thesis on telecommunication industry

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Thesis on telecommunication industry distinguish between essays and reports

Thesis on telecommunication industry

The model is quite known because it shares the factors that has the inclination to discuss and asses the level of service. The model was developed by Zeithaml, Parasuraman and Berry in s so as to measure the quality in the service sector. The concept of service quality model is based on the effectiveness of five factors namely Reliability, assurance, tangibles, empathy and responsiveness.

The model is also helpful in estimating the gap, according to the model the estimated gaps identified through service quality concept are listed below:. Apart from this, the model is based on the measurement of following dimensions as mentioned by Dabholkar, :.

The above depicted model is illustrated identifying relevant aspects that are required to be fulfilled by the organization. Organization stability is to be achieved for sustaining profitable results and maintaining overall productivity rates for higher efficacy and enhancing loyalty amongst customers and employees Akbaba, Collier and Bienstock, stated that organization performance is to be regularly tested for further disruptions to be analyzed and eliminated, performance tuning takes place after discrepancies within the organization have been identified.

Collier and Bienstock, further identified that strategies are to be implemented for crisis management handling and effectively eliminating further disruptions. Employees need to review their performances through performance appraisals in order to make effective decisions regarding the enhanced profitability levels. Stevenson and Sum negated that security offers a stable and safe environment to work which can affect the quality of services to be offered.

Performance testing requires employees and managers to identify their capabilities and how they can shape their current skill sets in order to enhance quality of their work that has a direct impact on the quality of services provided by the organization. Initially start up businesses is required to provide their customers with a service relevant to their needs, when this stage has been overcome the enhancement of quality is worked on.

Brand names when established can then identify features for the quality and reliability of improving organization position in the market through its image. Sethi and Sethi stated that quality of the firms is important as it requires organizations to evaluate their performances and compare it with their competitors to gain a competitive edge and have an advantage over them.

Quality features of a product enable characteristics in a product that make it more desirable for consumers. According to Kumar, Kee and Manshor there have been various studies regarding the quality of services in the past years by introducing models such as the SERVQUAL model which was introduced decades ago evaluating and signifying the importance of service quality through tangibles involving physical existence and availability of services being offered.

Communication with the customers is to be acquired along with their expectations being met to build an understanding and gaining their loyalty towards a brand or a product being offered. Following are some of the highlighted features identified from various service quality models signifying its importance:. Furth, Peter and Muller, stated that reliability refers to meeting customer expectations and honoring the promises made to them considering product specifications and quality being provided.

Enhancing product development through strategies and approaches by the organization that are relevant to meeting customer expectations can signify brand importance. Olorunniwo, Hsu and Udo mentioned that the courtesy of employees should be focused on through acknowledging customer needs and wants for services being offered improving quality.

Organization can control and maintain its reputation through providing services with better responsiveness by the organization staff. Communication amongst organization employees and potential customers needs to be clear. Communication amongst organization staff members and customers including external customers i.

Hwang and Kim, identified hat gaining customers trust will increase their loyalty towards a product being offered to them. Trust of customers is important when it comes to enhancing service quality. For a firm the significance of the quality provided by them makes an impact on its loyal as well as potential customers. Product enhancements and development strategies can be worked on if repetitive monitoring of strategies is being put to use.

Honesty offered by a brand increases its loyalty considering its customers and an understanding is being built amongst the organization and its consumers. Security refers to confidentiality of the employees currently working in the organization, along with the data being gathered by the employees that need to be anonymous for their privacy concerns and not being utilized for further research without their consent. A secure environment needs to be established for the employees to work and engage in to achieve better productivity levels out of them enhancing overall quality of services offered by the firm.

Financial security needs to be considered for the employees reducing turnover rates and stabilizing organizational profits Wang and Zhang, Competence refers to the skill set of employees that can enable better profitability for organizations. Matzler, Krauter and Bidmon, have explained in their book that brand loyalty refers to an attitude and perception that customers have about a particular brand offering them services that comply with their needs.

Loyal consumers prefer a brand over other products being offered because of the quality of the products that may include economical prices along with their convenience of placement in the market. Improving brand loyalty consists of a lot of indicators such as efficient use of resources to make products marketing mix more advanced and use the approached involved for improving brand image and loyalty amongst customers.

The main factors that are involved in enhancing brand loyalty include brand recognition, its preference amongst the customers and brand insistence. The aforementioned characteristics involved in the formation of effective brand loyalty strategies include recognition, insistence and preference of a brand by the customer sand potential consumers. Brand recognition can be achieved through approaches that promote brand image and requires an audience to know their product, this can be done through events and promotions for a product to be recognized Gelder, Brand preference is when a customer has a strong liking for the brand and prefers it over other brands offering the same product, for this aspect to be achieved and retained organization needs to research and update their current methods for product development to keep their customers entertained and always indulged in upcoming services that can be offered Maclnnis, Park and Joseph, Ferrel and Hartline further negated that the strongest degree of the brand loyalty model is brand insistence where customers are determined to buy the product that is being utilized by them.

They would not prefer any other alternates or substitutes that other brand scan offer but would focus on the same brand to be consumed. As negated by Kumar, brand loyalty is also being regarded as brand equity identifying its position in the market place. A brand being significant amongst customers requires an organizations utmost dedication towards building awareness amid its target market.

Pertinent strategies are to be introduced in order for a brand to increase its visualization for promotion requirements. The above mentioned model is of brand loyalty and brand performance. This model has been proposed by Chaudhuri and Holbrook in their research study conducted to examine the role of brand loyalty. The model comprises of six variables in addition to product level controls and brand level controls. The model indicated that the brand trust is associated with the purchase loyalty as well as with attitudinal loyalty.

Moreover, the model also desires to test the association of purchase and attitudinal loyalty with the brand affects. Above and beyond this, the model has also been established to test the impact of purchase loyalty on the market share of the companies. As per this model, as the purchase loyalty among the customer enhances, the market share also tends to go on higher side.

It also investigates the impact of attitudinal loyalty on the relative prices and claims that relative prices increases due to the increase in the attitudinal loyalty. Another model proposed by De Chernatony, McDonald and Wallace highlighted the methods to achieve brand loyalty by linking brand loyalty with the purchase behavior and relative attitude of the customer.

The model has been mentioned below:. The model has been considered as the simple brand loyalty model and as per this model; the customers depict true loyalty for the company if their repurchase patronage and relative attitude has been observed as high, whereas, if the repurchase patronage of the customer has been low with relative attitude remained high, then the customer will depict latent loyalty. Besides this, if the relative attitude is low although the repeat patronage is high, the type of loyal observed will be spurious; however, having both the relative attitude and repeat patronage of the customers low will result in no loyalty.

This model of brand loyalty helps the managers to make distinctions between their profitable and unprofitable customers which thereby facilitate them to design effective strategies for the retention of their profitable customers.

Morris affirmed that loyalty of customer is differently influenced in different products. These factors are explained as dimensions because they direct in estimating the figures that are essential for the marketers in acquiring customer loyalty. Various facts extracted from the in-depth analysis of previous reviews declared that customers are attracted towards the product that has the tendency to attain the trust of customers. Similar to this, Mayberry, Nicewander, Qin and Ballard, , stated that majority of customers decide to buy when they are satisfied with the corporate image.

The corporate and brand image help the customers in recognizing the product which further facilitates in consuming the product. Apart from this, the study of Robledo revealed that price is also a factor that makes customers feel satisfy with the product. Before switching to some other brand, customers examine the cost of switching the brand because it also has an impact over the brand loyalty of customers.

The study of Rizka and Widji agreed that switching cost has the propensity to affect the loyalty of customers because the estimated cost that can occur during the process of changing brand or the product. Considering the brand loyalty in telecommunication industry suggests that four factors are there that has the ability to affect customer loyalty. These factors includes corporate image, perceived quality, switching cost and trust.

Corporate image, perceived quality, trust and switching cost interact with each other also. According to the model above, loyalty of brand is associated with four dimensions which include corporate image, trust, perceived quality and switching cost. These factors are briefly discussed below:. It has been discovered that apparent service quality is decidedly identified with repurchase proposition, proposal, and imperviousness to alluring and better options. Riscinto-Kozub, defined that corporate image is portrayed as the general impression made on the personalities of open around a firm which is identified with physical and behavioral qualities of the firm.

It is a consequence of a conglomeration process which fuses with different data utilized by shoppers to structure impression of a firm. Wirtz, Lovelock and Wirtz stated that firms experience improved output and high sales only if the management is able to reveal the corporate image.

A decent corporate image has been found to help make and keep up steadfast association with clients and impact repurchases support. Wirtz, Lovelock and Wirtz in addition stated that corporate image is worthy in structuring the perception of potential buyers which results in preference of reiterate purchase of good or service offered. The work of Riscinto-Kozub, specified that brand switching is often observed when customers change their products and product perception because of a dissatisfaction or distortion with the product.

Switching cost, then again, is the expenses connected with changing from one administration supplier to an alternate which will not cause if a client stays with the current administration supplier. Increment in exchanging expense would bring about higher hazard and trouble on the customers. Wirtz, Lovelock and Wirtz defined that loyalty is preserved when customers trust the product or service.

As indicated by Hwang and Kim, trust is a conviction to an alternate party's word of honor or guarantee in light of the fact that the gathering is considered as necessary, legit, truthful, and ready to perform activities that will bring about positive results or counteract activities that will end in negative results. A buyer who believes a certain brand is liable to structure positive purchasing maintenance towards the brand. Chiou and Droge concluded that customers tend to repurchase only when they feel that product is trustworthy.

Buyers make decision when they feel they are able to trust the products because trust is accountable of structuring relationships between customers and buyers. According to the study of Alexandris et al , the quality is the foremost factor that the customer looks for in products and services. Thus, the companies should give ample focus on the quality of their offerings.

As per Poolthong and Mandhachitara , majority of the brands all over the world are popular only because of the quality they intend to offer to their customers. In addition, quality also plays a vital role in the attraction of the customers towards the brands. In the light of the study of Akbar and Parvez , approaching and catering to the need of vast range of market is the key to success and to achieve it, the best tool is provision of quality into the products and services.

Providing the customers with the superior service quality projects the image of the company in the mind of the customers as the one that intends to builds long-lasting relationship with them. Subsequently, the customers can be made loyal to the brand if they are provided with the quality services. However, the study of Kassim and Asiah Abdullah has contradicted with the former authors by stating that brand loyalty depends upon the pricing strategies implemented by the companies.

The customers usually switch towards the brand that charges them the lowest prices regardless of the duration of the relationship they have with the company. Tax and Brown also stated that, it is the pricing strategy set by the company that stimulate the interest of the customer towards the brands and the repeat purchase behavior of the customer can also be influenced in a positive manner if the company charges lowest prices as compared to other companies; hence it has been concluded that service quality has no relationship with the brand loyalty.

It is the prices that affect the brand loyalty most in a positive way. Moreover, Jamal and Anastasiadou stated that regardless of the service quality the company desires to deliver to its customers, brand loyalty cannot be achieved if the customers have not been made aware of the services on frequent basis. Consequently, the study of the author concludes that effective promotional tools play a major role in making the customers loyal to the brands. As per Davis-Sramek et al , repeat purchase behavior of the customer can only be observed if the customers have been satisfied with the services or the products of the company, and to make the customers satisfied it is mandatory to provide them with quality services.

Therefore, quality services will enhance the satisfaction of the customers with the brand which thereby also increase their repeat purchases. In addition, repeat purchases also increase brand loyalty for the company.

Nam, Ekinci and Whyatt also supported the former author by concluding that brand equity and brand loyalty can only be achieved if the customers are satisfied with the services and products of the company and the best way to make customers satisfied is to provide them with the quality. In the light of the study of Siddiqi , with the purpose to delight the customers with the services of the company and to achieve the order winning criteria the companies nowadays are focusing more on their quality standards than any other element.

They have developed a complete audit system that continuously ensures that the product or the services they have designed is of superior quality. Due to such measures the companies have also been successful in gaining larger market share. This maximum market share of the companies clearly highlights that the customers are loyal to the brand of such companies only because of the quality they are delivering. Nevertheless, it can be concluded that to achieve brand loyalty it is must that the companies should provide excellent quality of services and products.

Above and beyond this, Li and Petrick argued that enhancement in the market share not necessarily indicate that the company has been enjoying greater brand loyalty. The increase in the market share can also be due to other factors, among which the most common is lowest prices.

From the study of Santouridis and Trivellas , it has been highlighted that the customers are more interested in the variety of products and services rather than the quality. In their purchase decision process they like to choose the company that offers maximum number of products despite of the inferior services provided by those companies. Nevertheless, for making the customers loyal to the brand the aspect of quality services does not have any importance.

However, Kheng et al stated that customers can also be made loyal to the brand if they are provided with the customized products and services. Customized products and services are those that are designed as per the needs, taste and preferences of the customers and thus they have been considered as of great quality. The study of the author concludes that the service quality do facilitate the companies in obtaining brand loyalty.

A study conducted by Carpenter in the retail sector stated that the customers are more willing to walk in the stores and are also brand loyal mainly because of the quality of the services such as: parking facilities, wider aisle, and leverage in the mode of payment, skilled staff members and so on. The quality services also help in the retention of the customer and it also attracts and catches the attention of potential customer through word of mouth.

In accordance with Gorla, Somers and Wong , brand loyalty depends upon the effectiveness of the company to retain its customers for a long period of time and also on a life time basis. Moreover, to hold on the customers one of the ways that has been utilized by the companies is usage of variety of sales promotional tools.

Ganesan-Lim, Russell-Bennett and Dagger stated that to make customer loyal to the brand sales promotion techniques plays the most crucial role. Due to the fact that majority of the consumers are price sensitive, this technique used by the company helps to retain the customers which highlights that the customers are loyal to the brand.

Chang, Wang and Yang argued that any sort of promotional mix cannot facilitate the company to make the customers loyal to the brand. It is because the promotional mix tools are for short term basis and could not help the company in the long run.

Furthermore, in order to obtain customer loyalty for a lifetime basis the only way is to provide constant quality services. The study of the author, thus puts great emphasize on the association of the quality service with brand loyalty. As ascertained by Chiou and Droge brand loyalty is key component that is associated with customer loyalty.

In other words, brand loyalty is defined as the key driver that sets the acceleration within the sales of a firm. Bauer, Falk and Hammerschmidt, defined that brand loyalty is often expressed as the intention of customers to make repeat purchase. From the academic point of view, brand loyalty is a consequence of customer satisfaction and has the tendency to get influenced through the preferences of a customer.

Similar to this, from the managerial point of view, brand loyalty leads to the consistent purchase of a good or service. Customers will continue the purchase of products and brands with which they are loyal, regardless of convenience and price. Akbaba, in addition suggested that loyalty of a customer is effective for the business; therefore, marketers tend to cultivate the loyalty of customers through executing different strategies and practices.

According to Hazra variety of factors are studied in past times that are counted in as the ones that have the tendency to affect the product or brand loyalty of customers. The researcher further elaborated that brand loyalty is not limited to the purchase or consumption of a product.

Dabholkar, in addition stated that customers can become brand loyal even though they have not bought or consumed it. For instance, teenagers or young students become extremely loyal customers with certain products. Bauer, Falk and Hammerschmidt, in contrast stated that customers are loyal when they consume the product and feel satisfy with it. If a product is able to meet the expectation of customers, they will automatically become brand loyal because it has an association with customer satisfaction.

Chiou and Droge argued that loyalty of buyers is often affected through several associations that are offered with the product. Dabholkar defined that customer loyalty is essential for an organization because it is an ultimate source of sales for the firm. Loyal customers are key drivers of business operations because they are accountable of making purchase repeatedly. Organizations require implementing the strategies that can help in cultivating the loyalty of customers.

These strategies strongly relates to the factors aforementioned above. The management and improvement of loyalty of customers assist in attracting customers in the direction of products offered by the firm which ultimately results in augmenting the product sales and values. This research is being analyzed and focused on considering online articles, company profiles and relevant features are being identified through models and illustrations by renowned authors and scholars.

However, there have been limitations regarding customer feedback of the telecommunication industry. There were limitations regarding acknowledging organizations policies for effective service qualities and strategies to be introduced for brand loyalty to be gained amongst customers.

The illustrations provided for further acknowledgment f brand loyalty enhancement only focuses on certain aspects regarding employees and customers of an organization, since an organization consists of a wide number of operations involving its supply chain network, contractors, international links and contacts that need to be identified for proper information system regarding its service quality and how it has an impact on loyalty of brands by the customers.

H 0 : There is no impact of reliability on the brand loyalty of O2 in UK. H 1 : There is a significant impact of reliability on the brand loyalty of O2 in UK. H 0 : There is no impact of responsiveness on brand loyalty of O2 in UK. H 2 : There is a significant impact of responsiveness on brand loyalty of O2 in UK. The above established conceptual framework of the current study consists of two independent and one dependent variable. The independent variables are service reliability and responsiveness and the dependent variable is brand loyalty.

Through this framework, the dependence of brand loyalty has been examined on service reliability and responsiveness. The framework also aims to test the variation in the brand loyalty caused due to these two independent variables.

In a nut shell, it has been concluded that the service quality do play a major role in making the customers brand loyal. Moreover, hypothesis and the conceptual framework have also been established for testing. The framework incorporates service responsiveness and reliability as independent whereas brand loyalty as dependent variable.

Santouridis, I. Investigating the impact of service quality and customer satisfaction on customer loyalty in mobile telephony in Greece. The TQM Journal , 22 3 , pp. Two-level model of customer retention in the US mobile telecommunications service market. Telecommunications Policy , 32 3 : pp. Sethi, R. Can Quality? The operating private radio channels include:. The number of private satellite channels is growing.

The first connectivity of internet was only in Though It was somewhat late, over the past few years the growth is rapid. Internet users: The number of internet users in Bangladesh as of March is over , compared to , in However, only 0. The number of Internet subscribers in Bangladesh is likely to reach Though broadband internet access is available it charges high for high speed connection than other south Asian countries, though this is rapidly changing.

Broadband internet and e-commerce in Bangladesh is slowly progressing. WiMAX service is now available from some internet service providers. Therefore most of the Broadband internet services and also subscribers are using bandwidth that may not be considered a broadband in other countries and may not be broadband in international standards. There are 6 satellite earth stations. Talimabad, Betbunia are two of them. Some info shows that the number is now 7.

Branded as Grameenphone:. Grameenphone widely known as GP is the leading telecommunications service provider in Bangladesh. With more than 32 million subscribers as of June , Grameenphone is the largest cellular operator in the country. It is a joint venture enterprise between Telenor and Grameen Telecom Corporation, a non-profit sister concern of the internationally acclaimed microfinance organization and community development bank Grameen Bank.

Telenor, the largest telecommunications company in Norway, owns Grameenphone was the first company to introduce GSM technology in Bangladesh. It also established the first hour CallCenter to support its subscribers. With the slogan Stay Close , stated goal of Grameenphone is to provide affordable telephony to the entire population of Bangladesh. The idea of providing universal mobile phone access throughout Bangladesh, including its rural areas, was originally conceived by Iqbal Quadir, who is currently the founder and director of the LegatumCenter for Development and Entrepreneurship at MIT.

He was inspired by the Grameen Bank microcredit model and envisioned a business model where a cell phone can serve as a source of income. After leaving his job as an investment banker in the United States, Quadir traveled back to Bangladesh, after meeting and successfully raising money from New York based investor and philanthropist Joshua Mailman, and worked for three years gaining support from various organizations including Nobel Peace Prize laureate Muhammad Yunus of Grameen Bank and the Norwegian telephone company, Telenor.

He was finally successful in forming a consortium with Telenor and Grameen Bank to establish Grameenphone. Quadir remained a shareholder of Grameenphone until Grameenphone received a license for cellular phone operation in Bangladesh from the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications on November 28, Grameenphone started operations on March 26, , the Independence Day in Bangladesh. Grameenphone originally offered a mobile-to-mobile connectivity widely known as GP-GP connection , which created a lot of enthusiasm among the users.

It became the first operator to reach the million subscriber milestone as well as fourty million subscriber milestone in Bangladesh. Network :. Grameenphone has built the largest cellular network in the country with over 10, base stations in more than locations. Products offered: Grameenphone offering the following products in Bangladesh. Grameenphone also offers postpaid mobile service.

Xplore Postpaid is the name of its post paid service. Sheba Telecom Ltd. Banglalink is the second largest cellular service provider in Bangladesh after Grameenphone. As of November, , Banglalink has a subscriber base of It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Orascom Telecom. Banglalink had 1. The number of Banglalink users increased by percent and stood at 3. In August, , Banglalink became the first company to provide free incoming calls from BTTB for both postpaid and prepaid connections.

On August 20, , Banglalink got past the landmark of 10 million subscriber base. History of Banglalink:. Sheba Telecom PVT Ltd -after talking lots- finally was granted license in to operate in the rural areas of upazilas. Later it obtained GSM license in to extend its business to cellular mobile, radio telephone services. It launched operation in the last quarter of as a Bangladesh-Malaysia joint venture. In July, , it was reported that Egypt based Orascom Telecom is set to purchase the Malaysian stakes in Sheba Telecom through a hush-hush deal, as Sheba had failed to tap the business potentials in Bangladesh mainly due to a chronic feud between its Malaysian and Bangladeshi partners.

The pact has been kept secret for legal reasons, considering financial fallout and because of the feud. The main reason for the undercover dealing was the joint venture agreement between the Bangladeshi and the Malaysian partners, which dictates that if any party sells its Sheba shares, the other party will enjoy the first right to buy that. Integrated Services Ltd. Sheba had a base of 59, users, of whom 49, were regular when it was sold.

In March, , Sheba Telecom Pvt. Limited changed its name as Orascom Telecom Bangladesh Limited, matching its parent company name. Products offered:. Banglalink currently offers two prepaid plans. All connections provide GPRS to subscribers. Post-paid packages:. Currently there are three postpaid plans from Banglalink for its tail customers. These packages are known as enterprise personal , which is a subset of much larger Banglalink enterprise.

Banglalink enterprise offers a wide range of products and services to suit the needs of the business community. Companies under the enterprise package are provided with a dedicated enterprise relationship manager who provides them with personalized customer care round the clock. Other benefits of enterprise include customized packages with attractive call charges and connection price, enterprise SMS broadcast, enterprise short code, international roaming, missed call alerts, free voice mail retrieval, fax and data service, call conferencing, special offer for family members and many more.

It was first launched in December, The current packages are:. Prior to the launch of Banglalink enterprise, Banglalink served the business clientele through a similar platform named Banglalink professional. Banglalink delivers customer care using its call centers and customer care networks. Currently Banglalink provides customer care services to its clients through:.

Axiata Bangladesh Ltd: Branded as Robi:. Robi is the third largest mobile phone operator in Bangladesh with more than 14 million subscribers as of June Robi boasts of the widest international roaming service in the market, connecting over operators across countries. It is the first operator in the country to introduce GPRS. Robi is truly a people-oriented brand of Bangladesh. Having the local tradition at its core, Robi marches ahead with innovation and creativity.

Its GSM service is based on a robust network architecture and cutting edge technology such as Intelligent Network IN , which provides peace-of-mind solutions in terms of voice clarity, extensive nationwide network coverage and multiple global partners for international roaming. It has the widest International Roaming coverage in Bangladesh connecting operators across more than countries. Its customer centric solution includes value added services VAS , quality customer care, easy access call centers, digital network security and flexible tariff rates.

Robi offers an array of different packages. Robi has got the widest international roaming coverage among all the operators in Bangladesh. Robi has over 25, retail along with , voucher sales point all over Bangladesh. In the first phase, Robi is providing support to the Clubfeet children Clubfeet is a birth defect with twisted foot inverted.

Without treatment, persons afflicted often appear to walk on their ankles, or on the sides of their feet. It is a common birth defect, occurring in about one in every 1, births. As this is an avoidable disability, Robi believes, awareness and on time treatment can help these patients to stand on their own feet and thus have a better life. For mass people. Along with providing internet connectivity for the mass education, is facilitating the rural and suburban colleges with computers. Pacific Bangladesh Telephone Ltd.

Citycell Pacific Bangladesh Telecom Limited is the first mobile communications company of Bangladesh. It is the only CDMA network operator in the country. By the end of Citycell had refurbished its old brand identity and introduced a new logo and corporate identity; the new logo is very reminiscent of the old logo.

In Bangladesh Telecom Limited BTL was awarded a license to operate cellular, paging, and other wireless communication networks. Citycell offers prepaid, post-paid and fixed phone plans. Citycell currently has the cheapest phone connection tariff at taka. The current only prepaid plan is branded as Citycell One. Citycell started offering prepaid plans from It was the first to offer a prepaid plan with BTTB connectivity in the same year. In , it launched the Aalap Call Me plan- the first phone plan with negative tariff in the country.

In this plan customers get credit added to their balance when they receive calls from other Citycell subscribers. In the same year, Citycell launched Aalap Super plan. Subscribers of this plan could make free calls to other Citycell subscribers during late night hours. This espoused numerous copycat products from its competitors. Later that year the national telecoms regulator ordered all phone companies to cease offering free call facility.

In , Citycell launched Hello plan. This plan was followed up with a string of other spinoff plans that continued into As advertised in June , Citycell became the first mobile operator to sign up for Instant Load. Instant Load is a joint effort from Dutch Bangla Bank and Citycell that lets pre-paid account holders top up their phone through SMS anytime, without the need to visit any store or purchase any minutes.

This service is being offered free-of-charge and it is the first service of its type in Bangladesh. After receiving the SMS, Citycell automatically withdraws the desired amount from the bank account instantly. It is not known if the service is applicable for post-paid users. The post-paid plan is branded as Citycell One. The Postpaid subscribers enjoy 4 FnF numbers to other operators, 30 sec pulse applicable for all outgoing, Zoom Data service etc.

Recently in Int. Citycell Zoom is a data plan where the customer receives an internet dongle to surf the web where ever the Citycell network is present. Zoom comes with a choice of prepaid or postpaid. There are 6 Customer care centers of Citycell in the country. One for each division and there are another Customer care Points scattered around the country. Airtel Bangla Ltd. Branded as Airtel:.

Airtel Bangladesh Ltd. Airtel Bangladesh is the sixth mobile phone carrier to enter the Bangladesh market, and launched commercial operations on May 10, History of Airtel:. In a press conference on August 17, , Warid announced that its network would be activated two months ahead of schedule, in October, Again in October, Warid Telecom put off the launch of its cellphone services in Bangladesh until April, after its major supplier Nokia walked out on an agreement over a payment dispute.

Warid had a soft launch at the end of January On May 9, , Warid in an advertisement in some daily newspaper stated that it would be launching publicly on May 10, However, no call rate or any package details were revealed. The advertisement included an announcement for the people interested to buy Warid connections to bring the documents like ID card, etc. On October 1, , Warid Telecom expanded its network to five more districts raising total number of districts under Warid coverage to 56, said a press release.

Now all 64 districts of Bangladesh are under Warid network coverage meaning Warid Telecom now has nationwide coverage. Airtel provides both post-paid and pre-paid connection plans. The post-paid plan is branded and marketed across the country under the name airtel Postpaid , which means leader or royalty.

The pre-paid segment is branded and marketed as airtel Prepaid. However, International Roaming is available only to Warid post-paid users. Customer care Centers:. These centers are directly run by Airtel itself. Bill collection for post paid users and Zem top up for pre-paid users can also be availed at the franchises.

These franchises directly appoint dealers and sub-dealers in their designated areas. Teletalk Bangladesh Ltd. TeleTalk started operating on 29 December TeleTalk is the 6th largest mobile phone operator in Bangladesh with 1. Marketing Strategies: Marketing strategies of telecommunication industry in Bangladesh are as follows:. While all the players in the industry attempts to compete with each other in all segments, they usually tend to target heavily the segment in which their primary core competency.

Bangladesh telecommunication industry segments the industry by following criteria. The Everyday User: Usually more interested in cheaper rates and good connectivity, this segment comprises of a large portion of customers other than businesses as it more or less includes any one and every one. This segment of users are often responsible for causing operators to go into price wars, as lower prices mean more customers.

This segment often shows little loyalty to operators as they frequently change connections to find cheaper rates. The Corporate or Business User: Target customers of this segment are of course all small, medium and large business houses in the country. This segment understandably contributes the significant portion of subscribers in terms of network usage and value for the industry.

Most operators go into partnership programs with companies in order to provide all necessary products and services usually at reduced or corporate prices and with augmented benefits in order to foster profitable, long term relationships. The Student User: Comprised of individuals that are studying in schools, colleges and universities, this segment is a hot prospect for operators as need for these users to stay connected to their friends is top priority.

The Couples User: Recognizing the need for couples to talk frequently with each other, some operators have come up with offers that target married or unmarried couples or any two individuals that need to keep constant contact with each other. Each package contains two connections, so that each half of the pair may contact the other at highly reduced rates. The Rural User: Recognized early on by GrameenPhone, the demand of this segment is almost solely of the purest form: connectivity.

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This Dissertation on Telecommunication Industry Brand loyalty conduct to study and evaluate the effect of service quality on brand loyalty in telecommunication industry: A case of O2 UK.

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Incoming calls were made free since April 1, and that has substantially boosted the subscriber growth rate in India. Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 11 According to TRAI report, the total number of mobile subscribers by the March 31, were This figure shows that in just within three years, the number of mobile subscribers has amplified over 4.

In May , there were Total wireless subscribers Wireless-including WLL for October 8. Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 12 DoT has told to review of call termination charges to TRAI to make them on cost-based which may fall tariff charges significantly.

Termination charges are the ones paid by a telecom operator from whose network call originates to a service provider on which call terminates. Currently the charges for that are 0. They were fixed in If the charges are reduced, the service providers would have to forego some portion of their revenues.

On the other hand, high termination charges may smother the competition and may disturb the level playing field. Capacity expansion of fixed line exchanges helped consumers avail quick connections. Quick connection availability boosted number of fixed line connections during — Wireless Segment.

Vast geographic expanse of India acted as a catalyst to boost mobility. Low call costs since fueled the wireless segment. Narrowing gap of call costs between fixed and wireless convinced customers to subscribe to wireless connections. Nationwide roaming facilities on GSM. SMS facility. Reduced cost of handsets affordability factor. Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 14 In remote areas where providing fixed line connections were difficult, wireless did the magic.

CDMA fixed wireless gave customers 3 in one advantage — mobility, internet and easy access. Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 15 The rationale behind the above segmentation is to identify customers on the basis of their stage in life and hence to tailor-make schemes for each customer segment. The different segments are explained as follows: Youth:- Over the years, service providers have started giving greater attention to this segment, as it has emerged as one of the biggest users of mobile phones.

For the youth, mobile phones are not just a necessity, but rather an indispensable accessory. This segment particularly values prepaid schemes with free SMS services. It is further differentiated into various micro-segments based on age and gender. For instance, youngsters in the age group of 19 to 23 years generally have a large circle of friends and more access to money.

Companies thus focus on providing services like group talk and group SMS to these people. This segment is very dynamic as its needs keep changing very frequently, driven by the latest trends and fads. For instance, downloading new ring-tones is the latest fad among the youth today. This is a huge revenue source for service providers and so they need to keep up with the changing tastes of this segment.

Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 16 Young Professionals:- People entering the workforce and thus moving out of the dependent bracket constitute this market segment. They generally prefer using post paid schemes with value added services like information about stock markets, news updates and so on.

Small and Medium Enterprise:- This segment mainly consists of people who are switching over from landlines to mobile phones, seeking a cost advantage. The focus here is on economy-packages rather than value added services. Family:- Family as a segment consists of more number of dependents. These dependants are serviced by prepaid schemes. Geographically dispersed families tied by the same cellular service providers may get cost advantages in terms of lower pulse rates.

Tailor made schemes for each segment have been a great success so far. This customization, however, has reached such a stage that every service provider has numerous schemes being provided at the same time. Being short term schemes, they keep changing frequently and customers thus start switching from one service provider to another based on the attractiveness of the scheme.

This has brought down customer loyalty and hence service providers are finding it difficult to retain existing customers. It is estimated that in the near future the plethora of schemes provided by the different service providers will stop being a differentiating factor. Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 18 Source: microsite mobile 3.

To taste the success, companies have to perform well continuously and make their customers happy all the time by proper CRM and other techniques. Apart from that, there are two types of factors for these companies: 1 shall have and 2 must have factors. They interact constantly with each other and social relationships are a vital part of life. The mobile phone is perfectly suited to satisfy the need of maintaining social relationships.

Services that support social relationships are likely to be successful. Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 20 Power: One important aspect of social relations is status which is strongly related to power.

Two types of power can be distinguished: Power to access and power to execute. But also the limitation of the power to access can be useful. They provide the opportunity to communicate without giving the receiver the chance to reply directly. This way unpleasant information can be communicated. Quicker refers to the opportunity to fulfill customer needs faster than traditional products. One of the reasons why e-mails are common nowadays is that they are faster than traditional letters. Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 21 More is related to the fact that humans tend to maximize their benefits.

Thus they will welcome every new product allowing them to increase their benefit. In such time slots a mobile phone can be the perfect entertainment or gaming console. Security: Security is one of the most important needs of humans. Because of security provided by service providers, the information of users is kept confidential. In Japan the popular i-mode applications last for less than one and a half minutes on average. The time a customer uses an application may vary from country to country.

However, it is quite evident, that a mobile application has to produce a clear, perceived value for the customer within a short period of time. As a rule of thumb the value should be delivered within 3 minutes.

Simplicity: The services provided to the customers should be simple. It should be easy to understand and the customer should be able to use the services intuitionally like GPRS, caller tunes etc. Additional benefit: For a successful service it is essential that the customer perceives a clear additional value. There are several types of additional values. For example fun, cost saving, time saving or location based additional value. Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 23 Customer friendly tariff structure: The willingness to pay for new technologies and new applications is limited since the customer cannot clearly judge the additional benefit a new application yields.

This is especially true for B2C markets where the customers tend to be more prices sensitive. For this reason a customer friendly price structure, preferably with a price model that eases diffusion of a new application, is essential. It has a network of over 45 million lines covering towns with over 35 million telephone connections.

The aim is to provide a telephone density of 9. BSNL is also the largest operator in the Internet market, with a share of 21 per cent of the entire subscriber base. Amount in lakhs Profit before tax Rs. It had sales of Rs. Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 26 Telecom service providers at the end of Q4 for the year Company Sales Rs. It has been doing very well in landline and internet connections as it is a leader in both these segments.

Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 27 kbps can change to 1 Mbps during the video Conferencing session. The subscriber base in fixed line telephony segment has been increasing over the last few years. Whereas, in Feb , there were But mobile substitution is now starting to take gradually hold.

In Jan , fixed line subscriber growth was negative, with a loss of , lines. The official figure now stands at This includes a correction of WLL subscribers which are now counted towards wireless subscribers. BSNL is also going to invest Rs. Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 29 Pradesh initially. BSNL is currently waiting for the required spectrum frequency to launch this facility.

BHARTI AIRTEL: Established in , Bharti has been a pioneering force in the telecom sector with many firsts and innovations to its credit, ranging from being the first mobile service in Delhi, first private basic telephone service provider in the country, first Indian company to provide comprehensive telecom services outside India in Seychelles and first private sector service provider to launch National Long Distance Services in India.

Bharti Tele-Ventures Limited was incorporated on July 7, for promoting investments in telecommunications services. Its subsidiaries operate telecom services across India. Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 30 locations. The group has a total customer base of 6. It has a network in 21 countries with 6. Bharti has also tied up with Apple for i-phone. The service provider has a WAN set- up in place; it has a mix of leased lines and E1 and E3 lines for wide area connectivity.

The company also has an extranet in place through which it extends different applications to its dealers and partners. In a telecom services company like Bharti, airtime is considered a product. It is vital for Bharti to manage the expectations of its customers and provide them with innovative products and services in a manner which makes them loyal.

So Bharti implemented CRM tool. Before choosing its CRM tool, Bharti evaluated many options. It considered factors like proper workflow automation, facilitation of knowledge sharing, and integration with the billing system. After a thorough evaluation, it decided to go ahead with the Oracle CRM platform. Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 32 Strategy has also played a major role in improving customer service at Airtel.

After starting its services in Delhi, Bharti acquired lot of circles and sought new licenses in other circles; whenever they got a new license, they implemented the CRM tool immediately. But they had to put in a migration strategy in those acquired circles which had an existing subscriber base.

The first is about helping their call centres in the workflow part, helping them in their day-to-day activities. The second provides staff with the required information on customers; this is used for business development activities. Together they help Bharti provide better services to its customers.

Apart from that, now Bharti has come up with new service i. This facility will be free of cost. But this facility can be useful in high-end handsets only and to get the data back, a user needs to have his user id and PIN number. Bharti has made a deal with companies of Malaysia and Indonesia for back-up services to get the data back. This way, Bharti has come up with new innovations with new technologies which ultimately benefit the end users and CRM increases.

The Govt. In the year , the company's focus would be not only consolidating the gains but also to focus on new areas of enterprise such as joint ventures for projects outside India, entering into national long distance operation, widening the cellular and CDMA-based WLL customer base, setting up internet and allied services on an all India basis. MTNL recorded sales of Rs. There has been a tremendous increase in the Cellular subscriber base as MTNL has added a total of cellular subscribers and total cellular subscriber had increased to as on Its turnover was Rs.

It had Profit before Tax of Rs. Its net profit was Rs. Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 35 corporations, and over global carriers. It is also an integrated telecom service provider with licenses for mobile, fixed, domestic long distance and international services. Reliance Communications offers a complete range of telecom services, covering mobile and fixed line telephony including broadband, national and international long distance services, data services and a wide range of value added services and applications.

This marked the beginning of Reliance's vision of ushering in a digital revolution in India by becoming a major catalyst in improving quality of life and changing the face of India. Reliance Infocomm plans to extend its efforts beyond the traditional value chain to develop and deploy telecom solutions for India's farmers, businesses, hospitals, government and public sector organizations.

However, it has now acquired a unified access license for 18 circles that permits it to provide the full range of mobile services. Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 36 launched pre-paid services. Having captured the voice market, it intends to attack the broadband market.

Rcom is currently having a subscriber base of around 4. It has got license to operate in Sri Lanka and Uganda. Rcom will provide telecom coverage to villages by setting up sites in the remotest parts of India by the end of FY Currently, MTN is having the subscriber base of around 6. Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 37 If MTN and Rcom could have got combined, they would have maximum number of subscribers as well as they would have been the fourth largest operators and second highest market after China but somehow the deal between Rcom and MTN mobile could not be executed because of some legal issues.

The company serves a customer base of over enterprises, carriers and 1. Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 38 Europe, and the U. It has over , subscribers. It has now migrated to unified access licenses, by paying a Rs. The company is also expanding its footprint, and has paid Rs.

Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 39 Infocomm. The company hopes to start off services in these 11 new circles by August Other services include value added services like voice portal, roaming, post- paid Internet services, 3-way conferencing, group calling, Wi-Fi Internet, USB Modem, data cards, calling card services and enterprise services.

Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 40 owns spectrum nor has its own network infrastructure, instead, it buys airtime from cellular operators in bulk and resells it under its own branding. Its loss after tax is Rs. Its EPS is TTSL had fixed wireless 1. Apart from that, it had mobile subscribers of 1.

The launch of Welcome Tunes Caller Ringback Tunes , video streaming and other data services and content brought in improved revenues. Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 41 Tata Telecom and Avaya Inc, a global provider of communications networks, today introduced new software applications and phones that provide greater control over the growing number of communication devices.

The new converged communications solutions are based on SIP Session Initiation Protocol , which enables integration of Internet applications, such as instant messaging, with voice and telephone features such as conferencing, voice mail and click-to-dial capabilities. With a significant presence across the telecom value chain and the possible synergies after the acquisition of VSNL by the TATA group, TATA Teleservices is planning to expand the range of its coverage and services; the advanced communication solutions now include seamless integration of voice, video, data and IP systems.

TATA Teleservices is fully equipped to offers a gamut services to customers with a strong commitment to quality of service and customer experience. Limited, Citicorp Overseas software now called Orbitech , Dr. The company operates a network of earth stations, switches, submarine cable systems, and value added service nodes to provide a range of basic and value added services and has a dedicated work force of about employees.

The international telecommunication circuits are derived via Intelsat and Inmarsat satellites and wide band submarine cable systems. Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 43 Banks is approximately 13 per cent and the rest is owned by Indian institutions and the public. The company provides international and Internet services as well as a host of value-added services.

Its revenues have declined from Rs. To reverse the falling revenue trend, VSNL has also started offering domestic long distance services and is launching broadband services. For this, the company is investing in Tata Teleservices and is likely to acquire Tata Broadband. The acquisition will give the company control over a 60, km cable network spread over three continents.

K which has a market value of 75 billions by June, Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 44 equity interests in 25 countries and Partner Networks networks in which it has no equity stake in a further 42 countries.

At the same time, it agrees to sell back 5. Vodafone retained 4. Vodafone is the world's leading international mobile communications company. It now has operations in 25 countries across 5 continents and 40 partner networks with over million customers worldwide. Its turnover was millions with a profit of millions. Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 45 by June Idea operates in eight telecom circles or regions in Western India, and has received additional GSM licenses to expand its network into three circles in Eastern India -- the first phase of a major expansion plan that it intends to fund through an IPO.

Idea has become fifth largest company with a subscriber base of 3. Recently, Idea has decided to take over Spice telecom. It has decided to buy TMI has 4. Critically analyze the customer preference and satisfaction measurement in Indian Telecom Industry 46 to invest Rs. So, debt-equity ratio was 2. O2is the organization providing telecommunication and internet services in United Kingdom. It was found in by John Carrington. It has been selected by the researcher for the purpose of completing the current research study due to its strong and positive brand image among the consumers and other brands operating the same industry.

The question of the research indicates the main problematic area on which the research has focused. It clarifies the aim and objectives of the research and set a direction for the researcher. As it has been discussed above that the loyalty or satisfaction of the customer depends on a number of things.

These include the image of the service, perception about the organization and customer experience. In order to make the broader concept more specific, the study has only focused on the effect of service quality on brand loyalty. This particular area has been chosen as the key focus as it is not discussed in much detail up till now in the prior research studies.

Therefore, the main question of the research is given below:. What is the effect of service quality on brand loyalty in telecommunication industry? Telecom sector has been selected as the subject of the research as the reputation and perception of the telecom companies are highly linked with the type and quality of service provided by them. The intensity of the competition drives the firm to attract potential and current customers by enhancing the degree offerings against the products and services of the competitors.

Therefore, various firms in order to acquire maximum market share strives to deliver optimum service levels to their customers with an aim to derive the aspect loyalty within the customers. The basic purpose of the study is to explore the impact of service quality upon brand loyalty within the customers in telecommunication industry.

Therefore the particular research aims to investigate the antecedents of loyalty for the brands within the customers in telecommunication sector. Hence, O2 a renowned telecommunication corporation has been chosen by the researcher in order to identify the influence of quality of services upon customer brand loyalty. The objectives of the particular study facilitate the reader by providing them with a road map that the researcher has aimed to encounter while accomplishing the research.

The research objectives emphasizes upon the key issues and problems endeavored by the researcher during the journey of completion of the research. As the present study aspires to examine the impact of service quality upon the brand loyalty in telecommunication sector, the objectives of the current study are mentioned below,. As the subject of the study is O2, therefore, the findings and discussion presented in the study is highly beneficial for the selected company.

This research can help the organization in molding their inernational business stately and directing their service quality as per the expectations of the customers. Moreover, the research has also presented some of the most beneficial model and theories that the company can easily implement in its business plan. The findings of the company have also highlighted the current perception of the consumer regarding the company and the lacking or the complaints that the customer have from O2.

The particular research has also highlighted the gaps that are still not covered, through this piece of work the company can take the initiative in filling those gaps and strengthen its position in the market. Other O2 the particular study has also found helpful for other services company whether in the service sector or in some other service sector of the market.

Moreover, through the research with the support of its findings has also tried to answers many queries prevailing in the minds of scholars and academicians. Moreover, the limitations presented in this research give a scope and direction for future researchers in order to make their research findings more interesting and useful.

The researcher is motivated to evaluate the factors that directly effects customer satisfaction. The topic has focused specifically on the quality of the services as this topic has not been discussed in detail before. The research has therefore, discussed all the aspects that influences the quality of the service. This is done because the researcher believes that organizations these days has centered there focus on the customers and their needs and wants and for this reason the researcher has chosen this topic as the main subject of the research.

The above given diagram has been presenting the organization of current dissertation. This depicts the areas that each chapter of the research has covered. This is done to direct the reader where he could find the required information.

The outline of each chapter is discussed below:. Research Introduction: this is the first chapter of the research. It discusses the background, aim and objectives along with basic question of the research. The background of the research indicates the significance of the topic, the aim and objectives gives the direction and set targets for the research.

It has also provided a brief overview of the company. Literature Review: In the second chapter, the researcher has critically reviewed the previous literature and studies that have been presented before on the similar topic. Based on the critical reviews, the research has identified the gaps found in them and then the framework of the research has been derived on those gaps and identified factors that influence customer satisfaction.

Research Methodology: In this section, the researcher has discussed the process adopted for the completion of this study which includes research design, research approach and research strategy. Along with this, the research has also discussed the sample size of the study and the techniques used in identifying the sample.

Moreover, the data techniques used in analyzing the data has also been mentioned in the chapter. Conclusion and Recommendation: The last section of the research has compiled all the above findings of the research in a summaries manner this chapter presents recommendation and future implications of the research.

In the above chapter, the researcher has introduces the research concept and the aims to the readers. The main focus of the research is to analyze and evaluate the factors that directly impact the customer satisfaction in the service sector. The factor that has been analyzed in this research is quality of the service. Therefore the aims and objectives of the research are then accordingly set as per the focus of this research.

Read more about : System Development lifecycle Assignment Help. This dissertation focuses on quality of services and the impact it has on brand loyalty considering a telecommunication industry. Theories regarding service quality and brand loyalty are being identified along with models highlighting features for service quality enhancement.

Service quality significance is being focused on along with theories for brand loyalty models have been analyzed. The chapter consists of factors affecting customers considering their brand loyalty in telecommunication industry. Furthermore, strategies have been introduced in this dissertation to incorporate service quality with brand loyalty. Gaps of the research have been identified along with a conceptual framework identifying relevant independent and dependent elements.

The conceptual framework has concluded a hypothesis identifying what the company needs to improve its service quality for the enhancement of its brand loyalty. Service quality is dependent on several factors that enhance its overall importance and the benefits offered are being acknowledged by the company working on the quality of services. Moreover, the enhanced service quality widens the opportunities such as competitive advantage over other organizations and progress in other aspects of quality development for different products and services.

There have been various models illustrated to describe various methods to improve overall service quality of companies. Two models are being discussed as follows identifying how service quality can be enhanced considering customers and how it can be used for organizational success in the other model:. This above given model depicted how service quality can be improved considering customers of an organization manufacturing products.

It identified that customers judge products of brands consciously and subconsciously along with the service provided by those product and its quality being considered Bauer, Falk and Hammerschmidt, An organization requires conducting research on customers along with implementing strategized theories and approached for further training of their employees to develop customer care services and be proficient regarding these strategies being introduced in the organization.

Throughout the process, there is continuous improvement approaches being considered requiring for further product and services being developed Chiou and Droge, Measurement of these methods is to be done through feedback gained by the customers who have availed services of the organization.

Loyalty can be measured and analyzed with regards to company value and supply chain being considered and assessed thoroughly Akbaba, The study of Bauer, Falk and Hammerschmidt, identified that multi-dimensional quality model was proposed by Howard and Sheth in The study of Dabholkar, in agreement to the model stated that multi-dimensional quality model reveals the factors that have an association with the brand loyalty. According to the author, in this model, Howard and Sheth proposed a different definition of brand loyalty.

The difference is majorly experienced with respect to the beneficial construct of brand loyalty from the limitations of repeated obvious behavior. The model proposes numerous differences within the context of brand loyalty. The model does not limit the meaning and concept of brand loyalty because the researchers believe that loyalty is not based on consumption and usage of the product. In other words, it is not essential for a customer to consume the product so as to propose loyalty.

However, loyalty is also confirmed in the sense of word of mouth. Bauer, Falk and Hammerschmidt, agreed that statement and stated that loyal customers are in charge of sharing the positive facts about a product. It is also believed that loyal customers are the best promoters of the product, thus, it has been estimated that brand loyalty is not connected with the buying and consuming of the product. For instance, young children are also counted in as loyal customers because they prefer the brands and stay connected to them although they do not buy it by their self.

The model also revealed that even though customers are loyal, they do not buy but becomes a reason of brand promotion and advertisement. Apart from this, if customers are loyal with the product they have cognitive and attitudinal aspects related to it. The model suggested that it is essential to distinguish the meaning and concept of brand loyalty in the perception of customers.

They should know the value of brand loyalty when they attempt to be a consumer, a decision maker or the purchasing agent. All three concepts should be clearly distinguished because they have the tendency to shift the behavior of customers with product. The model is quite known because it shares the factors that has the inclination to discuss and asses the level of service.

The model was developed by Zeithaml, Parasuraman and Berry in s so as to measure the quality in the service sector. The concept of service quality model is based on the effectiveness of five factors namely Reliability, assurance, tangibles, empathy and responsiveness. The model is also helpful in estimating the gap, according to the model the estimated gaps identified through service quality concept are listed below:. Apart from this, the model is based on the measurement of following dimensions as mentioned by Dabholkar, :.

The above depicted model is illustrated identifying relevant aspects that are required to be fulfilled by the organization. Organization stability is to be achieved for sustaining profitable results and maintaining overall productivity rates for higher efficacy and enhancing loyalty amongst customers and employees Akbaba, Collier and Bienstock, stated that organization performance is to be regularly tested for further disruptions to be analyzed and eliminated, performance tuning takes place after discrepancies within the organization have been identified.

Collier and Bienstock, further identified that strategies are to be implemented for crisis management handling and effectively eliminating further disruptions. Employees need to review their performances through performance appraisals in order to make effective decisions regarding the enhanced profitability levels.

Stevenson and Sum negated that security offers a stable and safe environment to work which can affect the quality of services to be offered. Performance testing requires employees and managers to identify their capabilities and how they can shape their current skill sets in order to enhance quality of their work that has a direct impact on the quality of services provided by the organization. Initially start up businesses is required to provide their customers with a service relevant to their needs, when this stage has been overcome the enhancement of quality is worked on.

Brand names when established can then identify features for the quality and reliability of improving organization position in the market through its image. Sethi and Sethi stated that quality of the firms is important as it requires organizations to evaluate their performances and compare it with their competitors to gain a competitive edge and have an advantage over them.

Quality features of a product enable characteristics in a product that make it more desirable for consumers. According to Kumar, Kee and Manshor there have been various studies regarding the quality of services in the past years by introducing models such as the SERVQUAL model which was introduced decades ago evaluating and signifying the importance of service quality through tangibles involving physical existence and availability of services being offered.

Communication with the customers is to be acquired along with their expectations being met to build an understanding and gaining their loyalty towards a brand or a product being offered. Following are some of the highlighted features identified from various service quality models signifying its importance:.

Furth, Peter and Muller, stated that reliability refers to meeting customer expectations and honoring the promises made to them considering product specifications and quality being provided. Enhancing product development through strategies and approaches by the organization that are relevant to meeting customer expectations can signify brand importance.

Olorunniwo, Hsu and Udo mentioned that the courtesy of employees should be focused on through acknowledging customer needs and wants for services being offered improving quality. Organization can control and maintain its reputation through providing services with better responsiveness by the organization staff.

Communication amongst organization employees and potential customers needs to be clear. Communication amongst organization staff members and customers including external customers i. Hwang and Kim, identified hat gaining customers trust will increase their loyalty towards a product being offered to them. Trust of customers is important when it comes to enhancing service quality.

For a firm the significance of the quality provided by them makes an impact on its loyal as well as potential customers. Product enhancements and development strategies can be worked on if repetitive monitoring of strategies is being put to use. Honesty offered by a brand increases its loyalty considering its customers and an understanding is being built amongst the organization and its consumers.

Security refers to confidentiality of the employees currently working in the organization, along with the data being gathered by the employees that need to be anonymous for their privacy concerns and not being utilized for further research without their consent.

A secure environment needs to be established for the employees to work and engage in to achieve better productivity levels out of them enhancing overall quality of services offered by the firm. Financial security needs to be considered for the employees reducing turnover rates and stabilizing organizational profits Wang and Zhang, Competence refers to the skill set of employees that can enable better profitability for organizations.

Matzler, Krauter and Bidmon, have explained in their book that brand loyalty refers to an attitude and perception that customers have about a particular brand offering them services that comply with their needs. Loyal consumers prefer a brand over other products being offered because of the quality of the products that may include economical prices along with their convenience of placement in the market.

Improving brand loyalty consists of a lot of indicators such as efficient use of resources to make products marketing mix more advanced and use the approached involved for improving brand image and loyalty amongst customers. The main factors that are involved in enhancing brand loyalty include brand recognition, its preference amongst the customers and brand insistence.

The aforementioned characteristics involved in the formation of effective brand loyalty strategies include recognition, insistence and preference of a brand by the customer sand potential consumers. Brand recognition can be achieved through approaches that promote brand image and requires an audience to know their product, this can be done through events and promotions for a product to be recognized Gelder, Brand preference is when a customer has a strong liking for the brand and prefers it over other brands offering the same product, for this aspect to be achieved and retained organization needs to research and update their current methods for product development to keep their customers entertained and always indulged in upcoming services that can be offered Maclnnis, Park and Joseph, Ferrel and Hartline further negated that the strongest degree of the brand loyalty model is brand insistence where customers are determined to buy the product that is being utilized by them.

They would not prefer any other alternates or substitutes that other brand scan offer but would focus on the same brand to be consumed. As negated by Kumar, brand loyalty is also being regarded as brand equity identifying its position in the market place. A brand being significant amongst customers requires an organizations utmost dedication towards building awareness amid its target market.

Pertinent strategies are to be introduced in order for a brand to increase its visualization for promotion requirements. The above mentioned model is of brand loyalty and brand performance. This model has been proposed by Chaudhuri and Holbrook in their research study conducted to examine the role of brand loyalty.

The model comprises of six variables in addition to product level controls and brand level controls. The model indicated that the brand trust is associated with the purchase loyalty as well as with attitudinal loyalty. Moreover, the model also desires to test the association of purchase and attitudinal loyalty with the brand affects. Above and beyond this, the model has also been established to test the impact of purchase loyalty on the market share of the companies. As per this model, as the purchase loyalty among the customer enhances, the market share also tends to go on higher side.

It also investigates the impact of attitudinal loyalty on the relative prices and claims that relative prices increases due to the increase in the attitudinal loyalty. Another model proposed by De Chernatony, McDonald and Wallace highlighted the methods to achieve brand loyalty by linking brand loyalty with the purchase behavior and relative attitude of the customer.

The model has been mentioned below:. The model has been considered as the simple brand loyalty model and as per this model; the customers depict true loyalty for the company if their repurchase patronage and relative attitude has been observed as high, whereas, if the repurchase patronage of the customer has been low with relative attitude remained high, then the customer will depict latent loyalty.

Besides this, if the relative attitude is low although the repeat patronage is high, the type of loyal observed will be spurious; however, having both the relative attitude and repeat patronage of the customers low will result in no loyalty. This model of brand loyalty helps the managers to make distinctions between their profitable and unprofitable customers which thereby facilitate them to design effective strategies for the retention of their profitable customers.

Morris affirmed that loyalty of customer is differently influenced in different products. These factors are explained as dimensions because they direct in estimating the figures that are essential for the marketers in acquiring customer loyalty. Various facts extracted from the in-depth analysis of previous reviews declared that customers are attracted towards the product that has the tendency to attain the trust of customers. Similar to this, Mayberry, Nicewander, Qin and Ballard, , stated that majority of customers decide to buy when they are satisfied with the corporate image.

The corporate and brand image help the customers in recognizing the product which further facilitates in consuming the product. Apart from this, the study of Robledo revealed that price is also a factor that makes customers feel satisfy with the product. Before switching to some other brand, customers examine the cost of switching the brand because it also has an impact over the brand loyalty of customers.

The study of Rizka and Widji agreed that switching cost has the propensity to affect the loyalty of customers because the estimated cost that can occur during the process of changing brand or the product. Considering the brand loyalty in telecommunication industry suggests that four factors are there that has the ability to affect customer loyalty. These factors includes corporate image, perceived quality, switching cost and trust.

Corporate image, perceived quality, trust and switching cost interact with each other also. According to the model above, loyalty of brand is associated with four dimensions which include corporate image, trust, perceived quality and switching cost. These factors are briefly discussed below:. It has been discovered that apparent service quality is decidedly identified with repurchase proposition, proposal, and imperviousness to alluring and better options.

Riscinto-Kozub, defined that corporate image is portrayed as the general impression made on the personalities of open around a firm which is identified with physical and behavioral qualities of the firm. It is a consequence of a conglomeration process which fuses with different data utilized by shoppers to structure impression of a firm.

Wirtz, Lovelock and Wirtz stated that firms experience improved output and high sales only if the management is able to reveal the corporate image. A decent corporate image has been found to help make and keep up steadfast association with clients and impact repurchases support. Wirtz, Lovelock and Wirtz in addition stated that corporate image is worthy in structuring the perception of potential buyers which results in preference of reiterate purchase of good or service offered.

The work of Riscinto-Kozub, specified that brand switching is often observed when customers change their products and product perception because of a dissatisfaction or distortion with the product. Switching cost, then again, is the expenses connected with changing from one administration supplier to an alternate which will not cause if a client stays with the current administration supplier.

Increment in exchanging expense would bring about higher hazard and trouble on the customers. Wirtz, Lovelock and Wirtz defined that loyalty is preserved when customers trust the product or service. As indicated by Hwang and Kim, trust is a conviction to an alternate party's word of honor or guarantee in light of the fact that the gathering is considered as necessary, legit, truthful, and ready to perform activities that will bring about positive results or counteract activities that will end in negative results.

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Evolution of Telecom Industry - Whiteboard Animation

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Competition Policy in Telecommunications Industry. Thesis. Nairobi: University of Nairobi. Groupe Spéciale Mobile Association (GSMA). However, not enough studies have been conducted on the subject of the mobile telecommunication services industry inside Iran; some research papers have been. This chapter covers. Development of Telecommunications, State of Telecom in Ghana, Market Share of Ghana. Mobile Telecom Industry, Concepts and Theoretical.