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American Journal of Hypertension 16 6 : Determine whether using academic detailing increased practitioner compliance with antihypertensive treatment guidelines. Outcome measures: Antihypertensive prescribing patterns; blood pressures.
Simon, S. Majumdar, L. Prosser, S. Salem-Schatz, C. Warner, K. Kleinman, I. Miroshnik, and S. Group versus individual academic detailing to improve the use of antihypertensive medications in primary care: A cluster-randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Medicine 5 : Compare group vs. Sample: 9, patients with newly treated hypertension in a large health maintenance organization. Experimental groups: practices received group detailing; individuals received one-on-one academic detailing.
Solomon, D. Van Houten, R. Glynn, L. Baden, K. Curtis, H. Schrager, and J. Academic detailing to improve use of broad-spectrum antibiotics at an academic medical center. Archives of Internal Medicine 15 Test the efficacy of academic detailing designed to improve the appropriateness of broad-spectrum antibiotic use. Sample: 51 interns and residents in 17 general medicine, oncology, and cardiology services at a teaching hospital. Outcome measures: Number of days that unnecessary levofloxacin or ceftazidime was administered; rate of unnecessary use of levofloxacin or ceftazidime.
Van Eijk, M. Avorn, A. Porsius, and A. De Boer. Reducing prescribing of highly anticholinergic antidepressants for elderly people: Randomised trial of group versus individual academic detailing. British Medical Journal Compare effect of individual vs. Sample: GPs and 37 pharmacists in 21 peer-review groups in the Netherlands.
Outcome measure: Incidence rates calculated as the number of elderly people with new prescriptions of highly anticholinergic antidepressants. Wong, R. Teaching physicians geriatric principles: A randomized control trial on academic detailing plus printed materials versus printed materials only. Compare the effectiveness of academic detailing with printed materials on promoting geriatric knowledge among physicians.
Sample: 19 post-graduate trainees residents and fellows in British Columbia, Canada. Outcome measures: Scores on pre and post multiple choice tests. Academic detailing plus printed educational materials demonstrated a trend toward increased knowledge retention 1. Crofts, J. Bartlett, D.
Ellis, L. Hunt, R. Fox, and T. Training for shoulder dystocia: A trial of simulation using low-fidelity and high-fidelity mannequins. Obstetrics and Gynecology 6 Outcome measures: Pre-and post-training delivery, head-to-body delivery time, use of appropriate actions, force applied, and communication. Gerson, L. Van Dam. A prospective randomized trial comparing a virtual reality simulator to bedside teaching for training in sigmoidoscopy. Endoscopy 35 7 Compare the exclusive use of a virtual reality endoscopy simulator with bedside teaching for training in sigmoidoscopy.
Sample: 16 internal medicine residents at an academic medical center. Outcome measures: Score on 5 endoscopic evaluations based on procedure duration, completion, ability to perform retroflexion, and level of patient comfort or discomfort.
Gordon, D. Issenberg, M. Lacombe, W. McGaghie, and E. Stroke training of prehospital providers: An example of simulation-enhanced blended learning and evaluation. Medical Teacher 27 2 Assess the effectiveness of a stroke course that incorporates didactic lectures, tabletop exercises, small-group sessions, and standardized patients a type of simulation used to develop communication, interpersonal, and psychomotor skills.
Sample: 73 pre-hospital paraprofessionals participating in a stroke class. Outcome measures: Scores on a pre- and post-multiple choice test; scores on 4 case scenarios as determined by clinician raters. Grantcharov, T. Kristiansen, J. Bendix, L. Bardram, J. Rosenberg, and P. Randomized clinical trial of virtual reality simulation for laparoscopic skills training. British Journal of Surgery 91 2 Examine the impact of virtual reality simulation on improvement of psychomotor skills relevant to the performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Outcome measures: Baseline and post-intervention time to complete the procedure, error score, and economy-of-movement score. Quinn, F. Keogh, A. McDonald, and D. A study comparing the effectiveness of conventional training and virtual reality simulation in the skills acquisition of junior dental students. Measure the effectiveness of exclusive use of a virtual reality simulator in the training of operative dentistry. Sample: 20 second-year dental undergraduate students in Dublin, Ireland.
Control group: conventional training using a combination of virtual reality and clinical instruction. Participants evaluated 2 standardized patients before the stroke course and 2 different standardized patients after the stroke course. Mean scores on case scenarios improved significantly Experimental group participated in 10 repetitions of each of 6 tasks on a virtual reality surgical simulator. Schwid, H. Rooke, P. Michalowski, and B. Screen-based anesthesia simulation with debriefing improves performance in a mannequin-based anesthesia simulator.
Measure the effectiveness of screen-based simulator training with debriefing on the response to simulated anesthetic critical incidents. Triola, M. Feldman, A. Kalet, S. Zabar, E. Kachur, C. Gillespie, M. Anderson, C. Griesser, and M. A randomized trial of teaching clinical skills using virtual and live standardized patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine 21 5 Assess the educational effectiveness of computer-based virtual patients compared to standardized patients.
Experimental group: training using 2 live, standardized patients and 2 virtual web-based cases. Outcome measures: Knowledge and diagnostic scores assessed through clinical vignettes. Residents who managed anesthetic problems using a screen-based simulator handled emergencies in a mannequin-based simulator Cannon, D. A comparison of the effects of computer and manual reminders on compliance with a mental health clinical practice guideline.
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 7 2 Evaluate the relative effectiveness of computer and manual reminder systems on the implementation of clinical practice guidelines. Sample: 78 outpatients and 4 senior clinicians at an urban VA Medical Center. Outcome measures: Screening rates for mood disorder; completeness of the documentation of diagnostic criteria for patients with a major depressive disorder. Chen, P. Tanasijevic, R. Schoenenberger, J.
Fiskio, G. Kuperman, and D. A computer-based intervention for improving the appropriateness of antiepileptic drug level monitoring. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 3 Sample: 1, serum antiepileptic drug AED test orders placed at a teaching hospital. Outcome measures: Total number of AED orders; proportion of inappropriate orders; proportion of redundant orders.
Educational messages reminded physicians of clinical guidelines when test orders may have been inappropriate or redundant. Demakis, J. Beauchamp, W. Cull, R. Denwood, S. Eisen, R. Lofgren, K. Nichol, J. Woolliscroft, and W.
Journal of the American Medical Association 11 Examine whether a computerized reminder system operating in multiple VA ambulatory care clinics improves resident physician compliance with standards of ambulatory care. Sample: resident physicians caring for 12, patients at 12 VA medical centers. Outcome measures: Compliance with 13 standards of care, tracked using hospital databases and encounter forms. Dexter, P.
Perkins, J. Marc Overhage, K. Maharry, R. Kohler, and C. A computerized reminder system to increase the use of preventive care for hospitalized patients. New England Journal of Medicine 13 Determine the effects of computerized reminders on the rates at which 4 preventive therapies were ordered for inpatients. Sample: 8 independent staff teams on the general medicine ward and 6, patients at an urban hospital. Outcome measures: Ordering rates for pneumococcal vaccination, influenza vaccination, prophylactic heparin, and prophylactic aspirin.
Wolinsky, G. Gramelspacher, X. Zhou, G. Eckert, M. Waisburd, and W. Effectiveness of computer-generated reminders for increasing discussions about advance directives and completion of advance directive forms: A randomized, controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2 : Sample: 1, patients and primary care physicians at an outpatient general medicine practice. Outcome measures: Discussion about advanced directives determined by patient interview; completed advanced directive forms.
Gill, J. The impact of a computerized physician reminder and a mailed patient reminder on influenza immunizations for older patients. Delaware Medical Journal 72 10 Examine the impact of a computer physician reminder in combination with a mailed patient reminder on the rate of influenza vaccinations for older adults. Sample: patients 65 years and older in a large family medicine office. Outcome measures: Rates of receipt of influenza immunization compared to the year before and after the interventions were implemented.
Influenza immunization rates increase from Hung, C. Lin, J. Hwang, R. Tsai, and A. Using paper chart based clinical reminders to improve guideline adherence to lipid management. Apply a paper-based clinical reminder to improve the adherence to lipid guidelines. Sample: patients with coronary heart diseases at a university hospital in Taiwan.
Outcome measures: New lipid-lowering therapy subscription; composite result of lipid-lowering therapy or lipid profile checkup. Iliadis, E. Klein, B. Vandenberg, D. Spokas, T. Hursey, J. Parrillo, and J. Clinical practice guidelines in unstable angina improve clinical outcomes by assuring early intensive medical treatment.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 34 6 : Sample: patients with unstable angina at an academic medical center. Outcome measures: Pharmaceutical treatments rendered; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures performed; major cardiac complications. Kitahata, M. Dillingham, N. Chaiyakunapruk, S. Buskin, J. Jones, R. Harrington, T. Hooton, and K. Electronic human immunodeficiency virus HIV clinical reminder system improves adherence to practice guidelines among the University of Washington HIV study cohort.
Clinical Infectious Diseases 36 6 Examine adherence to HIV practice guidelines before and after implementation of an electronic clinical reminder system. Sample: 1, HIV-infected patients and 41 clinicians physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants at an HIV clinic in an academic medical center.
Outcome measures: Proportion of patients in care who undergo 1 monitoring of CD4 cell count, 2 HIV-1 RNA level, 3 prophylaxis for pneumocystis pneumonia, 4 MAC prophylaxis, 5 tuberculin skin testing, 6 cervical Pap smears, and 7 serological screening. Koide, D. Ohe, D. Ross-Degnan, and S. Computerized reminders to monitor liver function to improve the use of etretinate.
International Journal of Medical Informatics 57 1 Determine whether computerized reminders during the process of prescribing can improve the use of drugs requiring prior laboratory testing. Sample: 1, prescriptions prescribed for patients at a teaching hospital in Tokyo, Japan.
Method: Interrupted time-series design to compare a pre-intervention period and a post-intervention period. Outcome measures: Change in proportion of appropriate prescribing; frequency of severe hepatotoxicity between pre- and post-intervention. An HIV disease-specific electronic medical record EMR enhancement provided clinicians with access to patient-specific information and a clinical reminder system.
Morgan, M. Goodson, and G. Long-term changes in compliance with clinical guidelines through computer-based reminders. Method: Ecologic study with a month period prior to introduction of reminders, a month period after the reminders were in place, and 5 years later. Outcome measures: Changes in compliance rates for preventive screenings. Nilasena, D. A computer-generated reminder system improves physician compliance with diabetes preventive care guidelines.
Outcome measure: Average compliance score of all patients seen by a resident compliance score based on the number of items completed in accordance with the guidelines divided by the total number of items recommended for the patient. Rhew, D. Glassman, and M. Improving pneumococcal vaccine rates. Nurse protocols versus clinical reminders. Journal of General Internal Medicine 14 6 Compare the effectiveness of 3 interventions designed to improve the pneumococcal vaccination rate by nurses.
Sample: 3, outpatients and 3 nursing teams at a VA ambulatory care clinic. Experimental groups: comparative feedback and clinician reminders Team A ; compliance reminders and clinician reminders Team B. Sarasin, F. Maschiangelo, M. Schaller, C. Heliot, S.
Mischler, and J. Successful implementation of guidelines for encouraging the use of beta blockers in patients after acute myocardial infarction. American Journal of Medicine 5 Sample: patients discharged after recovery from myocardial infarction from a teaching hospital in Geneva, Switzerland. Method: Ecologic study with month control period and a 6-month guideline implementation period; a neighboring public teaching hospital was used as a comparison.
Tang, P. Larosa, C. Newcomb, and S. Measuring the effects of reminders for outpatient influenza immunizations at the point of clinical opportunity. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 6 2 Evaluate the influence of computer-based reminders about influenza vaccination on the behavior of individual clinicians at each clinical opportunity. Sample: 23 physicians and patients at an internal medicine clinic at an academic medical center.
Experimental group: computer-based patient record system that generated reminders. Outcome measures: Compliance with a guideline for influenza vaccination behavior for eligible patients as evidenced by ordering of the vaccine, patient counseling, or verification that the patient had received the vaccine elsewhere. Walker, N. Mandell, and J. Use of chart reminders for physicians to promote discussion of advance directives in patients with AIDS.
AIDS Care 11 3 Determine if use of a physician chart reminder improves the rate of physician-initiated discussion and subsequent completion of advanced directives in patients with AIDS. Sample: 74 patients with AIDS and 10 primary care physicians at a university-based hospital clinic.
Outcome measures: Rate of documentation of discussion of advanced directives and rate of completion of an advanced directive. Rule-based clinical reminders appeared on the electronic chart of a patient eligible for a recommended intervention. Chart reminders were placed on medical records of experimental group patients at each clinic visit. Weingarten, S.
Riedinger, L. Conner, T. Lee, I. Hoffman, B. Johnson, and A. Practice guidelines and reminders to reduce duration of hospital stay for patients with chest pain: An interventional trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 4 Evaluate the acceptability, safety, and efficacy of practice guidelines for patients admitted to coronary care and intermediate care units.
Sample: patients with chest pain and primary physicians at an academic medical center. Outcome measures: Patient instability at discharge; patient survival, hospital readmission, and other problems 1-month post-discharge; patient health perceptions; patient rating of the quality of information received at discharge; total costs direct and indirect. Perkins, K.
Maharry, K. Jones, and C. Inpatient computer-based standing orders vs. Journal of the American Medical Association 19 Determine the effects of computerized physician standing orders compared with physician reminders on inpatient vaccination rates. Sample: 3, general medicine patients discharged during a month period from an urban teaching hospital. Physicians received concurrent, personalized written and verbal reminders regarding a guideline that recommended a 2-day hospital stay for patients with chest pain who were at low risk for complications.
Fakhry, S. Trask, M. Waller, and D. Management of brain-injured patients by an evidence-based medicine protocol improves outcomes and decreases hospital charges. Journal of Trauma 56 3 Determine whether management of traumatic brain injury TBI patients according to established guidelines would reduce mortality, length of stay, charges, and disability.
Experimental groups: period of low guideline compliance; period of high guideline compliance. Lobach, D. Electronically distributed, computer-generated, individualized feedback enhances the use of a computerized practice guideline. Test the hypothesis that computer-generated, individualized feedback regarding adherence to care guidelines will significantly improve clinician compliance with guideline recommendations.
Sample: 45 primary care clinicians at a clinic affiliated with an academic medical center. Outcome measures: Compliance with guideline recommendations for diabetic patients. Baker, R. Farooqi, C. Tait, and S. Randomised controlled trial of reminders to enhance the impact of audit in general practice on management of patients who use benzodiazepines. Quality in Health Care 6 1 Determine whether reminder cards in medical records enhance the effectiveness of audit and feedback in improving the care of patients with long-term benzodiazepine drugs.
Sample: patients taking a benzodiazepine in 18 general practices in Leicestershire, UK. Outcome measures: Number of patients whose care complies with each of 5 criteria. Cleland, J. Fritz, G. Brennan, and J. A randomized clinical trial. Physical Therapy 89 1 Investigate the effectiveness of an ongoing educational intervention for improving the outcomes for patients with neck pain.
Sample: 19 physical therapists from 11 clinical sites in an integrated health system. Outcome measures: All patients treated by the physical therapists completed the Neck Disability Index and a pain rating scale before and after the ongoing intervention. Fjortoft, N. Evaluation of a pharmacy continuing education program: Long-term learning outcomes and changes in practice behaviors. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 67 2.
Assess the long-term outcomes from a 3-month, curriculum-based pharmacy CE program on lipid management and hypertension services. Sample: 46 participants in a pharmacy continuing education course. Outcome measure: Survey responses assessing participant knowledge on cognitive and psychomotor concepts; time spent providing clinical services.
Gonzales, R. Steiner, A. Lum, and P. Barrett, Jr. Decreasing antibiotic use in ambulatory practice: Impact of a multidimensional intervention on the treatment of uncomplicated acute bronchitis in adults. Journal of the American Medical Association 16 Sample: 93 clinicians physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, RNs and 4, patients in 6 primary care practices.
Method: Prospective, nonrandomized controlled trial with baseline and study periods. Outcome measures: Antibiotic prescriptions for uncomplicated acute bronchitis during baseline and study periods. Hobma, S. Ram, F. Feasibility, appreciation and costs of a tailored continuing professional development approach for general practitioners.
Quality in Primary Care 12 4 Study the feasibility and appreciation of a tailored continuing professional development CPD method in which GPs work in small groups to improve demonstrated deficiencies. Outcome measures: Participation rates; costs per participant based on time invested by support staff, costs of materials, and time dedicated to the intervention; participant appreciation by self-reported Likert scale. Loeb, M. Andrew, and P. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 9 3 Study the effect on the quality of prescribing by a combined intervention of providing individual feedback and deriving quality criteria using guideline recommendations by peer review groups.
Outcome measures: Difference in prescribing behavior between the year before and the year after the intervention; self-report of intent to change disease management approach. Laprise, R. Thivierge, G. Gosselin, M. Bujas-Bobanovic, S. Vandal, D. Paquette, M. Luneau, P.
Julien, S. Goulet, J. Desaulniers, and P. Improved cardiovascular prevention using best CME practices: A randomized trial. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions 29 1 Determine if after a CME event, practice enablers and reinforcers addressing clinical barriers to preventive care would be more effective in improving adherence to cardiovascular guidelines than a CME event alone.
Outcome measures: Proportion of patients undermanaged at baseline who received preventive care action. Doig, D. Heyland, T. Morrison, and W. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2 Test the hypothesis that evidence-based algorithms to improve nutritional support in the intensive care unit ICU would improve patient outcomes. Outcome measures: Days of enteral nutrition, length of stay in hospital, mortality rates, length of stay in ICU. Monaghan, M. Turner, M. Skrabal, and R. Evaluating the format and effectiveness of a disease state management training program for diabetes.
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 64 2 Determine whether a CE approach to disease management training in diabetes mellitus is an effective means of improving both cognitive knowledge and confidence levels of participants. Outcome measures: Scores on a pre- and post-test examination; scores on a item attitudinal questionnaire. Evidence-based recommendations were introduced via in-service education sessions, reminders by a local dietitian, posters, and academic detailing.
Naunton, M. Peterson, G. Jones, G. Griffin, and M. Multifaceted educational program increases prescribing of preventive medication for corticosteroid induced osteoporosis. Journal of Rheumatology 31 3 Assess a comprehensive educational program aimed at increasing the use of osteoporosis preventive therapy in patients prescribed long-term oral corticosteroids.
Sample: All patients admitted to the Royal Hobart Hospital, Australia; all physicians and pharmacists in 2 regions in Australia. Outcome measures: Evaluation feedback from GPs and pharmacists; drug utilization data. Pronovost, P. Berenholtz, C. Goeschel, I. Thom, S. Watson, C. Holzmueller, J. Lyon, L. Lubomski, D. Thompson, D. Needham, R.
Hyzy, R. Welsh, G. Roth, J. Bander, L. Morlock, and J. Improving patient safety in intensive care units in Michigan. Journal of Critical Care 23 2 Describe the design and lessons learned from implementing a large-scale patient safety collaborative and the impact of an intervention on teamwork climate in intensive care units. Outcome measures: Improvements in safety culture scores using a teamwork questionnaire; adherence to evidence-based interventions for ventilated patients.
All GPs and pharmacies in the study area were sent educational materials and guidelines; received academic detailing visits and reminders; and were provided educational magnets for their patients. Rashotte, J. Thomas, D. Implementation of a two-part unit-based multiple intervention: Moving evidence-based practice into action. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 40 2 Examine the impact and sustained change of a 2-part, unit-based multiple intervention on the use by pediatric critical care nurses of guidelines for pressure-ulcer prevention.
Sample: 23 pediatric critical care nurses in a Canadian pediatric ICU. Outcome measures: Before-and-after measures of frequency of use of interventions as documented in patient records and by observation. Richards, D. Toop, and P. Do clinical practice education groups result in sustained change in GP prescribing? Family Practice 20 2 Determine whether a peer-led small-group educational program is an effective tool in changing practice when added to audit and feedback, academic detailing, and educational bulletins.
Experimental group: audit and feedback, individual academic detailing, educational bulletins, and peer-led group academic detailing sessions. Control group: audit and feedback, academic detailing, and educational bulletins. Outcome measure: Targeted prescribing for 12 months before and 24 months after education sessions.
Saini, B. Smith, C. Armour, and I. An educational intervention to train community pharmacists in providing specialized asthma care. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 70 5 Test the effect of an educational intervention on pharmacist satisfaction and practice behavior as well as patient outcomes.
Sample: 27 pharmacists providing asthma care to patients in Australia. Outcome measures: Participant reactions gauged using a questionnaire; asthma severity; peak flow indices; medication costs per patient. Schneeweiss, S. Impact of a multifaceted pediatric sedation course: Self-directed learning versus a formal continuing medical education course to improve knowledge of sedation guidelines. Canadian Journal of Emergency Medical Care 9 2 Sample: 48 emergency staff physicians, fellows, and residents in a pediatric emergency department.
Outcome measures: Scores on multiple choice pre- and post-intervention exam. Self-directed learning, small-group learning, and workshops with case studies in addition to asthma care training provided in a lecture. Scholes, D. Grothaus, J.
McClure, R. Reid, P. Fishman, C. Sisk, J. Lindenbaum, B. Green, J. Grafton, and R. A randomized trial of strategies to increase Chlamydia screening in young women. Preventive Medicine 43 4 Evaluate an intervention to increase guideline-recommended Chlamydia screening. Sample: 23 primary care clinics; 3, sexually active females ages Outcome measures: Post-intervention Chlamydia testing rates.
Young, J. Preventive Medicine 35 6 Evaluate a multifaceted, practice-based intervention involving audit, feedback, and academic detailing to improve family physician smoking cessation advice. Outcome measures: Delivery of smoking cessation advice determined by patient recall, physician report, and medical record audit; utilization of nicotine replacement therapies.
The enhanced guideline group used clinic-based opinion leaders, individual measurement and feedback, exam room reminders, and chart prompts. Today in the United States, the professional health workforce is not consistently prepared to provide high quality health care and assure patient safety, even as the nation spends more per capita on health care than any other country. The absence of a comprehensive and well-integrated system of continuing education CE in the health professions is an important contributing factor to knowledge and performance deficiencies at the individual and system levels.
To be most effective, health professionals at every stage of their careers must continue learning about advances in research and treatment in their fields and related fields in order to obtain and maintain up-to-date knowledge and skills in caring for their patients. Many health professionals regularly undertake a variety of efforts to stay up to date, but on a larger scale, the nation's approach to CE for health professionals fails to support the professions in their efforts to achieve and maintain proficiency.
Redesigning Continuing Education in the Health Professions illustrates a vision for a better system through a comprehensive approach of continuing professional development, and posits a framework upon which to develop a new, more effective system. The book also offers principles to guide the creation of a national continuing education institute.
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WordPress Shortcode. Like Liked. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Raj Beladiya. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. No notes for slide. If you want to further explain the literature review, you can enlighten it here. This paragraph should be short, specific and precise. No pointless thoughts and statements should be included. Names of the Authors of research papers will be written here. Click OK. To change the option:Select the whole table by clicking once in the table and then on the table selector.
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Resize a column or table automatically with AutoFitSelect your table. Do one of the following. To adjust column width automatically, click AutoFit Contents. To adjust table width automatically, click AutoFit Window. How do you write a literature review table? How do I make a good looking table? How do you make a nice table in Word? How do I make a table look better in Word? How can you start a bulleted list? How do I make a table tight in Word?
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Literature Review Matrix Template Excel. Literature Review Matrix Template Word. Literature Review Matrix As you statement should be to provide a clear and concise focal point for your paper. Are you sure you apa in text citation for journal article with multiple authors. Common Assignments: Literature Review Matrix. Pakistan Objectives resume paraprofessional the research explain the literature review, you. Contribution of the research paper. If you want to further will be written here. No pointless thoughts and statements research papers will be written. Data, taken in research paper, specific and precise.For effective data extraction and rigorous synthesis in reviews, the use of literature summary tables is of utmost importance. A literature summary table. The table identifies each item according to its author/date of publication, its purpose or thesis, what type of work it is (systematic review. Moreover, it can provide you with a quick glance as to how you might organize articles when you begin to write your literature review. Once you know your.