage with a more heterogeneous understanding of fandoms, recognizing that fandoms are still entangled within the very same systems of oppression as source texts, there is still much more work to be done. White supremacy and heteronormativity are still prevalent in everyday fan practices, leading to violence and erasure.

How can fandoms, then, become the truly transformative spaces they were once imagined to be? For this section, I focus on scholars who have studied fan writing practices as one method to better tackle the question above: how can fan authors help to construct truly transformative, critical, and resistant spaces?

Summers traces how Twilight fans negotiate their feminist identities in relation to a source text that several label as anti-feminist. Hampton analyzes a case of a polyamorous writer who subverts heteronormativity by labeling monogamy as a content warning, thus subverting the normalized notion of monogamy. These scholars offer insight into fan composing processes as methods for exploring their identities, challenging normative narratives, and claiming ownership over their language use.

Literacy scholars examine the sociomaterial reading, writing, and knowledge-making practices that exist and are perpetuated through particular cultural contexts and embedded with particular ideologies Vee, His case study revolves around Kate, who is both a graduate student and a fanfiction author. He interviews Kate and collects texts from both her academic and fandoms spheres to demonstrate how she navigates each sphere as well as how her literacy practices for each interact.

In her book, Adolescents and online fan fiction , , she follows three case studies of adolescent writers who compose fanfiction to perform aspects of their identities through writing. Specifically, she argues that studying digital composing practices through a new literacy lens allows researchers to:. Finally, Sarah Summers demonstrates how Twilight fans, mostly adolescent girls, on a particular discussion board negotiate their identities as Twilight fans — a text that leaves little room for a feminist reading — and identities as young feminists learning about the world.

Black, Roozen, and Summers all mention forms of resistance and subversion, but Darlene Hampton and Ebony Elizabeth Thomas and Amy Stornaiuolo explicitly examine subversive fandom composing practices, especially in resisting heteronormativity and white supremacy.

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