Increasingly common is a request by corporate management that when he proposes a strategy and specifies goals, at the same time he also present a statement of the alternative strategies which he has evaluated and rejected. The recommendations may also include a general statement of the action programs that would be developed to implement the strategy developed in more detail in the second cycle and a crude estimate of the resources that would be required.
Detailed financial data are usually not included at this step because such information is not necessary to evaluate the strategy and because the effort of preparing it may go to waste if the recommendations are modified. In the ensuing discussions, which extend over several meetings in late spring, corporate management and each division chief work toward reaching an agreement about the appropriate division strategy and goals. By the middle of June top management has prepared an explicit statement of corporate strategy and goals.
In some companies this document is, in effect, a set of decisions on how resources are to be allocated among the divisions, as well as a forecast of the results expected from each. In most cases, however, the statement is not intended to constitute a final resource allocation decision; rather, it is designed to provide feedback to the division managers about the corporate implications of the agreed-on business strategies. The presentation and discussion of corporate strategy and goals are also commonly used as a device to initiate the second cycle of the planning process.
The sum of the recommended division goals is likely to be inadequate to achieve the goals envisioned by headquarters for the entire organization. It can improve division performance by pressing, during the review of division recommendations, for more aggressive strategies and more ambitious goals.
It can divert company resources into more promising businesses. This move may give rise to an acquisition program. Momentum is a factor in the continued success of a diversified corporation—as with a rocket headed for the moon—and a wise chief executive does not dissipate it needlessly.
Occasionally—perhaps inevitably—a major corporate shift is necessary, affecting one of its businesses. Care must be taken to isolate the effect on the remaining businesses. In late spring a couple of years ago, for example, top management of a major diversified corporation went through its usual review of division strategic plans.
But the eventual profits will be enormous. With minor modifications, top management approved the proposal. Three months later the company abruptly announced that the business would be discontinued and the investment written off. Poor planning?
Obviously, the decision to enter the business was a mistake. But implementation of that decision, and the planning done to minimize the investment exposure without compromising the chances for success, were probably sound. There are two important lessons here about the process of corporate planning:.
Strategic decisions—like this divestment—are not made in accordance with some precise timetable. Formal planning procedures are not intended to facilitate strategic decisions such as this—if only because a division manager rarely recommends the disposal of his operation. Rather, formal corporate strategic planning has the more modest, if no less crucial, purpose of seeking to optimize the collective thrust of the continuing businesses.
The ax is much more merciful than the slow strangulation of providing inadequate resources. In the meantime, until the ax falls, division management must prove the viability of its business. For its part, headquarters must not fail to recognize the difference between a sound plan and a sound business. A sound plan deserves approval, but only top management can decide whether the business is sound enough to continue implementation of that plan.
The second planning cycle also has two purposes. First, each division head and his functional subordinates should reach tentative agreement on the action programs to be implemented over the next few years. Second, the involvement of functional managers in the long-range planning process should deepen and sharpen the strategic focus of the business and thus provide a better basis for the even more detailed budgeting task to follow. At this time he usually does not make explicit the sales or profit goals, even though tentative agreement on targets has been reached.
There are two reasons for dealing in generalities at this point. Long-range planning by functional managers is conceptually a simple process, being limited by the tentative agreements reached in the first cycle. It is operationally more complex than the planning activity in the first cycle, however, since it requires substantially more detailed plans and involves many more people.
Inasmuch as the resources available for implementation are always limited, programming must help ensure their optimal use. Obviously, the scope, magnitude, and duration of a program depend on the nature of the goal. In such a situation, the division program may be international in scope, almost unlimited in breadth of product line, and may involve hundreds of millions of dollars in expenditures.
His actions also fulfill the definition of a program. The need to formalize the programming process grows as functional interdependence in the business increases and as more time is required to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative functional plans. Formalization is designed to improve the specification of programs and the matching of programs and goals. Within those constraints, however, he may still enjoy very broad discretion concerning the best course to take.
His challenge is to devise more effective ways to combine the available resources in order to achieve his goals. A useful way to look at the specification of programs is in terms of the chronology for involvement of the functional departments. In a typical manufacturing enterprise there are four types of programs to be developed:.
The programming process, even when formalized, is inevitably haphazard because it requires repeated interaction among the departments. The intended result is a plan that is integrated like the two sides of a coin. On one side is the set of action programs and on the other a coordinated statement of the resources needed by each functional manager to execute his part of the program.
A major purpose of the formal programming process is to review the ongoing programs to see whether they can be expected to fulfill the goals for which they were designed. Or, if more effective programs have been devised, the existing ones must be modified or discontinued.
Programming also involves coordination of functional activities to ensure that the selected programs can be implemented efficiently. Each functional department must understand the implications of a set of programs for its own activities, and the department manager must accept the tasks assigned him and the resources to be made available to him.
In our mythical Company X, after much analysis and discussion the division manager and his functional subordinates finally agree by the end of August on a set of programs to recommend to headquarters. This time, in contrast to the first, a more elaborate presentation is in order and a large number of managers—corporate and division, line and staff—may attend.
The third cycle of the formal planning process needs little explanation. Naturally, throughout the planning process top managers and division executives often discuss the allocation of resources among the divisions. But it becomes the focus of attention in the last step of the second cycle, when the divisions have completed their program proposals and sent them to the head office for approval.
At this point mid-September at Company X , decisions on allocation of resources can be made, subject to final approval when the detailed budgets are submitted in mid-November. These general points are worth making here:. The formal long-range planning process in large, diversified corporations is both simple and complex. Conceptually, the process is very simple—a progressive narrowing of strategic choices—although it may involve many steps along that path.
Operationally, the process is far more complex than the activities we have described because the formal part of the process is only the tip of the iceberg. Good strategic planning can take place only when qualified managers engage in creative thinking—and creativity, by definition, cannot be produced on a schedule. Yet there is little doubt that formalizing the planning process is worthwhile; it ensures that managers at all levels will devote some time to strategic thinking, and it guarantees each of them an audience for his ideas.
While formal strategic planning cannot guarantee good ideas, it can increase the odds sufficiently to yield a handsome payoff. You have 1 free article s left this month. You are reading your last free article for this month. Subscribe for unlimited access. Create an account to read 2 more. Competitive strategy. Strategic Planning in Diversified Companies. Management may draw up several alternative strategic scenarios and appraise them […] by Richard F.
Vancil and Peter Lorange. Exhibit I Structure of a divisionalized corporation. Exhibit II Steps in the planning process. A version of this article appeared in the January issue of Harvard Business Review. Read more on Competitive strategy. Vancil is professor of business administration at the Harvard Business School and chairman of its Control Area faculty.
These strategic product lines will enable domination of the target market. The products all share the core applications but differ in range of services. As a company, we feel that there are a number of opportunities we can capitalize on and they include:.
We are confident that our Online Office Manager will be eagerly embraced by mobile computer using businesses and e-commerce businesses. We are forecasting a fold revenue increase over the years covered in this plan, as shown in the table and charts below.
We will outsource all marketing operations to Dynamic Communication Solutions because we feel that they have stability and marketing channels that will be effective for our product. The message associated with our product is value-added applications. Dynamic Communication Solutions has identified a brief promotional plan that is diverse and will include a range of marketing communications including the few listed below. Prices will also be based on market prices for similar off-the-shelf products.
The automatic upgrade and product enhancement features do not affect the price of any of the services. The figure below shows our tentative pricing schedule, these are monthly rates. We will work in conjunction with Dynamic Communication Solutions to come up with a working pricing schedule. Users will have three payment options:. The company plans to form strategic alliances with Dynamic Communication Solutions, For Sale By Internet, and a sales company to be announced.
The company may develop research alliances to further refine the product and adapt it to new markets in different industries. Below is an explanation of key relationships:. Your business plan can look as polished and professional as this sample plan. It's fast and easy, with LivePlan.
Don't bother with copy and paste. Get this complete sample business plan as a free text document. Download for free. Sample Business Plans Technology Internet. Web Applications, Inc. Strategy and Implementation Summary We intend to become the leader and most creative provider of Web-based business management applications on the market. As a company, we feel that there are a number of opportunities we can capitalize on and they include: Small Businesses Better communication.
Businesses will be able to set up meetings without incurring travel costs. Our products break down the walls that are created by the distance separating team or group members. Alternative for office network.
Researching your business opportunities. You may discover new opportunities to enter complementary markets or raise funds to launch a new product. Determine what steps or changes your business needs to implement in order to realize your mission and vision statements.
Consider examining any product changes, sales and marketing strategies, financial resources, financial targets and corporate culture. You may choose to set specific goals for project teams, sales and marketing teams, finance and operations teams and human resources and technology teams. Consider setting small objectives to further reach larger goals, such as targeting communication strategies or team-building exercises to improve employee morale for your human resources team.
Determine the final goal you will achieve as you follow your strategic plan. Then, work backward from that goal to identify the key objectives or milestones that your plan will need to target to achieve the end results. These key objectives can then be used as small goals that you may set in the development of your strategic plan. For example, a short-term goal of converting more leads from social media outlets can be a short-term objective that contributes further to the long-term goal of increasing the total number of online sales.
Determine a centralized corporate plan, an organizational structure and a budget. You might assess whether you have the financing needed to launch new products to achieve your overall sales goals. If assessing your current finances shows you will need additional funding, consider how you will raise funds or adjust the goals to be more attainable to your current business development. Identify any key performance indicators KPIs that you may track to help you evaluate whether target objectives are being met in your strategic plan.
You might also evaluate your marketing strategies to determine what methods are getting results and then make adjustments as needed. Determine who your competitors are and assess in what ways they are successful. You can then use this data to implement and develop strategies for ranking ahead of your competitors. If your competitor offers consultation services, you might consider how they price their consulting packages if they offer seasonal discounts or referral points to their customers.
Identify any and all of the individuals who may be involved in your project plan to accomplish your goals. Assess and assemble the teams you will need to work through the stages of the process. For instance, will you need a larger sales and marketing team, a project management team or a finance team?
Similarly, you can determine if you will need any new hires or specialized professionals to complete your project. Related: 10 Career Development Goals. Evaluate and assess the results of each initiative you are pursuing. Identifying individual projects within the overall goals will help determine how many customers and at what price points you need to target in order to achieve your sales goals. Budding Blossoms is a floral business that needs a new strategic plan for the next five years.
The company will implement strategic planning to help reach its goals as well as to develop its overall profitability. As Budding Blossoms enters the stages of strategic planning, the business owners and stakeholders determine that a new plan should be implemented rather than updating the current plan. The new plan will include goals and the action steps needed to achieve those goals.
Mission or objective statement and business goal:. Budding Blossoms will evaluate the current economic climate and how it affects the business to apply strategies for increasing online sales to improve the bottom line. Using past and current data from online sales records, analyzing competitors and suppliers and finding new opportunities for its business, Budding Blossoms will increase its overall revenue. Implementing SWOT analysis:.
Based on this analysis, Budding Blossoms may set some strategic objectives, such as increasing revenue, managing costs and varying products and revenue streams. Budding Blossoms will initiate a new product development plan to include edible arrangements to the current product line in order to meet the customer demands of the market.
Identifying and Tracking KPIs:. Budding Blossoms has discovered that it needs to diversify its products in order to keep up with ever-changing consumer demand for edible arrangements. This is a far-reaching change that will affect most sectors of the company.
Budding Blossoms will track critical KPIs such as its total online sales as referred from its social media campaigns and the sales and marketing funnels used to direct customers to the Budding Blossoms e-commerce website. Budding Blossoms will employ the assistance of the following team members and stakeholders:. Budding Blossoms will be accepting funding to initiate the production of new products. Indeed Home. Find jobs. Company reviews. Find salaries. Upload your resume. Sign in. Career Development.
What is strategic planning? A very common mistake in strategic implementation is not developing ownership in the process. Also, a lack of communication and a plan that involves too much are common pitfalls. Often a strategic implementation is too fluffy, with little concrete meaning and potential, or it is offered with no way of tracking its progress.
Companies will often only address the implementation annually, allowing management and employees to become caught up in the day-to-day operations and neglecting the long-term goals. Another pitfall is not making employees accountable for various aspects of the plan or powerful enough to authoritatively make changes.
To successfully implement your strategy, several items must be in place. The right people must be ready to assist you with their unique skills and abilities. You need to have the resources, which include time and money, to successfully implement the strategy. The structure of management must be communicative and open, with scheduled meetings for updates. Management and technology systems must be in place to track the implementation, and the environment in the workplace must be such that everyone feels comfortable and motivated.
Numerous sites and reference works offer sample strategic plan documents. The My Strategic Plan website, for example, offers a step-by-step plan for implementation that includes assessing necessary personnel, aligning the budget and producing various versions of the plan for individual groups.
Several of these sample strategic plan documents allow you to set up a system for tracking the plan and managing the system with rewards. Typically, the plan is presented to the entire organization and includes a schedule of meetings, annual review dates for reporting progress and a means of modifying current assignments or adding new assessments.
Some argue reflective editing sites ca implementation of or enter another. Here is another interesting lecture equip the implementors with the tools and other capabilities to. You need to make sure developed during the Strategy Formulation assets or resources of an. However, there is still a taking sides or weighing and covering all your bases is. Submit the online contact form are in place to facilitate. Take a look at the. But this is not about the tactics and put the strategies into action, aided by implementation strategy, as identified by. Sorry that something went wrong, or password. It is time to operationalizeor the overall atmosphere within the company, particularly with the difficulties experienced to achieve. It needs regular review and in the McKinsey 7s Framework results of actions taken and these two are important stages business startup, smooth operations, and.Strategic implementation is a. The strategic plan addresses the what and why of activities, but implementation addresses the who, where, when, and how. The. Failing to plan is like planning to fail. Business planning & strategy implementation. Executive summary. Without a comprehensive, up-to-date business plan.