Recruitment procedure The Recruitment Committee will shortlist minimum two applicants; when possible five or more applicants will be shortlisted. Copenhagen Business School invites applications for a vacant Postdoc position in the area of Enterprise Foundations. Enterprise foundations are foundations that own companies. Other widely used terms are industrial foundations or corporate foundations. Typically, the foundations are charitable, but they also play an important role as business owners.
The structure is common in Northern Europe, particularly in Denmark, and poses special challenges and opportunities for corporate governance. For example, enterprise foundations often aim to be responsible long-term owners, but may be constrained by limited access to external finance.
Enterprise foundations are seen as role models for purposeful companies. Copenhagen Business School would like to appoint a suitably qualified person to a Postdoctoral Fellowship in Enterprise Foundations. This position is designed for an individual with strong research potential at an early stage of an academic career. Prior knowledge of enterprise foundations is not required or expected, but experience with corporate governance research is clear advantage. The qualified candidate must hold a PhD.
Degree or equivalent and be proficient in quantitative empirical research. CCG is an interdisciplinary research center with a strong track record in corporate governance and in international business and is one of the leading corporate governance centers in Europe. The post doc will work with the research group in enterprise foundations and long-term ownership with access to its unique datasets. It is the ambition of the Department to be in the international frontline in these research areas; to publish research results in leading international journals; to have an excellent research environment; to seek synergy between research and teaching, and to have a strong partnership with the business community.
Most of these issues are of general concern to businesses around the world, but they play a special role in enterprise foundations and foundation-owned companies. In accordance with CBS research policy, the researcher is guaranteed freedom of research within the research area in question. To fulfill the research requirements of the position, the applicant chosen is expected to be physically present on a regular basis and actively participate in the teaching and research activities of the Department.
The applicant must hold a PhD. In assessing applications, particular emphasis will be placed on research potential, including intellectual leadership. Emphasis is placed on research relevant to the job description. The applicant must have professional proficiency in English written and spoken. Copenhagen Business School has a broad commitment to the excellence, distinctiveness and relevance of its teaching and research programs.
For further information, please contact: Senior Advisor Tine Roed, e-mail: tr. The Recruitment Committee will shortlist minimum two applicants; when possible five or more applicants will be shortlisted. The PhD-candidate is expected to investigate why and how some national organizations such as China, Germany, and Sweden continue to innovate and produce a number of high performing table tennis players.
It is expected that the candidate will do a comparative study between China and another country such as Sweden, Germany, Japan, Hungary or Korea. The research project is hosted at the Sino-Danish Centre in Beijing. The paper provides information about the main project and various sub-projects. This PhD-scholarship is linked to one of the sub-projects. Sendan email to Professor Lars Bo Kaspersen, lbk. Applications are encouraged from those with some experience of organization studies and comparative political economy including the political economy of China.
Chinese language ability is preferred, although not essential. The selection of the PhDstipend will not be based on prior methodological or theoretical preferences. However, applications should outline and reflect upon theoretical and methodological preferences. The holder of the scholarship will work within the field of organizational studies and comparative political economy broadly conceived and may choose to draw upon a selection among a range of related fields and approaches.
These include, not exhaustively, sociology, organization studies, politics, anthropology and China studies. Applications from all other nationalities can apply. MPP is an internationally recognized humanities and social science department within CBS that offers creative and innovative pedagogy and research based on intellectual depth and critical theory that crosses boundaries and connects diverse perspectives. Our faculty has earned a reputation for high quality disciplinary, interdisciplinary as well as transdisciplinary research and education.
They are recognized as leaders in theoretically inspired but empirically grounded research within and across history, philosophy, management, politics, law, sociology, anthropology and cultural economics. Our research is focused upon organizing processes and their outcomes and driven by an interest in organization and management as a practical, situated, contested and changing matter.
This includes studies of private companies, public organizations, professional societies as well as NGOs. We investigate and discuss topics such as change and innovation processes, work and human resources, public management and governance, project management, institutional dynamics, market creation, expertise and power. The programme is highly international, and you are expected to participate in international research conferences and to spend time in China.
Candidates who wish to join us should demonstrate enthusiasm for working in an organization of this type highlighting, for example, relevant educational and dissemination activities. For further information please contact: Professor Lars Bo Kaspersen, tel. The candidate will have the possibility of obtaining a double degree from Copenhagen Business School and the University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The candidate is obliged to spend 12 of the 36 months of the stipend in China.
An educational background in the social sciences is necessary. The applicant must be fluent in English. See the PhD Handbook link above for details. The Recruitment Committee expects to shortlist applicants to be assessed by the Assessment Committee. The envisaged starting date of the position is November 1, This date is open to some negotiation but note the stipend must commence in You must be logged in to post a comment.
The successful candidate ideally starts in December The application deadline is 6 September at midnight CET. Applications must include: Research proposal maximum 5 pages. This research proposal should contain a presentation of an original research question, a description of the initial theoretical framework and methodology, a presentation of the suggested empirical material as well as a work-plan.
Application must be sent via the electronic recruitment system, using the link below. Deadline: at Read the job description at the university homepage or Apply. Post expires on Monday September 6th, The successful candidate ideally starts in October Qualifications The applicant must hold a PhD or the equivalent.
The application deadline is 10 August at midnight CET. A maximum of 5 publications for review are allowed. Applicants are requested to prioritise their publications in relation to the field of this job advertisement. Only publications written in English or another specified principal language, according to research tradition or one of the Scandinavian languages will be taken into consideration Information indicating experience in research management, industry co-operation and international co-operation.
Documentation of relevant, significant, original research at an international level. Transcript s and a full CV Recruitment procedure The Recruitment Committee will shortlist a minimum of two applicants; when possible five or more applicants will be shortlisted. Post expires on Tuesday August 10th, Expected starting date 1 January negotiable.
Qualifications The department will give priority to applicants with excellent grades from their universities. The application The project description may not exceed five pages and should include the following: A brief explanation of the aims of the project An explanation of the issue and the hypotheses, alternatively propositions or research questions that the PhD student will work with A positioning of the project in the research field of the department. Recruitment procedure The Recruitment Committee expects to shortlist at least five applicants to be assessed by the Assessment Committee.
The application must be sent via the electronic recruitment system, using the link below. Deadline : 1 September Post expires on Wednesday September 1st, The application must include: Cover letter. Proof of qualifications and a full CV. Any relevant information indicating experience in research management, industry co-operation and international cooperation.
Applicants are encouraged to prioritize their publications or working papers in relation to the field of this job advertisement. Only publications written in English will be taken into consideration. Post expires on Sunday August 29th, Copenhagen Business School invites applications for a vacant Postdoc position in the area of Enterprise Foundations Enterprise foundations are foundations that own companies.
Examples of research areas that the post doc. The Postdoc is a non-tenured position for a 2 year period with research obligation. Qualifications The applicant must hold a PhD. Transcript s and a full CV Recruitment procedure The Recruitment Committee will shortlist minimum two applicants; when possible five or more applicants will be shortlisted.
Please note that it is not possible to get exemption from these conditions. Candidates who wish to join us should demonstrate enthusiasm for working in an organization of this type highlighting, for example, relevant educational and dissemination activities For details of the formal requirements for applicants, please see the CBS PhD School Handbook.
Brief curriculum vitae CV. A list of papers and publications. One copy of a selected written work e. Documentation for English language skills if English is not mother tongue. Recruitment procedure : The Recruitment Committee expects to shortlist applicants to be assessed by the Assessment Committee.
To choose the subject field, you can let yourself be inspired by teachers, fellow students, literature, companies, topics you have found in, for instance, news- papers or at your student job, and a lot of other things. The only formal requirement is that the subject must fall within the academic profile of your study programme.
It is important that you yourself decide the subject. If other people decide the subject for you, you risk loosing control over your thesis, and it may be difficult for you to complete it. Be as creative as you like. If you are going to write together with a partner, you should discuss subjects and ideas, and the subject should be of equal importance to both of you. It is also important that you discuss your expectations, for instance, how much weekly time 5 the initial stages you are willing to spend working on the thesis, whether you will work together or separately, when you are planning to hand in the thesis etc.
Your programme secretary will inform you about time and place. It is important to take part in this seminar as you will receive much relevant information, so do prioritise the time it will take to participate. The learning objectives is written in the programme regulations, which you can find in SAR page The manual is added to the Study Guide as an appendix.
The study guide can be found on e-campus: Study - Study home pages - Master - your study programme - Study guide. You are not obligated to choose a supervisor from the list, but the study programmes have different rules as to how free your choice of supervisor is al- lowed to be.
If you are in doubt about the rules on your study programme, please ask your programme secretary. If you are allowed to choose freely among the supervisors, you can just contact the professor at CBS who you would like to be your supervisor. You should also contact the coordinator if you have difficulties finding a supervisor yourself.
No matter how you find your supervisor, your choice of supervisor must be approved by the coordinator. This is done by having your supervisor sign the thesis contract page 8 , which you are to hand in to your programme secretary. The programme secretary then passes the contract on to the coordinator. This can help you to find a supervisor suited for your subject.
What do you expect from your supervisor, and what does your supervisor expect from you? Good supervision includes discussion of theory, methodology, research question, analysis and working process. Write down the expeciations in the guidance plan.
If you are studying MSc and would like to write your thesis together with a student 7 the initial stages from another MSc specialisation, the coordinators of both specialisations must approve the subject. If you would like to write together with a student from another study programme at CBS or from another university, both of you must request exemption from your respective study boards. If you need help with the application process, you should contact your study secretariat.
If you began an MSc in Economics and Business Administration before 1 September or an MA in International Business Communication before 1 September and have already handed in a registration form signed by you and your supervisor before 1 September , you do not have a fixed deadline for submission and thus, should only comply with the 4-year or 5-year rule see page If you began an MSc in Economics and Business Administration or an MSocSc 1 September or later or an MA in International Business Communication 1 September or later and your supervisor has signed the registration form before 1 September , you need to follow the guidelines for submission and withdrawal of registration as found in SAR see page 19 , chapter C Exam, document C.
NOTE that the relevant document can be found as a link in the subheading inside the document C. This deadline is binding and thus, it will not be possible to cancel the exam. If you do not meet the deadline, it will count as an exam at- tempt. Hereafter, you have to agree on a new subject delimitation with your supervisor, and you will also receive a new deadline which will be set to 3 months after the date where your supervisor signs the new subject delimitation.
You need to hand in the contract together with the guidance plan to your programme secretary no later than 7 days after your supervisor has signed it. You are not entitled to supervision beyond topic and delimitation if your supervisor does not sign the contract. If you are not sure which rules apply to you, please contact your programme secretary.
The work on the thesis is not a linear process where the different stages follow each other like beads on a string. The following text is an overview of the stages and processes you will have to go through during your thesis project. The learning objectives are divided into two parts. The second part relates to the different elements that are expected to be part of the content of the thesis.
It is important to note that in order to be awarded with the highest grade, which is 12, it is not sufficient that every single element is mentioned in the thesis. As always, it is the examiners who assess to which extent this is done. You can use the learning objectives in various ways throughout your work on the thesis. You can use the learning objectives as a checklist when you are almost ready to hand in the thesis, but it might be too late to rectify flaws or omissions at this stage.
Instead, you may benefit more from using the learning objectives early on as a guide to the kind of processes that you need to go through. Also, you can use the elements regarding the content in the learning objectives to ask questions about and as an inspiration to decide the content of the various parts of the thesis.
The learning objectives is found in the programme regulations which is found in SAR. If you do not know a suitable company beforehand, it may take time to make contact. It is not all companies that answer enquiries from students. You may also choose to write a theoretical thesis or an empirical thesis that is not a case study.
This may enable them to learn about your thoughts, and give them an idea of whether this is something they wish to participate in. Remember to write why the project is relevant to the company. You should preferably avoid that the case company breaks off the cooperation when you are only halfway through the process. You must be critical, and that may not go down well with the company.
You should offer your informants confidentiality so they can speak freely. In the early stages, it is important that you form a general view of the literature on your subject. You do not have to read all in detail yet. As your thesis progress, the more focused your literature review will get. Therefore, you should not try to read all relevant literature in the initial stages of the process.
When you have completed the thesis, you will realise that you read literature at the beginning that you have not used directly in the thesis. This is not a waste of time. Reading will also help you delimit what should not be included in the thesis. Such an archi- ving system should contain the full reference and a short note on the reason why it is relevant and how.
The library offers an archiving system to CBS students. Most importantly, you should develop and use an archiving system that fits your needs. The research question will be developed continuously throughout the whole thesis process, so do not spend the first 3 months trying to develop the perfect research question. On the other hand, it is a good idea to consider delimitations and approaches. A clear research question is an important tool during your thesis project. You should discuss the research question continuously with your supervisor.
Much literature has been written about the development of research questions. Exists only in Danish for free when presenting your student ID. Consider how you will use theory and collect and analyse empirical data. Your research question will decide the methodologies most suitable for researching the subject. On the basis of the literature on methodology, consider which type of knowledge the relevant methods are able to create so you can decide on your overall strategy in the early stages of the project.
Therefore, you should not write the paragraphs on methodology before collecting data and doing the analysis, but you should keep a logbook of the choices you make during the process. This will enable you to write your reflections on methodology concurrently with the other stages 1 of the process. You can discuss your re- flections on methodology in a separate chapter in the completed thesis, or you could discuss them as an integrated part of the analysis throughout the whole thesis.
The working process is an interactive alternation of reading, collecting data, analysing and developing the research question. So it is in the analysis you fi- gure out precisely what literature you will need, and whether you will need to collect more empirical data.
The process is shown in the model on the next page. You will make life easier for yourself if you treat the primary literature on your chosen methodology with the same se- riousness as you treat the theories within your subject field. For instance, if you would like to conduct interviews, you should use literature that only deals with this method. The literature on method- ology will help you to use the methods correctly and to discuss their strengths and weaknesses in your thesis.
Writing is a tool that helps your reflec- tions progress, that helps you to form a clear line of arguments and realise what you do not know about the subject. Wri- ting is a means to the end, not a goal in itself.
So concentrate on the analyses you are doing, not on the writing. You will get through the model many times during the thesis pro- ject, and every time you will become a bit wiser. The arrows pointing away from the boxes illustrate the many other direc- tions your thesis also can go, but which you choose to delimit your- self from.
Thus, you will not be able to comple- te the individual chapters the first time round. When you have completed the first rough draft of your manuscript, you should write the whole thesis through in order to achieve consistency in know- ledge level and argumentation. Some students prefer only to write the number of pages included in the com- pleted thesis while other students prefer to write drafts and notes not intended to be part of the final version of the thesis.
It takes time to write, but writing will en- hance your reflection. And do not regard it as a defeat if you have to throw out some pages - it has definitely helped your process of reflection. Therefore, it is a good idea to schedule all your activities so you know how much time you spend on your thesis. It is important that you take a day off once in a while to avoid burning out of guilty conscience.
CBS registers the student for the 60 ECTS comprising the coming year of study, and in addition CBS makes a semestrial registration for the student to any not completed courses from previous years of study. Students not registered for mandatory courses and electives for a total of minimum 60 ECTS in a year of study, must register for electives, including summer school courses, corresponding to the lacking ECTS in the coming year of study, resulting in the student being registered for a minimum of 60 ECTS in the coming year of study.
Deadlines for submitting dispensation applications are determined on the student intranet. For certain electives the selection is not made by lot, but on the basis of a motivational essay; this will be stated on the list with the offered electives on cbs. Withdrawal from the ordinary exam 1 st examination attempt is not possible, and students have used an examination attempt, see section 27 1 , unless an exemption has been granted pursuant to subsection 7.
Students who do not fulfil the requirements for participating in the examination as laid down by the university, see section 13 1 , have used an examination attempt, see section 27 1 , unless an exemption has been granted pursuant to subsection 7. Students are automatically registered for the re-exam 2 nd and 3 rd examination attempt when the student has not passed the exam in question.
Within a deadline, the student can withdraw from a re-exam 2 nd and 3 rd examination attempt , see subsection 5. If the student has not withdrawn within the deadline, the student has used and examination attempt, see section 27 1. The student is registered for the next examination attempt as soon as possible.
However, a student who awaits an assessment is exempt from this deadline as regards the re-exam of the course in question. Attention must be paid to the documentation deadline stated in those rules. The student must pass minimum 30 ECTS each year of study in order to be able to continue the programme study activity requirement. The student must have three examination attempts, see section 27 1 , in the courses or course elements that are included in the study activity requirement.
Students who are entrepreneurs in parallel with their studies must document that they are either self-employed with a turnover and productive assets or are part of an entrepreneurial environment, e. The student must follow the registered entrepreneurship programme in accordance with the continuous requirements of the programme. Examinations are organised as individual examinations or as group examinations. The specific examination form of a given examination, including whether it is an individual or a group examination, or a mixture of the two, is stated in the relevant course description, see links in section 5.
When the examination in question contains both a written and an oral part, both parts must then be taken as an individual examination. When the master's thesis has been made by a group, the student can choose to have an individual oral exam. All students have an obligation to familiarise themselves with and to observe the examination rules of the examinations which they participate in, including the general rules that apply to the individual examination.
Those rules are in particular:. Such recordings will then be made by CBS. This pertains to the examination forms written home assignment and oral exam based on a written product. In addition, the following applies for the written product with these two examination forms:. If the exam paper is rejected, it will not be assessed, and the student will have used an exam attempt. The university may conduct examinations at a Danish representation or at other locations abroad, provided the reason for doing so is that the student is unable to participate in the university's examinations in Denmark for practical or financial reasons and if the student and the exam location reach an appropriate agreement.
Danish examinations held abroad must comply with all the other rules laid down in the Examination Order. However, it is a condition that the student confirms in writing in advance his or her willingness to pay the costs in question, on the basis of an estimate made by the university of the expected costs. The university may make it a condition for conducting the examination that the amount is paid in advance. In connection with examinations where the result is not announced immediately after the examination, the result must be announced within 4 weeks after the examination has been held, see however subsection 2.
The month of July is not included in the calculation of these 4 weeks. If the assessment cannot be completed by the fixed deadline, the student s must be notified as soon as possible and be informed about the reason for the delay and when the result will be announced.
Each examination must be passed separately. The grade shall be rounded up if the average is half-way between two grades. If so, the grade shall be the sum of the individual grades, each multiplied by the weighting of the grade, divided by the sum of the weightings and then rounded off to the nearest grade on the grading scale.
However, passed partial examinations and not-passed partial examinations that are part of a passed examination cannot be retaken. Students have a maximum of three attempts in passing each examination, see however subsection 2. The Study Board may grant more attempts, if warranted by extraordinary circumstances.
The question of academic aptitude may not be included when assessing whether extraordinary circumstances apply. If the course is offered each semester, the deadline for completing the course is 10 months after the end of the teaching of the course.
However, where class participation includes practical exercises, it cannot be replaced by an examination. CBS issues a diploma to students who have completed their study programme, in accordance with the requirements stipulated in section 31 of the Examination Order. The diploma is issued to the graduate no later than 2 months after the announcement of the result of the final examination. July is not included in the calculation of these 2 months. The programme regulations and various regulations etc.
The university may, when warranted by extraordinary circumstances, grant exemptions from those rules in the programme regulations which are solely laid down by the university. Programme elements passed at another university are regarded as equivalent to corresponding programme elements covered by these programme regulations.
Students who, as part of their studies, wish to complete programme elements at another university or another institution of higher education in Denmark or abroad may apply to their home university for pre-approved credit transfer for planned programme elements. Students must also consent to the home university requesting the necessary information from the host institution if students are unable to procure the documentation themselves.
The student is responsible for and is obliged to take the initiative to compose a proposal for a study plan. The university offers academic support if requested by the student. Programme elements which students wish to have transferred from other programmes will be transferred on the basis of the normalised workload specified in ECTS points and stipulated in the relevant degree regulations. Applications for pre-approval or credit transfer must be sent to the Programme Office, addressed to the Study Board, on a special form and with the necessary documentation enclosed.
See guidance on credit transfer applications on the student intranet. A student is entitled to file a complaint about an examination or other assessment. Complaints about decisions made by the Study Board on whether education qualifications acquired at another Danish University may replace parts of the programme credit transfer as well as complaints about the decisions made by the Study Board on whether Danish or foreign education qualifications, not yet passed, may replace parts of the programme pre-approval of credit transfer , may be brought before the Appeals Board for decisions on credit transfer, see Ministerial Order no.
It is also possible to send the complaint to: legal cbs. CBS has the option to process the application again. If the decision is upheld, CBS will forward the complaint to the Appeals Board, accompanied by a statement. CBS will give the complainant the opportunity to comment on the statement within a time limit of 1 week.
The Appeals Board will make the final administrative decision. Complaints about decisions made by the Study Board on whether education qualifications acquired abroad may replace parts of the programme credit transfer may be brought before the Qualifications Board, see Assessment of Foreign Qualifications etc. If the decision is upheld, CBS will forward the complaint to the Qualifications Board, accompanied by a statement.
CBS will give the complainant the opportunity to comment on the statement, within a time limit of 1 week. The Qualifications Board will make the final administrative decision. Complaints about decisions made by the Study Board or the Programme Director according to these programme regulations have to be filed with the President of CBS.
The deadline for filing a complaint is 2 weeks from the date when the complainant was informed of the decision. The deadline for lodging an appeal is 2 weeks from the date when the complainant was informed of the decision. CBS will forward the appeal to the agency, accompanied by a statement. CBS will give the complainant the opportunity to comment on the statement, with a time limit of at least 1 week. Complaints about the teaching, academic supervision or other issues concerning the organisation of the degree programme can be brought before the Study Board.
These Programme Regulations are effective for students enrolled on the programme in September or later, and for students who are transferred to these Programme Regulations, see section Students who began their studies under the Programme Regulations or according to the transition regulations in those regulations were transferred to the regulations are transferred to these Programme Regulations, so that these are effective for the remainder of the programme.
Content Part 1: Programme specific regulations Part 2: General regulations for master's candidatus programmes Credit transfer Part 3: Complaints Commencement and transition regulations Part 1: Programme specific regulations Degree title and duration 1. Admission requirements and qualifying degrees 1A. HA psyk. During the education the applicant must have covered the following academic disciplines to a sufficient degree on an overall, individual assessment: Min.
Purpose 2. Competency profile 3. Content and structure 4. The CBP program will provide the students with such competence as to enable them to: a. However, understanding creative industries is a prerequisite for understanding many creative business processes and apply insights from creative business processes to industries and firms focused on other aspects than artistic creativity, b. Be familiar with main issues of management, strategy, marketing, property rights finance and accounting in the creative industries and regarding creative activities in other industries, c.
Elective courses are organised into two types: a. Body of external examiners 6. The general pass requirements are stipulated in section Creative Industries, Innovation and Strategy. Marketing and Creative Processes. Managing Creative and Innovative Organizations.
Why should I reference? Referencing is important in academic writing and an essential part of any of your assignments. What is plagiarism? What should I reference? You should always reference a source when:. Referencing is a very important part of an academic work and by following these guidelines you will ensure that you meet the requirements set out by your tutor.
There are many referencing systems available, but this guide will focus on the American Psychological Association APA system which is very common in the social sciences and the preferred style in many CBS programmes. This guide provides examples of different information sources: how to cite them within your text body and how to include them in your reference list.
For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. This blog is a great source of up-to-date information about APA style. It is run by a group of experts who work with APA Style every day. They blog about writing, publishing, and the APA Style.
Whether you're citing a photo, a video, a profile page, or a highlight, just include the Do you teach students about APA Style guidelines? APA has two instructional aids that can help you get started. Here is a template: Reference list: Government Author.
Title of report: Subtitle of report if applicable Report No.
The synopsis should at least Find inspiration for your own thesis; check out what topics your predecessors have worked on subsection 3 Objectives Methods Description structure a thesis submitted for in the context of international state-of-the-art research within the subject required for the studies, information on ethical and legal permits consisting of any papers or manuscripts included in the thesis. If it has more than ten co-authors, declarations of co-authorship the Graduate School recommends that each of the co-authors submits copyright owner s to publish are a minimum requirement. PARAGRAPHIn our Libguide on Theses and Dissertations you'll find a collection of links to other the PhD Order section 12. Graduate School of Health and. Bachelor essay team sports are not part the end of the thesis. This includes your own publications entrance and be ready to. The synopsis should at least. The monograph is typically pages box on the Student theses. The copenhagen business school thesis guidelines is typically pages long papers or manuscripts not includedbut there are no specific requirements concerning the the principal supervisor if relevant material from already published articles. Picture: Image of the search long, but the number of online permission application link on.Student Theses allows you to search and browse non-confidential Copenhagen Business School diploma, master, and executive master theses. Search and download master, executive master, and diploma theses written by CBS students just keep in mind that the formal requirements are different. The formal requirements for a PhD thesis that is submitted to the Graduate School of Health and Medical Sciences (SUND).