As things stand, the digital economy is anything but equitable. This extremely unequal economic geography, where global data value chains have been captured by Big Tech companies and two countries, is the result of a governance vacuum. The ability of states to harness intelligence infrastructures stands impeded today, mired in political economy contestations around data.
Our concept note discusses the issues at stake in greater detail, including:. New challenges that data value chains pose to old competition law. Traditional competition law frameworks, with their focus on consumer protection rather than fairness of market structures, have failed to check Big Tech corporations. More importantly, competition frameworks have been several steps behind in recognizing the critical role data capture has played in fueling market domination by tech companies.
Absence of a global governance framework for data flows. There is no appropriate global governance framework to regulate data flows across jurisdictions. This lacuna is aggravated by the intersection of the issue of cross-border data flows with trade and human rights concerns, pointing to the need for a deeper inquiry into appropriate arrangements for global-to-local governance frameworks to harness data value chains.
A stalemate in Big Tech taxation. Cross-border digital services increasingly constitute a major share of transnational data value chains. However, existing international taxation frameworks that are based on physical presence are ineffective in curbing the profit shifting and tax evasion practices of Big Tech corporations. A deeper exploration of possible national taxation regimes to prevent base erosion and profit shifting by Big Tech companies is in. The challenge of intelligence infrastructure development.
Most developing countries face a double whammy; their legacy data systems are weak and they are trapped in a global regime of data extractivism. Given that development outcomes are predicated on intelligence infrastructure, fresh thinking on the financing question is needed in these countries, from a sustainability standpoint. The policy efforts at regulating Big Tech and the gaps that are observed here in the governance of data value chains tell us that the challenges to realizing an equitable digital economy are many.
They also reflect the need for global data norms to decisively take on the systemic issues that have allowed Big Tech impunity, including the very seminal question of how the data that large corporations own should be governed. Details for Research Applications. Research objectives. The project seeks to inform future directions for the governance of data value chains, with a focus on:. Research questions. The project will address the following questions:. How are policy regimes addressing and restraining Big Tech data power?
How are current policy directions and emerging institutional mechanisms able to tackle questions of market fairness and economic equity in the digital economy? What kind of data stewardship models can facilitate equitable distribution of gains from data value chains? How do global policy regimes on data and AI impact national development priorities and pathways? What building blocks are needed for a global-to-local governance regime for equitable data value chains?
Research deliverables. Researchers selected for the grant are expected to undertake primary research and analysis, producing two high quality research outputs. In addition, they are also expected to produce two media pieces over the course of the project. Tentative timeline. Deadline for proposal submission.
Communication of selected proposals to concerned applicants. Commencement of studies with inception meeting. Detailed proposal for first research paper. Detailed proposal for second research paper. Research Paper 1 final draft and peer review. March - April Publication of Research Paper 1 and media piece.
May Research Paper 2 final draft and peer review. August - September Publication of Research Paper 2 and media piece. The nodes illustrate the occurrence of the keywords, the greater the weight of an element, the larger the node size. The links between the nodes represent the number of times that the keywords occur together. Figure 5. Co-occurrence network of keywords in the field of industrial clusters and global value chains.
So, it could be said that industrial clusters and global value chain seem to be to be a hot topic, with different research lines being developed from these core concepts. The map also shows the other two concerns stated before. The blue cluster can be associated with the institutional and organizational regulation of the new shapes of value systems.
As can be seen, industrial clusters and global value chains remain an emerging research field that requires additional investigation and discussion. An interesting development of this study will probably be to separate bibliometric analysis into 5-year stages. Considering the limited number of publications and their concentration in recent years, this is not possible at present. The traditional configuration of a value system composed by independent companies working isolatedly is less frequent every day.
From a service-dominant logic, value in not created along different independent steps, but through the co-production and the value in use of different agents involved in a service system Ranjan and Read, Industrial clusters have been studied as a productive combination of competition and cooperation amongst companies related with a specific activity Giuliani et al.
Nevertheless, clusters had always been mainly rooted to the ground, anchored to a specific location. Different studies, amongst which Humphrey and Schmitz must be highlighted, proposed that the inclusion of these industrial districts into global value chains Gereffi, ; Giuliani et al. This article aims to provide a summary of research on industry clusters and global value chains through a systematic review taking into account the previously published literature.
Through a bibliometric analysis, this paper disentangles the intellectual and conceptual structure of the joint research of the topics of industrial clusters and global value chains. The results show that we are facing an interesting topic that has been able to capture a high degree of attention of the academic community in less than 20 years.
Starting from the seminal work of Humphrey and Schmitz , still the most cited one in this research field, the evolution of the number of publications along this time reveals a clearly growing interest, despite of the classical sawtooth of relatively young research streams. The original research question, which is the main concern of some of the most cited articles, deals with how to upgrade the potential of industrial clusters integrating them into global value chains Humphrey and Schmitz, ; Giuliani et al.
This original concern immediately leads the studies in two complementary directions: its effect over the firm competitiveness, especially related with business management; and its impact on regional development, potentially modifying the balance between local and global tendencies.
Additionally, a third main research line has aroused, specially fueled by the works of the most prolific author in the field, Lund-Thomsen, dealing with the ethical aspects that should be addressed by local agents when cooperating with partners established abroad, that have to be approached by institutional policies and corporate governance.
The presence of these three main intertwined research lines can be seen along the results drawn by all the techniques used in our bibliometric analysis. The most productive journals are related with these areas, especially with regional development; the authors and articles cited can be closely linked with their theoretical and empirical foundations; and the keywords used by the different authors are some of the most familiar terms in these literatures.
Probably, the main limitation of the paper derives from the necessary selection of documents to be analyzed. Though the database chosen, WoS, gathers the majority of the most prominent publications in this research stream, some relevant studies could be potentially not included in it. Also, even if it is not frequent, some of the documents analyzed may not include keywords, which could slightly modify the results of the co-work analysis.
Finally, due to the nature of this kind of analyses, the interpretation of the different maps is unavoidably subjective. The relative youth of the topic has also put some limits to the analyses carried out. For instance, it is still not possible to distinguish different periods in the research of this field, as long as the majority of the scientific production belongs to the latest years.
So, if the literary production continues to increase, and the production measurements clearly point at that possibility, it will be interesting to carry out a new study in some years in order to analyze the possible evolution of the stream of research. This is clearly one of the future research lines concerning clusters and global value chains, as well as a deep literary review that can shed an additional light on this literature.
Behind the entire topic, no matter the specific focus we consider, we can find the tension between local and global tendencies. The integration of clusters in global value chains has created an opportunity to balance both opposite trends, generating different issues to be analyzed and solved, present in different ways in the papers included in this analysis. Nevertheless, we can never say that this upgrading is the ultimate, or even the best, synthesis of both.
Are the countries generating an excessive external dependence when it comes to key industries? Or is, in turn, the solution to the crisis closer to higher levels of international cooperation and integration? The answers given to these questions will, in turn, decisively influence the decisions and behavior of the economic agents, leading to new breakeven points which can be closer to one or the other, local or global, end. The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation.
TG-T: conceptualization, methodology, and supervision. AM-N: project administration. RG-L: resources. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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Businesses need to engage in value creation via their primary and support activities in order to survive in the marketplace. Value can be created in one of the following two ways. Investing in activities adapted as sources of competitive advantage allows the business to increase the quality of their products and services and sell them for higher prices.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Value Chain Analysis Application of value chain analysis offers the following advantages:. Value chain analysis can play an instrumental role in terms of detecting organizational, tactical and strategic issues related to the business.
The tool assists businesses to appreciate potential sources of competitive advantage. The strategic framework can be applied to any type of business regardless of the industry and the size of the business. As it is the case with any other theoretical framework or model, the concept of value chain is not free from limitations.
These can be summarized into the following points:. The framework assumes that it is possible to achieve a clear separation of company operations into different primary and support activities. This may not be the case in real life taking into account increasing level of complexity of business operations.
Application of the tool in practice can be overly time-consuming process, since it requires a comprehensive analysis of all business operations. It may be difficult to find all the required information in order to conduct value chain analysis in an appropriate manner. Application of Value Chain Analysis You can follow the following stages in order to conduct value chain analysis as a part of your assignment:.
Stage 1: Explaining the theory and the essence of value chain analysis. Write a brief introduction to the theory of value chain analysis. You may want to add the figure of value chain analysis do not forget appropriate referencing. Inclusion of a brief discussion about advantages and disadvantages of the framework as mentioned above will contribute to your mark. Stage 2: Researching primary and support activities of your case study company. Value chain analysis can be applied in relation to a business unit, operating segment, business division or a company.
If you have a choice, business unit is the most appropriate level for conducting value chain analysis from the practicality point of view. Some students prefer to choose their employer as a case study. However, student employers often happen to be small or medium sized business and it is difficult find necessary amount of relevant data to conduct value chain analysis in an appropriate manner.
Selection of a multinational company is a more desirable scenario to be able to produce a quality value chain analysis due to the availability of needed company-specific data. Company annual report is the most comprehensive source of data and you can also find useful information on official website of the company.
Alternatively, you can purchase company reports on major multinational enterprises form this portal. Reports comprise detailed value chain analyses of respective companies to be used as examples and template. Reports are kept updated regularly. Stage 3: Illustrating how each activity is facilitated by the case study company. Firstly, write about the manners in which the business conducts each activity.
For example, for inbound logistics primary activity you can mention about the nature of raw materials the company uses and write about the numbers and location of suppliers. Secondly, identify and discuss activities and sub-activities that create the most value for the company you are analyzing.
The internal customers rely on services that are provided from within the company. External customers are the individuals who directly benefit from the services of the organization and in turn provide revenue for the company or fund the company through the tax they pay.
Customers are always treated as individuals instead of treating them as groups or communities. Despite the fact that a community may be comprised of many people, companies deal with each of the members of the community one by one. Each of the members has personal needs that have to be met by the company.
It is imperative for companies to have good knowledge of the exact needs that the customers have. Unless a company knows what its customers consider important, it would be difficult for the management to make the necessary changes in order to ensure excellent customer service.
Companies generate different expectations from both internal and external customers. Researchers have argued that customer service should be woven as a common thread in companies in order to create a customer service culture. Unless all employees perceive their connection with expert customer service, customers would not receive the excellent services they deserve. The beliefs, norms, shared values and the ideologies of a company should be consciously and explicitly geared towards providing excellent customer service.
Unless this happens, companies would not be able to provide consistent quality customer service that would create a good reputation for the company. The philosophy of quality customer service culture must be passed on in a manner that enables employees to understand at a personal level, the importance of quality customer service to the overall success of the company.
Companies that develop market dominance run the risk of developing arrogance. This is manifested when employees start talking to customers rudely instead of listening to them and listening to their feelings and needs. Quality customer service is only present if customers decide that it should be there. The most important and most reliable measurement of customer service is an evaluation of the most recent experiences of customers with a company and their level of satisfaction. Different authors have written on the subject of customer service highlighting different issues.
Various explanations regarding why customers express dissatisfaction and what companies should do to ensure excellent customer service have been advanced. Perhaps, one of the greatest mistakes made by companies with regard to customer service is responding to customer issues slowly. Customers judge companies on the basis of how effectively their issues are solved.
Unprofessional conduct by employees destroys the reputation of companies when customers share the experiences with other potential customers. Some customers may portray a lot of anger but the work of the employees is to listen to them.
Although customers are expected to be calm, anger from customers who have been treated unfairly on issues that cost them is usually justified. Problems in customer service become detrimental in companies when the management is poor and customers are promised that their issues would be resolved but this does not happen. Debates revolving around customer service stress a number of strategies that companies should use.
For instance, it is important for companies to ensure that any services promised to customers are made available. When errors are made since it is not possible to avoid them, customers should be given explanations because this is one way of maintaining their loyalty. Customer loyalty should always be taken seriously since their perceived lack of appreciation affects their loyalty.
It is also agreeable that the response time should be fast when customers raise issues that need to be resolved. This is only possible if companies engage the services of well trained employees. Employee training eliminates instances of unprofessional conduct that destroys customer loyalty.
In addition, there have been debates that companies should work hard towards showing customers the importance of remaining loyal to a particular company. This can only be achieved by ensuring that excellent customer service is made a priority. The concept of customer service is closely related to customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction has been defined and discussed by different researchers in order to measure the concept.
Customer satisfaction is based on the experiences that customers have through their interactions with a particular company. Other researchers have defined satisfaction as the feeling of either pleasure or discontent after making a comparison between the outcome and what the customer expected.
Customers react differently to certain encounters and this also influences their satisfaction. Customer satisfaction can be transaction specific or cumulative satisfaction. Transaction specific satisfaction is the evaluation that a customer does after a particular service experience. On the other hand, cumulative satisfaction is the overall evaluation that a customer makes of a company since he started using the services of the company The Social Customer, Since customer satisfaction is an important aspect of customer service in companies, it is crucial for companies to measure the level of customer satisfaction in order to realize their goals.
Many researchers have discovered the close relationship between customer service and customer satisfaction. They have realized that there are various factors that contribute towards customer satisfaction. For instance, companies should consider understanding fully the needs and expectations of the customers. This research is aimed at looking at the issue of customer service and its importance to companies in detail. From the literature review, it is quite clear that customer service is closely related to customer satisfaction.
It is only after the needs of the customers are met through excellent customer service that companies would improve their services. This literature fits into the research since the research aims at among other things finding out the relationship between quality customer service and customer satisfaction.
The literature review has analyzed in detail how companies should treat their customers in order to satisfy them. The literature review would be used to conduct the primary research since it entails collecting all the relevant data regarding customer service.
For instance, it touches on various aspects of customer relations such as debates revolving around customer service and the relationship between customer service and customer satisfaction. In carrying out researches, different methodologies are used depending on the type of research being carried out. This research would rely on the descriptive type of research. This type of research presents facts concerning a certain situation as it is at the time of study. A descriptive research also focuses on relationships that exist among various aspects.
In addition, qualitative research is an appropriate research method to be used in carrying out this study. This is because qualitative researchers do not only rely on statistics like quantitative researchers do University of New York, Qualitative research focuses on the analysis of information that is not structured.
In this research, the choice of the research method would give more information about the attitudes of different people, motivations, lifestyles and value systems. During the actual data collection, the major methods that would be used to collect the data include use of questionnaires and surveys. A questionnaire is an appropriate method of collecting information from a wide range of respondents.
The questions in the questionnaire would be open ended questions for the respondents to give adequate information. Their structure would be in such a way that the respondents would understand the questions easily. Apart from questionnaires, sampling is also another method of data collection that would be used in the research. It would be appropriate to sample employees in companies to collect information regarding customer service.
The companies would be approached through the top management and clear explanation of the aim of the research given. After sampling company employees, it would also be important to sample 5 customers to get their perspectives and experiences on customer service with the companies. The interview method would be used to collect information from the company employees and the customers.
This is because interviews have the capacity to generate first hand information. In addition, they give the researcher and the respondent a chance to ask each other questions for the sake of clarification. Once the data has been collected from the field, what would follow is a detailed analysis of the information gathered.
Data analysis is an important process after actual field collection of information. It is a process that entails compilation of the data collected and evaluating its credibility. In carrying out data analysis, various issues touching on ethical considerations would be considered.
For instance, some of the data collected might not be accurate and during this time, information would be sorted out to remain with the most credible and relevant data for the research. It would be important to have a reasonable time frame within which the research would be conducted.
This is because unless there is careful and proper planning of the available time, some aspects of the research would not be tackled and if tackled, this might not be done exhaustively. Albrecht, K. The Only Thing that Matters. Basu, R. Implementing quality: a practical guide to tools and techniques. Berndt, A. Customer Relationship Management and Customer Service.
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