four point probe literature review

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Four point probe literature review essay on aboriginal assimilation

Four point probe literature review

Electrons at surface may behave differently from those in bulk of a material. Multi-functional tools are essential in comprehensive studies on a crystal surface. Here, we developed an in situ microscopic four-point probe 4PP transport measurement system on the basis of a scanning tunneling microscope STM. In particular, convenient replacement between STM tips and micro-4PPs enables systematic investigations of surface morphology, electronic structure, and electrical transport property of a same sample surface.

Performances of the instrument are demonstrated with high-quality STM images, tunneling spectra, and low-noise electrical I-V characteristic curves of a single-layer FeSe film grown on a conductive SrTiO3 surface. Finite element and analytical solutions for van der Pauw and four-point probe correction factors when multiple non-ideal measurement conditions coexist.

Reveil, Mardochee; Sorg, Victoria C. This paper presents an extensive collection of calculated correction factors that account for the combined effects of a wide range of non-ideal conditions often encountered in realistic four-point probe and van der Pauw experiments. In this context, "non-ideal conditions" refer to conditions that deviate from the assumptions on sample and probe characteristics made in the development of these two techniques.

We examine the combined effects of contact size and sample thickness on van der Pauw measurements. In the four-point probe configuration, we examine the combined effects of varying the sample's lateral dimensions, probe placement, and sample thickness. We derive an analytical expression to calculate correction factors that account, simultaneously, for finite sample size and asymmetric probe placement in four-point probe experiments.

We provide experimental validation of the analytical solution via four-point probe measurements on a thin film rectangular sample with arbitrary probe placement. The finite sample size effect is very significant in four-point probe measurements especially for a narrow sample and asymmetric probe placement only worsens such effects. The contribution of conduction in multilayer samples is also studied and found to be substantial; hence, we provide a map of the necessary correction factors.

This library of correction factors will enable the design of resistivity measurements with improved accuracy and reproducibility over a wide range of experimental conditions. Four-point bending as a method for quantitatively evaluating spinal arthrodesis in a rat model. The most common method of evaluating the success or failure of rat spinal fusion procedures is manual palpation testing. Whereas manual palpation provides only a subjective binary answer fused or not fused regarding the success of a fusion surgery, mechanical testing can provide more quantitative data by assessing variations in strength among treatment groups.

We here describe a mechanical testing method to quantitatively assess single-level spinal fusion in a rat model, to improve on the binary and subjective nature of manual palpation as an end point for fusion-related studies. We tested explanted lumbar segments from Sprague-Dawley rat spines after single-level posterolateral fusion procedures at L4-L5. Segments were classified as 'not fused,' 'restricted motion,' or 'fused' by using manual palpation testing.

After thorough dissection and potting of the spine, 4-point bending in flexion then was applied to the L4-L5 motion segment, and stiffness was measured as the slope of the moment-displacement curve. Results demonstrated statistically significant differences in stiffness among all groups, which were consistent with preliminary grading according to manual palpation. In addition, the 4-point bending results provided quantitative information regarding the quality of the bony union formed and therefore enabled the comparison of fused specimens.

Our results demonstrate that 4-point bending is a simple, reliable, and effective way to describe and compare results among rat spines after fusion surgery. The quadrant method measuring four points is as a reliable and accurate as the quadrant method in the evaluation after anatomical double-bundle ACL reconstruction. The quadrant method was described by Bernard et al. The purpose of this research is to further develop the quadrant method measuring four points , which we named four-point quadrant method , and to compare with the quadrant method.

Three-dimensional computed tomography 3D-CT analyses were performed in 25 patients who underwent double-bundle ACL reconstruction using the outside-in technique. The four points in this study's quadrant method were defined as point1-highest, point2-deepest, point3-lowest, and point4-shallowest, in femoral tunnel position.

Value of depth and height in each point was measured. Antero-medial AM tunnel is depth1, height2 and postero-lateral PL tunnel is depth3, height4 in this four-point quadrant method. The 3D-CT images were evaluated independently by 2 orthopaedic surgeons.

A second measurement was performed by both observers after a 4-week interval. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was calculated by means of intra-class correlation coefficient ICC. Also, the accuracy of the method was evaluated against the quadrant method. The AM tunnel position was 0. The four-point quadrant method was found to have high intra- and inter-observer reliability and accuracy.

This method can evaluate the tunnel position regardless of the shape and morphology of the bone tunnel aperture for use of comparison and can provide measurement that can be compared with various reconstruction methods. The four-point quadrant method of this study is considered to have clinical relevance in that it is a detailed and accurate tool for. Four-Point -Latching Microactuator. An experimental inchworm-type linear microactuator is depicted.

Both actuators are based on the principle of using a piezoelectric transducer operated in alternation with electrostatically actuated clutches to cause a slider to move in small increments. However, the design of the present actuator incorporates several improvements over that of the previous one.

The most readily apparent improvement is in geometry and, consequently, in fabrication: In the previous actuator, the inchworm motion was perpendicular to the broad faces of a flat silicon wafer on which the actuator was fabricated, and fabrication involved complex processes to form complex three-dimensional shapes in and on the wafer.

In the present actuator, the inchworm motion is parallel to the broad faces of a wafer on which it is fabricated. The components needed to produce the in-plane motion are nearly planar in character and, consequently, easier to fabricate. Other advantages of the present design are described, including that the previous actuator contained two clutches denoted 'holders' in the cited prior article , the present actuator contains four clutches. The operational sequence of the previous two-clutch actuator is similar.

However, the two-clutch configuration is susceptible to tilt of the slider and a consequent large increase in drag. Hence, the primary operational advantages of the present four-point -latching design over the prior two-point-latching design are less drag and greater control robustness arising from greater stability of the orientation of the slider. Compliance measurements of chevron notched four point bend specimen.

The experimental stress intensity factors for various chevron notched four point bend specimens are presented. The experimental compliance is verified using the analytical solution for a straight through crack four point bend specimen and the boundary integral equation method for one chevron geometry. Excellent agreement is obtained between the experimental and analytical results. In this report, stress intensity factors, loading displacements and crack mouth opening displacements are reported for different crack lengths and different chevron geometries, under four point bend loading condition.

Four points function fitted and first derivative procedure for determining the end points in potentiometric titration curves: statistical analysis and method comparison. A new method that belongs to the differential category for determining the end points from potentiometric titration curves is presented.

It uses a preprocess to find first derivative values by fitting four data points in and around the region of inflection to a non-linear function, and then locate the end point, usually as a maximum or minimum, using an inverse parabolic interpolation procedure that has an analytical solution. The behavior and accuracy of the sigmoid and cumulative non-linear functions used are investigated against three factors.

A statistical evaluation of the new method using linear least-squares method validation and multifactor data analysis are covered. The new method is generally applied to symmetrical and unsymmetrical potentiometric titration curves, and the end point is calculated using numerical procedures only. It outperforms the "parent" regular differential method in almost all factors levels and gives accurate results comparable to the true or estimated true end points.

Calculated end points from selected experimental titration curves compatible with the equivalence point category of methods , such as Gran or Fortuin, are also compared with the new method. Probing dimensionality using a simplified 4- probe method. One of the most useful aspects of the 4- probe method is that it is not only possible to find the resistivity of a sample independently of the contact resistances , but that it is also possible to probe the dimensionality of the sample.

In theory, this is straightforward to achieve by measuring the 4- probe resistance as a function of probe separation. In practice, it is challenging to move all four probes with sufficient precision over the necessary range. Here, we present an alternative approach. We demonstrate that the dimensionality of the conductive path within a sample can be directly probed using a modified 4- probe method in which an unconventional geometry is exploited; three of the probes are rigidly fixed, and the position of only one probe is changed.

This allows 2D and 3D and other contributions the to resistivity to be readily disentangled. The required experimental instrumentation can be vastly simplified relative to traditional variable spacing 4- probe instruments. Face pose tracking using the four-point algorithm. In this paper, we have developed an algorithm to track the pose of a human face robustly and efficiently.

Face pose estimation is very useful in many applications such as building virtual reality systems and creating an alternative input method for the disabled. Firstly, we have modified a face detection toolbox called DLib for the detection of a face in front of a camera.

The detected face features are passed to a pose estimation method , known as the four-point algorithm, for pose computation. The theory applied and the technical problems encountered during system development are discussed in the paper. It is demonstrated that the system is able to track the pose of a face in real time using a consumer grade laptop computer.

Tube curvature measuring probe and method. The present invention is directed to a probe and method for measuring the radius of curvature of a bend in a section of tubing. The probe includes a member with a pair of guide means, one located at each end of the member. A strain gauge is operatively connected to the member for detecting bending stress exrted on the member as the probe is drawn through and in engagement with the inner surface of a section of tubing having a bend.

The method of the present invention includes steps utilizing a probe , like the aforementioned probe , which can be made to detect bends only in a single plane when having a fixed orientation relative the section of tubing to determine the maximum radius of curvature of the bend. Engine spectrometer probe and method of use.

The engine spectrometer probe and method of using the same of the present invention provides a simple engine spectrometer probe which is both lightweight and rugged, allowing an exhaust plume monitoring system to be attached to a vehicle, such as the space shuttle. The engine spectrometer probe can be mounted to limit exposure to the heat and debris of the exhaust plume. The spectrometer probe 50 comprises a housing 52 having an aperture 55 and a fiber optic cable 60 having a fiber optic tip The fiber optic tip 65 has an acceptance angle 87 and is coupled to the aperture 55 so that the acceptance angle 87 intersects the exhaust plume The spectrometer probe can generate a spectrum signal from light in the acceptance angle and the spectrum signal can be provided to a spectrometer Four-point functions and the permutation group S4.

Four-point functions are at the heart of many interesting physical processes. A prime example is the light-by-light scattering amplitude, which plays an important role in the calculation of hadronic contributions to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. Provided all or many of the external legs represent similar particle content, a powerful tool to construct and organize such bases is the permutation group S4. We introduce an efficient notation for dealing with the irreducible multiplets of S4, and we highlight the merits of this treatment by exemplifying four-point functions with gauge-boson legs such as the four-gluon vertex and the light-by-light scattering amplitude.

The multiplet analysis is also useful for isolating the important kinematic regions and the dynamical singularity content of such amplitudes. Our analysis serves as a basis for future efficient calculations of these and similar objects.

Four-point -bend fatigue of AA aluminum alloys. The fatigue strength of the square and rectangular bars was measured to be 85 and 90 pct of their yield strength, respectively, more than twice that of the predecessor to the alloy the AA Al alloy. The fatigue fractographies of the square and rectangular extrusion bars were found to be markedly different, due to their different grain structures fibril and layered, respectively.

Fracture steps on the crack face were found in both of these extrusion bars. Since the alloy was purer in terms of Fe and Si content, it contained much less coarse particles than in a alloy. This partially accounted for the superior fatigue strength of the alloy. Four-point injection technique for lip augmentation. Lip augmentation procedures with hyaluronic acid dermal fillers have become increasingly popular worldwide because full lips are often considered beautiful and youthful.

The goal of a lip augmentation procedure is to create smooth lips with adequate volume and a natural appearance. Various techniques for lip augmentation have been utilized and described. In the four-point injection technique, the lips were divided equally into right side and left side. Four entry points were made above the vermilion border for the upper lip and below the vermilion border for the lower lip.

The filler was administered with a fanning technique through each entry point. Between January and November , 50 female patients underwent a nonsurgical lip augmentation procedure with injectable fillers using this technique.

No serious complications were observed. The advantages of this technique are reducing the risk of complications like erythema, edema, and vascular injuries, and providing easy access to injection sites. Magnetostriction measurement by four probe method. The present paper describes the design and setting up of an indigenouslydevelopedmagnetostriction MS measurement setup using four probe method atroom temperature. A standard strain gauge is pasted with a special glue on the sample and its change in resistance with applied magnetic field is measured using KeithleyNanovoltmeter and Current source.

An electromagnet with field upto 1. The sample is placed between the magnet poles using self designed and developed wooden probe stand, capable of moving in three mutually perpendicular directions. The nanovoltmeter and current source are interfaced with PC using RS serial interface. A software has been developed in for logging and processing of data. Proper optimization of measurement has been done through software to reduce the noise due to thermal emf and electromagnetic induction.

The data acquired for some standard magnetic samples are presented. Method for replicating an array of nucleic acid probes. The invention relates to the replication of probe arrays and methods for replicating arrays of probes which are useful for the large scale manufacture of diagnostic aids used to screen biological samples for specific target sequences.

Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy. Scanning probe microscopy may include a method for generating a band excitation BE signal and simultaneously exciting a probe at a plurality of frequencies within a predetermined frequency band based on the excitation signal.

A response of the probe is measured across a subset of frequencies of the predetermined frequency band and the excitation signal is adjusted based on the measured response. Surface enhanced Raman gene probe and methods thereof. The subject invention disclosed herein is a new gene probe biosensor and methods based on surface enhanced Raman scattering SERS label detection.

The support means supporting the SERS active substrate includes a fiberoptic probe , an array of fiberoptic probes for performance of multiple assays and a waveguide microsensor array with charge-coupled devices or photodiode arrays. The subject invention disclosed herein is a new gene probe biosensor and methods thereof based on surface enhanced Raman scattering SERS label detection.

The subject invention disclosed is a new gene probe biosensor and methods based on surface enhanced Raman scattering SERS label detection. The support means includes a fiberoptic probe , an array of fiberoptic probes for performance of multiple assays and a waveguide microsensor array with charge-coupled devices or photodiode arrays.

Determination of piezo-optic coefficients of crystals by means of four-point bending. A technique developed recently for determining piezo-optic coefficients POCs of isotropic optical media, which represents a combination of digital imaging laser interferometry and a classical four-point bending method , is generalized and applied to a single-crystalline anisotropic material. The peculiarities of measuring procedures and data processing for the case of optically uniaxial crystals are described in detail.

The capabilities of the technique are tested on the example of canonical nonlinear optical crystal LiNbO3. The high precision achieved in determination of the POCs for isotropic and anisotropic materials testifies that the technique should be both versatile and reliable. The American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM Committee has published a new technique for the measurement of resistivity which is termed the dual-configuration four- probe method.

The resistivity correction factor is the function of only the data which are obtained from two different electrical configurations of the four probes. The measurement of resistivity and sheet resistance are performed for graphite rectangular plates and indium tin oxide ITO films by the conventional four- probe method and the dual-configuration four- probe method.

It is demonstrated that the dual-configuration four- probe method which includes a probe array with equal separations of 10 mm can be applied to specimens having thicknesses up to 3. Probe and method for DNA detection. A hybridization probe containing two linear strands of DNA lights up upon hybridization to a target DNA using silver nanoclusters that have been templated onto one of the DNA strands.

Hybridization induces proximity between the nanoclusters on one strand and an overhang on the other strand, which results in enhanced fluorescence emission from the nanoclusters. Composite laminate failure parameter optimization through four-point flexure experimentation and analysis.

Fiber-reinforced composite materials offer light-weight solutions to many structural challenges. In the development of high-performance composite structures, a thorough understanding is required of the composite materials themselves as well as methods for the analysis and failure prediction of the relevant composite structures.

However, the mechanical properties required for the complete constitutive definition of a composite material can be difficult to determine through experimentation. Therefore, efficient methods are necessary that can be used to determine which properties are relevant to the analysis of a specific structure and to establish a structure's response to a material parameter that can only be definedmore » through estimation.

The objectives of this paper deal with demonstrating the potential value of sensitivity and uncertainty quantification techniques during the failure analysis of loaded composite structures; and the proposed methods are applied to the simulation of the four-point flexural characterization of a carbon fiber composite material.

Utilizing a recently implemented, phenomenological orthotropic material model that is capable of predicting progressive composite damage and failure, a sensitivity analysis is completed to establish which material parameters are truly relevant to a simulation's outcome. Then, a parameter study is completed to determine the effect of the relevant material properties' expected variations on the simulated four-point flexural behavior as well as to determine the value of an unknown material property.

This process demonstrates the ability to formulate accurate predictions in the absence of a rigorous material characterization effort. Finally, the presented results indicate that a sensitivity analysis and parameter study can be used to streamline the material definition process as the described flexural characterization was used for model validation.

Methods for Probing Magnetic Films with Neutrons. We review various methods in the investigation of magnetic films with neutrons, including those based on the effects of Larmor precession, Zeeman spatial splitting of the beam, neutron spin resonance, and polarized neutron channeling. The underlying principles, examples of the investigated systems, specific features, applications, and perspectives of these methods are discussed.

Disclosed herein is a spectroscopic probe comprising at least one whispering gallery mode optical resonator disposed on a support, the whispering gallery mode optical resonator comprising a continuous outer surface having a cross section comprising a first diameter and a second diameter, wherein the first diameter is greater than the second diameter. A method of measuring a Raman spectrum and an Infra-red spectrum of an analyte using the spectroscopic probe is also disclosed.

Visual probes and methods for placing visual probes into subsurface areas. Visual probes and methods for placing visual probes into subsurface areas in either contaminated or non-contaminated sites are described. In one implementation, the method includes driving at least a portion of a visual probe into the ground using direct push, sonic drilling, or a combination of direct push and sonic drilling.

Such is accomplished without providing an open pathway for contaminants or fugitive gases to reach the surface. According to one implementation, the invention includes an entry segment configured for insertion into the ground or through difficult materials e. Additional implementations are contemplated. Method for obtaining chromosome painting probes. A method is provided for determining a clastogenic signature of a sample of chromosomes by quantifying a frequency of a first type of chromosome aberration present in the sample; quantifying a frequency of a second, different type of chromosome aberration present in the sample; and comparing the frequency of the first type of chromosome aberration to the frequency of the second type of chromosome aberration.

A method is also provided for using that clastogenic signature to identify a clastogenic agent or dosage to which the cells were exposed. Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation BE signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of the probe in at least a second predefined frequency band; and extracting at least one relevant dynamic parameter of the response of the probe in a predefined range including analyzing the obtained data.

The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging static band excitation , or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties adaptive band excitation. An apparatus includes a band excitation signal generator; a probe coupled to the band excitation signal generator; a detector coupled to the probe ; and a relevant dynamic parameter extractor component coupled to the detector, the relevant dynamic parameter extractor including a processor that performs a mathematical transform selected from the group consisting of an integral transform and a discrete transform.

Methods for making nucleotide probes for sequencing and synthesis. Compositions and methods for making a plurality of probes for analyzing a plurality of nucleic acid samples are provided. Compositions and methods for analyzing a plurality of nucleic acid samples to obtain sequence information in each nucleic acid sample are also provided.

Study of complex molecular systems by probe vibrational spectroscopy method. The central part of the experimental contour was used to determine integral moments with the help of line shape approximant received by Mori method. Numerical and analytical investigation of steel beam subjected to four-point bending.

A One type of bending tests is four-point bending test. The aim of this test is to investigate the properties and behavior of materials with structural applications. This study uses numerical and analytical studies. Results from both of these studies help to improve in experimental works. The purpose of this study is to predict steel beam behavior subjected to four-point bending test.

This study intension is to analyze flexural beam subjected to four-point bending prior to experimental work. Main results of this research are location of strain gauge and LVDT on steel beam based on numerical study, manual calculation, and analytical study. Analytical study uses linear elasticity theory of solid objects.

This study results is position of strain gauge and LVDT. Strain gauge is located between two concentrated loads at the top beam and bottom beam. LVDT is located between two concentrated loads. Probes for multidimensional nanospectroscopic imaging and methods of fabrication thereof.

This disclosure provides systems, methods , and apparatus related to probes for multidimensional nanospectroscopic imaging. In one aspect, a method includes providing a transparent tip comprising a dielectric material. A four-sided pyramidal-shaped structure is formed at an apex of the transparent tip using a focused ion beam. Metal layers are deposited over two opposing sides of the four-sided pyramidal-shaped structure. This study compares the performance of two approaches in analysing four-point Likert rating scales with a factorial model: the classical factor analysis FA and the item factor analysis IFA.

For FA, maximum likelihood and weighted least squares estimations using Pearson correlation matrices among items are compared. For IFA, diagonally weighted…. Four-point -bending-fatigue behavior of the Zr-based Vitreloy bulk metallic glass.

The fatigue lifetimes in four-point bending were found to be greater than those reported in uniaxial testing. However, the fatigue-endurance limit found in four-point bending was slightly less than that reported for uniaxial fatigue.

Thus, the significant differences between fatigue studies in the literature are not likely due to this difference in testing geometry. On the contrary, the fatigue lifetimes were found to be highly dependent upon surface defects andmore » material quality. The four-point -bending-fatigue performance of the Vit alloy was found to be greater than most BMGs and similar to the M high-strength steel and other crystalline alloys in spite of not being 'perfectly amorphous.

The role of probe oxide in local surface conductivity measurements. Local probe methods can be used to measure nanoscale surface conductivity, but some techniques including nanoscale four point probe rely on at least two of the probes forming the same low resistivity non-rectifying contact to the sample.

Here, the role of probe shank oxide has been examined by carrying out contact and non-contact I V measurements on GaAs when the probe oxide has been controllably reduced, both experimentally and in simulation. In contact, the barrier height is pinned but the barrier shape changes with probe shank oxide dimensions.

In non-contact measurements, the oxide modifies the electrostatic interaction inducing a quantummore » dot that alters the tunneling behavior. For both, the contact resistance change is dependent on polarity, which violates the assumption required for four point probe to remove probe contact resistance from the measured conductivity.

This has implications for all nanoscale surface probe measurements and macroscopic four point probe , both in air and vacuum, where the role of probe oxide contamination is not well understood. An experimental investigation was carried out to study the ultimate strength and behaviour of SFRSCC ribbed slab under four point bending.

Three full scale slab samples with the dimension of 2. The slab samples was loaded until failure in a four point bending test. As a whole, based on the results, it can be concluded that the performance of the steel fiber reinforced samples SFWS was found to be almost equivalent to the conventionally reinforced concrete ribbed slab sample CRC.

Research on stratified evolution of composite materials under four-point bending loading. In order to explore the effect of stratified evolution and delamination on the load capacity and service life of the composite materials under the four-point bending loading, the artificial tectonic defects of the different positions were set up. The four-point bending test was carried out, and the whole process was recorded by acoustic emission, and the damage degree of the composite layer was judged by the impact accumulation of the specimen - time-amplitude history chart, load-time-relative energy history chart, acoustic emission impact signal positioning map.

The results show that the stratified defects near the surface of the specimen accelerate the process of material failure and expansion. The location of the delamination defects changes the bending performance of the composites to a great extent. The closer the stratification defects are to the surface of the specimen, the greater the damage, the worse the service capacity of the specimen. Background Gingival biotype is the thickness of the gingiva in the faciopalatal dimension.

It has a significant impact on the outcome of the restorative, regenerative and implant therapy. It has been suggested that a direct co-relation exists with the susceptibility of gingival recession followed by any surgical procedure. So, the study was aimed to assess gingival biotype in different age groups of males and females using transgingival probing method.

Materials and Methods Gingival thickness GT was evaluated in patients including males and females of different age groups. The latter was based on the transparency of the periodontal probe through the gingival margin while probing the buccal sulcus. Final data collected was then used for statistical analysis. Results A significant difference was found between males and females with males showing thick biotype.

Out of the total samples Conclusion This was probably one of the few attempts to correlate gingival biotype with different age groups in males and females. A clear thick gingiva was found in more than two-third of the male subjects whereas majority of female subjects showed thin biotype. Also, it was seen that in females, the gingival biotype varies with age unlike in male.

Rigid spine reinforced polymer microelectrode array probe and method of fabrication. A rigid spine-reinforced microelectrode array probe and fabrication method. The probe includes a flexible elongated probe body with conductive lines enclosed within a polymeric material. The conductive lines connect microelectrodes found near an insertion end of the probe to respective leads at a connector end of the probe.

The probe also includes a rigid spine, such as made from titanium, fixedly attached to the probe body to structurally reinforce the probe body and enable the typically flexible probe body to penetrate and be inserted into tissue, such as neural tissue. By attaching or otherwise fabricating the rigid spine to connect to only an insertion section of the probe body, an integrally connected cable section of the probe body may remain flexible.

Nondestructive acoustic electric field probe apparatus and method. The disclosure relates to a nondestructive acoustic electric field probe and its method of use. A source of acoustic pulses of arbitrary but selected shape is placed in an oil bath along with material to be tested across which a voltage is disposed and means for receiving acoustic pulses after they have passed through the material.

The received pulses are compared with voltage changes across the material occurring while acoustic pulses pass through it and analysis is made thereof to determine preselected characteristics of the material. Method for producing labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probes. Disclosed is a method for the introduction of unidirectional deletions in a cloned DNA segment.

More specifically, the method comprises providing a recombinant DNA construct comprising a DNA segment of interest inserted in a cloning vector, the cloning vector having an f1 endonuclease recognition sequence adjacent to the insertion site of the DNA segment of interest. The recombinant DNA construct is then contacted with the protein pII encoded by gene II of phage f1 thereby generating a single-stranded nick.

The nicked DNA is then contacted with E. The single-stranded gapped DNA is then contacted with a single-strand-specific endonuclease thereby producing a linearized DNA molecule containing a double-stranded deletion corresponding in size to the single-stranded gap.

Also disclosed is a method for producing single-stranded DNA probes. In this embodiment, single-stranded gapped DNA, produced as described above, is contacted with a DNA polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides to fill in the gap. The product of this digestion is then denatured to produce a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probe. The properties of thin-section, four-point -contact ball bearings in space.

Thin section, four-point -contact ball bearings are increasinly employed in spacecraft mechanisms because of the potential advantages they offer. However, litte was previously known of their torque, thermal conductance and stiffness properties at conditions anticipated for their use in space.

An investigation of these properties are described. It was found that frictional Coulomb torque, thermal conductance and stiffness all show marked dependence on the bearing preload, the housing design, the bearing external fit i. Optimum bearing performance is achieved only if these properties are well understood. The necessary data to understand these properties are provided. Heterogeneous dynamics of ionic liquids: A four-point time correlation function approach.

Many ionic liquids show behavior similar to that of glassy systems, e. Herein a time-dependent four-point density correlation function—typically used to characterize glassy systems—is implemented for the ionic liquids, choline acetate, and 1-butylmethylimidazolium acetate. Dynamic correlation beyond the first ionic solvation shell on the time scale of nanoseconds is found in the ionic liquids, revealing the cooperative nature of ion motions. The traditional solvent, acetonitrile, on the other hand, shows a much shorter length-scale that decays after a few picoseconds.

Fast and reliable method of conductive carbon nanotube- probe fabrication for scanning probe microscopy. We demonstrate the procedure of scanning probe microscopy SPM conductive probe fabrication with a single multi-walled carbon nanotube MWNT on a silicon cantilever pyramid.

The nanotube bundle reliably attached to the metal-covered pyramid is formed using dielectrophoresis technique from the MWNT suspension. Carbon nanotube attached to cantilever covered with noble metal is suitable for SPM imaging in such modulationmore » regimes as capacitance contrast microscopy, Kelvin probe microscopy, and scanning gate microscopy.

The majority of such probes are conductive with conductivity not degrading within hours of SPM imaging. A spectral domain method for remotely probing stratified media. The problem of remotely probing a stratified, lossless, dielectric medium is formulated using the spectral domain method of probing. The response of the medium to a spectrum of plane waves incident at various angles is used to invert the unknown profile.

For TE polarization, the electric field satisfies a Helmholtz equation. The inverse problem is solved by means of a new representation for the wave function. The principal step in this inversion is solving a second kind Fredholm equation which is very amenable to numerical computations. Several examples are presented including some which indicate that the method can be used with experimentally obtained data. When the fields exhibit a surface wave behavior, a unique inversion can be obtained only if information about the magnetic field is also available.

In this case, the inversion is accomplished by a two-step procedure which employs a formula of Jost and Kohn. Some examples are presented, and an approach which greatly shortens the computations without greatly deteriorating the results is discussed.

For many composite laminated structures, the design is driven by data obtained from Compression after Impact CAI testing. There currently is no standard for CAI testing of sandwich structures although there is one for solid laminates of a certain thickness and lay-up configuration.

Most sandwich CAI testing has followed the basic technique of this standard where the loaded ends are precision machined and placed between two platens and compressed until failure. If little or no damage is present during the compression tests, the loaded ends may need to be potted to prevent end brooming.

By putting a sandwich beam in a four point bend configuration, the region between the inner supports is put under a compressive load and a sandwich laminate with damage can be tested in this manner without the need for precision machining. Also, specimens with no damage can be taken to failure so direct comparisons between damaged and undamaged strength can be made. Data is presented that demonstrates the four point bend CAI test and is compared with end loaded compression tests of the same sandwich structure.

Review of methods to probe single cell metabolism and bioenergetics. Single cell investigations have enabled unexpected discoveries, such as the existence of biological noise and phenotypic switching in infection, metabolism and treatment. Herein, we review methods that enable such single cell investigations specific to metabolism and bioenergetics.

Firstly, we discuss how to isolate and immobilize individuals from a cell suspension, including both permanent and reversible approaches. We also highlight specific advances in microbiology for its implications in metabolic engineering. Methods for probing single cell physiology and metabolism are subsequently reviewed.

The primary focus therein is on dynamic and high-content profiling strategies based on label-free and fluorescence microspectroscopy and microscopy. Non-dynamic approaches, such as mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, are also briefly discussed. A partnership between researchers and educators at the University of Washington, North Seattle Community College and two companies, Nanosurf, AG and nanoScience Instruments has been forged to develop a nationally replicable model of a sustainable and up-to-date undergraduate teaching laboratory of scanning probe microscopy SPM methods applied to nanoscience and nanotechnology.

Within this partnership a new paradigm of operating and maintaining a SPM laboratory has been developed that provides a truly hands-on experience in a classroom laboratory setting with a small student to instrument ratio involving a variety of SPM techniques and topics. To date, we have run a first successful undergraduate laboratory workshop, where students were able to have extensive hands-on experience on five SPM modes of operation including: electrostatic force microscopy involving photovoltaic polymeric materials, tunneling microscopy and the determination of the workfunction, and nanolithography using the dip-pen method.

Experimental investigation of fatigue behavior of carbon fiber composites using fully-reversed four-point bending test. Carbon fiber reinforced polymers CFRP have become an increasingly notable material for use in structural engineering applications. Some of their advantages include high strength-to-weight ratio, high stiffness-to-weight ratio, and good moldability.

Prediction of the fatigue life of composite laminates has been the subject of various studies due to the cyclic loading experienced in many applications. Both theoretical studies and experimental tests have been performed to estimate the endurance limit and fatigue life of composite plates.

One of the main methods to predict fatigue life is the four-point bending test. Same trend was seen in literature for similar tests. There was visible cracking through the thickness of the samples. The expected downward trend in fatigue life with increasing maximum applied stress was observed in S-N curves of samples. MPAI mass probes aided ionization method for total analysis of biomolecules by mass spectrometry. We have designed and synthesized various mass probes , which enable us to effectively ionize various molecules to be detected with mass spectrometry.

We call the ionization method using mass probes the "MPAI mass probes aided ionization " method. We aim at the sensitive detection of various biological molecules, and also the detection of bio-molecules by a single mass spectrometry serially without changing the mechanical settings. Here, we review mass probes for small molecules with various functional groups and mass probes for proteins. Further, we introduce newly developed mass probes for proteins for highly sensitive detection.

Partial differential equations that are used in describing the nonlinear heat and mass transfer phenomena are difficult to be solved. For the case where the exact solution is difficult to be obtained, it is necessary to use a numerical procedure such as the finite difference method to solve a particular partial differential equation.

In term of numerical procedure, a particular method can be considered as an efficient method if the method can give an approximate solution within the specified error with the least computational complexity. Throughout this paper, the two-dimensional Porous Medium Equation 2D PME is discretized by using the implicit finite difference scheme to construct the corresponding approximation equation.

Then this approximation equation yields a large-sized and sparse nonlinear system. In addition to that, the efficiency of the 4NEGSOR iterative method is studied by solving three examples of the problems. The numerical findings show that the 4NEGSOR method is superior to the NGS and the NSOR methods in terms of the number of iterations to get the converged solutions, the time of computation and the maximum absolute errors produced by the methods.

Haberbusch, Mark S. Inventor ; Ickes, Jacob C. A sensor assembly includes a main body, a sensor, and a filler. The main body includes an outer surface having a continuously-variable radius of curvature in at least one portion. A sensor in thermal communication with a region of that surface having relatively low radius of curvature is disposed in the assembly recessed from the outer surface. Liquid droplets adhered to the outer surface in this region tend to migrate to a distant location having a higher radius of curvature.

The main body has low thermal conductivity. The filler has a relatively higher thermal conductivity and, in embodiments, fills an opening in the outer surface of the main body, providing a thermally-conductive pathway between the sensor and the surrounding environment via the opening. A probe having a plurality of such sensors, and methods of detecting the presence of liquid and phase transitions in a predetermined space are also disclosed.

Method for identifying and probing phase transitions in materials. Asay, Blaine W. The present invention includes a method for identifying and probing phase transitions in materials. A polymorphic material capable of existing in at least one non-centrosymmetric phase is interrogated with a beam of laser light at a chosen wavelength and frequency. A phase transition is induced in the material while it is interrogated. The intensity of light scattered by the material and having a wavelength equal to one half the wavelength of the interrogating laser light is detected.

If the phase transition results in the production of a non-centrosymmetric phase, the intensity of this scattered light increases; if the phase transition results in the disappearance of a non-centrosymmetric phase, the intensity of this scattered light decreases. This paper presents results of recently completed studies aimed at characterizing the mechanical properties of irradiated UMo fuel in support of monolithic base fuel qualification. Mechanical properties were evaluated in four-point bending.

The monolithic fuel plates consist of a UMo fuel meat covered with a Zr diffusion barrier layer fabricated by co-rolling, clad in Al using a hot isostatic press HIP bonding process. Specimens exhibited nominal fresh more » fuel meat thickness ranging from 0.

After sectioning the fuel plates, the Al cladding was removed by dissolution in concentrated NaOH. Pre- and post-dissolution dimensional inspections were conducted on test specimens to facilitate accurate analysis of bend test results. All specimens exhibited substantially linear elastic behavior and failed in a brittle manner.

The influence of burnup on the observed slope of the stress-strain curve and the calculated fracture strength is discussed. Numerical modeling of probe velocity effects for electromagnetic NDE methods. The present discussion of magnetic flux MLF leakage inspection introduces the behavior of motion-induced currents. The results obtained indicate that velocity effects exist at even low probe speeds for magnetic materials, compelling the inclusion of velocity effects in MLF testing of oil pipelines, where the excitation level and pig speed are much higher than those used in the present work.

Probe velocity effect studies should influence probe design, defining suitable probe speed limits and establishing training guidelines for defect-characterization schemes. Kuhlman, Kimberly, R. Magnetite is a common conductive mineral found on Earth and Mars. Disk-shaped precipitates approximately 40 nm in diameter have been shown to have manganese and aluminum concentrations. Atom- probe field-ion microscopy APFIM is the only technique that can potentially quantify the composition of these precipitates.

APFIM will be used to characterize geological and planetary materials, analyze samples of interest for geomicrobiology; and, for the metrology of nanoscale instrumentation. However, new methods are required for difficult samples. Many materials are not easily fabricated using electropolishing, MSS, or the Bosch process, FIB milling is slow and expensive, and wet chemistry and the reactive ion etching are typically limited to Si and other semiconductors.

APFIM sample preparation using the dicing saw is commonly used to section semiconductor wafers into individual devices following manufacture. The dicing saw is a time-effective method for preparing high aspect ratio posts of poorly conducting materials. Femtosecond laser micromachining is also suitable for preparation of posts. FIB time required is reduced by about a factor of 10 and multi-tip specimens can easily be fabricated using the dicing saw.

Download 49 MB. Country not listed? We ship worldwide. Please contact us if you are not sure which plug type you need. Experience effortless sheet resistance measurements with the system's easy-to-use PC software. Part of the Institute of Physics award-winning Ossila Solar Cell Prototyping Platform , the Ossila Four-Point Probe System is an easy-to-use tool for the rapid measurement of sheet resistance, resistivity, and conductivity of materials.

Built with a high-specification Ossila Source Measure Unit at its core, the Ossila Four-Point Probe is a low-cost system that allows a wide measurement range. The probe head uses spring-loaded contacts instead of sharp needles, preventing damage to delicate samples, such as polymer films with thicknesses on the order of nanometres. The price includes a four-point probe, in-built source measure unit, easy-to-use PC software, and an ITO-coated glass substrate.

With free tracked worldwide shipping as standard, more laboratories across the globe can now measure sheet resistance to empower their materials characterisation and thin-film development programs. Please note, due to the spring loaded head design, the system is not suitable for measuring the properties of materials that form a native insulating oxide, such as silicon. The four-point probe is the most commonly-used piece of equipment for measuring the sheet resistance of a material.

This measurement uses four probes arrayed in a line, with equal spacing between each probe. A current is passed between the outer two probes, causing a reduction in voltage between the inner two probes. By measuring this change in voltage, the sheet resistance can then be calculated. Just plug in the system, install the software, and you're ready to go!

The intuitive interface and clean design makes the four-point probe easy-to-use, simplifying the measurement of sheet resistance. Substrates of various shapes and sizes can be used. Positive and negative polarity measurements can be performed using the PC software.

This enables you to calculate the average sheet resistance between positive and negative currents - eliminating any voltage offsets that may have occurred, hence increasing the accuracy of your measurements. Designed with the measurement of delicate samples in mind, the four-point probe head utilises gold-plated, gentle spring-loaded contacts with rounded tips.

This results in a constant contact force of 60 grams, preventing the probes from piercing fragile thin films, whilst still providing good electrical contact. Through careful design consideration, we have been able to keep the footprint of the four-point probe to a minimum total bench area of The PC software included with the system performs all the necessary measurements and calculations for sheet resistance, resistivity, and conductivity - making material characterisation effortless.

It also automatically performs correction factor calculation. The Four-Point Probe System is specifically designed to enable the measurement of thin films in the nanometre range. For a more in-depth explanation, please see our application note: Sheet Resistance Measurements of Thin Films. As the system measures the sheet resistance of a sample, a general range of measurable resistivities or conductivities cannot be given.

This is because the measurable resistivity range depends on the thickness of the sample being tested. The resistivity of a sample can be calculated from its sheet resistance and thickness using the following equation:. Below is a table of the resistivity and conductivity ranges of the system for samples with thicknesses of different orders of magnitude:.

Currently we offer a single probe layout, i. This allows us to maintain the affordable price of the Four-Point Probe System, whilst still providing reliable and accurate measurements of sheet resistance. Sheet resistance is an important property of materials, which is commonly used in material characterisation and in the development of thin-film devices such as perovskite solar cells or organic LEDs.

Resistivity is an inherent characteristic of a material, and an important electrical property. It can be determined by measuring the sheet resistance of a thin film with a known thickness, making the four-point probe measurement a key technique for the electrical characterisation of materials.

Thin-film devices require thin conducting electrodes that transport electrical charge laterally to be extracted, so materials with low sheet resistances are required to reduce potential losses. This becomes even more important when attempting to scale up these devices, as the electrical charges must travel further along the electrodes before they can be extracted.

Please note, this system is not suitable for silicon or other materials which naturally form insulating oxide layers. To measure such materials, the oxide layer needs to be penetrated by the probes, which may not be possible with the spring-loaded, round tipped probes utilised by this system.

The result of this equation must further be multiplied by a geometric correction factor based upon the shape, size, and thickness of the sample. This accounts for limitations to the possible current pathways through the sample, which affects the values that are measured.

A more in-depth explanation of the theory behind sheet resistance, geometric correction factors, and the four-point probe technique can be found in our Guide to Sheet Resistance Theory. This guide explains the theory behind sheet resistance, an electrical property of thin films of materials, and demonstrates how the four-probe method can be used to measure it.

This guide gives an overview of how to use the Ossila Four-Point Probe System, as well as some general tips and tricks for measuring sheet resistance. Sheet resistance or surface resistivity is an important property of many materials, quantifying the ability for charge to travel along uniform thin films.

Biased four-point probe resistance.

Four point probe literature review 294
Four point probe literature review 285
Article review editor websites au A preliminary scan of available borehole probes proved that the best options for evaluation of rock structure is through analysis of borehole thesis making quotes, captured by optical televiewers. The contribution of conduction in multilayer samples is also studied and found to be substantial; hence, we provide a map of the necessary correction factors. MPAI mass probes aided ionization method for total analysis of biomolecules by mass spectrometry. The As is liganded to ethanedithiol to produce a probe having a second formula. Most of them are oriented upward and thus, mostly dry or perhaps wet but not filled with water. For the case where the exact solution is difficult to be obtained, it is necessary to use a numerical procedure such as the finite difference method to solve a particular partial differential equation.
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Thesis theme download free Thin section, four-point -contact ball bearings are increasinly employed in spacecraft mechanisms because of the potential advantages they offer. The detected face features are passed to a pose estimation methodknown as the four-point algorithm, for pose computation. Easy-to-Use Just plug in the system, install the software, and you're ready to go! Analytical study uses linear elasticity theory of solid objects. Additional implementations are contemplated.
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Dommett, R. Ruoff, D. Dikin, " Correction factors for 4-probe electrical measurements with finite size electrodes and material anisotropy: a finite element study ," Measurement Science and Technology , 18 7 , , Reaz Ahmed, " Enhancing repeatability in the measurement of potential drop using an adjustable four-point-probe measuring system ," Research in Nondestructive Evaluation , 18 2 , , Dirch H. Nielsen, Ole Hansen, " Accurate microfour-point probe sheet resistance measurements on small samples ," The Review of Scientific Instruments , 80 5 , , Algahtani, K.

Thulasiram, N. Nasir, A. Miccoli, F. Edler, H. Tegenkamp, " The th anniversary of the four-point probe technique: the role of probe geometries in isotropic and anisotropic systems ," Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter , 27 22 , , PDF '98 version.

Logan, " An AC bridge for semiconductor resistivity measurements using a four-point probe ," Bell System Technical Journal, The , 40 3 , , Ewakita, E. Rahmawati, k. Holtzknecht, H. Mark Jr. Ridgeway, H. Please enable JavaScript to pass antispam protection! Antispam by CleanTalk. Edit Talk. The Java user interface can be downloaded from [2]. Make sure Java Runtime Environment is installed, and double click the.

The user interface is designed so that the user just have to follow the numbered steps to fill the information needed to perform the automatic four point probe measurement. In the left part of the UI is where the user can enter information about the measurement. The middle part will report real time status of the ongoing measurement.

The right part is reserved for debugging purposes where users can send command directly to the Teensy board in the measurement circuit board. Note that you can hover the mouse over each items in the user interface to display tooltip help. The user interface will always save ongoing measurement data automatically to a results. Each time a new measurement is performed, the file results.

The file results. The software also has the capability to save and load the configured measurement points to a config. The file config. Enter the diameter or X and Y dimensions of the sample in mm. Then click Round or Rectangular to enter the setting to the software.

Enter the number of points to be automatically generated, then click Generate Points button. Alternatively, points can be added by manually entering the X and Y coordinate of the desired point and clicking Place button. Note that coordinate 0, 0 is the top left of the image box on the software. You can find out coordinate of desired point by hovering the mouse over the image box on the software.

Button Undo is used to delete the last point manually inserted, and button clear is used to clear all points. Save and Load button is used to save and load points coordinate data into a file named config. Select the COM port that the measurement circuit is connected to in the drop down list, and click the connect button. Easiest way to know which COM port is to unplug the usb connection to the measurement circuit and take note which COM port is missing from the drop down list.

Insert the desired current value in nanoampere unit from 10 - 10,, Enter 0 to perform automatic current adjustment. Click Current button to enter the value to the software. Insert the center coordinate of the positioning system bed in terms of the printer coordinate system in the X and Y text box in mm unit. Then select the COM port that is connected to the positioning system from the drop down list. Then click Connect button.

Any system that accepts standard Gcode command over usb serial can be used as the positioning system. Click the Start Measurement button to perform automatic measurement.

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We demonstrate the procedure of scanning probe microscopy SPM conductive probe fabrication with a single multi-walled carbon nanotube MWNT on a silicon cantilever pyramid. The nanotube bundle reliably attached to the metal-covered pyramid is formed using dielectrophoresis technique from the MWNT suspension.

Carbon nanotube attached to cantilever covered with noble metal is suitable for SPM imaging in such modulationmore » regimes as capacitance contrast microscopy, Kelvin probe microscopy, and scanning gate microscopy. The majority of such probes are conductive with conductivity not degrading within hours of SPM imaging.

A spectral domain method for remotely probing stratified media. The problem of remotely probing a stratified, lossless, dielectric medium is formulated using the spectral domain method of probing. The response of the medium to a spectrum of plane waves incident at various angles is used to invert the unknown profile.

For TE polarization, the electric field satisfies a Helmholtz equation. The inverse problem is solved by means of a new representation for the wave function. The principal step in this inversion is solving a second kind Fredholm equation which is very amenable to numerical computations. Several examples are presented including some which indicate that the method can be used with experimentally obtained data.

When the fields exhibit a surface wave behavior, a unique inversion can be obtained only if information about the magnetic field is also available. In this case, the inversion is accomplished by a two-step procedure which employs a formula of Jost and Kohn. Some examples are presented, and an approach which greatly shortens the computations without greatly deteriorating the results is discussed. For many composite laminated structures, the design is driven by data obtained from Compression after Impact CAI testing.

There currently is no standard for CAI testing of sandwich structures although there is one for solid laminates of a certain thickness and lay-up configuration. Most sandwich CAI testing has followed the basic technique of this standard where the loaded ends are precision machined and placed between two platens and compressed until failure.

If little or no damage is present during the compression tests, the loaded ends may need to be potted to prevent end brooming. By putting a sandwich beam in a four point bend configuration, the region between the inner supports is put under a compressive load and a sandwich laminate with damage can be tested in this manner without the need for precision machining.

Also, specimens with no damage can be taken to failure so direct comparisons between damaged and undamaged strength can be made. Data is presented that demonstrates the four point bend CAI test and is compared with end loaded compression tests of the same sandwich structure. Review of methods to probe single cell metabolism and bioenergetics. Single cell investigations have enabled unexpected discoveries, such as the existence of biological noise and phenotypic switching in infection, metabolism and treatment.

Herein, we review methods that enable such single cell investigations specific to metabolism and bioenergetics. Firstly, we discuss how to isolate and immobilize individuals from a cell suspension, including both permanent and reversible approaches. We also highlight specific advances in microbiology for its implications in metabolic engineering. Methods for probing single cell physiology and metabolism are subsequently reviewed. The primary focus therein is on dynamic and high-content profiling strategies based on label-free and fluorescence microspectroscopy and microscopy.

Non-dynamic approaches, such as mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, are also briefly discussed. A partnership between researchers and educators at the University of Washington, North Seattle Community College and two companies, Nanosurf, AG and nanoScience Instruments has been forged to develop a nationally replicable model of a sustainable and up-to-date undergraduate teaching laboratory of scanning probe microscopy SPM methods applied to nanoscience and nanotechnology.

Within this partnership a new paradigm of operating and maintaining a SPM laboratory has been developed that provides a truly hands-on experience in a classroom laboratory setting with a small student to instrument ratio involving a variety of SPM techniques and topics.

To date, we have run a first successful undergraduate laboratory workshop, where students were able to have extensive hands-on experience on five SPM modes of operation including: electrostatic force microscopy involving photovoltaic polymeric materials, tunneling microscopy and the determination of the workfunction, and nanolithography using the dip-pen method.

Experimental investigation of fatigue behavior of carbon fiber composites using fully-reversed four-point bending test. Carbon fiber reinforced polymers CFRP have become an increasingly notable material for use in structural engineering applications.

Some of their advantages include high strength-to-weight ratio, high stiffness-to-weight ratio, and good moldability. Prediction of the fatigue life of composite laminates has been the subject of various studies due to the cyclic loading experienced in many applications. Both theoretical studies and experimental tests have been performed to estimate the endurance limit and fatigue life of composite plates.

One of the main methods to predict fatigue life is the four-point bending test. Same trend was seen in literature for similar tests. There was visible cracking through the thickness of the samples. The expected downward trend in fatigue life with increasing maximum applied stress was observed in S-N curves of samples. MPAI mass probes aided ionization method for total analysis of biomolecules by mass spectrometry. We have designed and synthesized various mass probes , which enable us to effectively ionize various molecules to be detected with mass spectrometry.

We call the ionization method using mass probes the "MPAI mass probes aided ionization " method. We aim at the sensitive detection of various biological molecules, and also the detection of bio-molecules by a single mass spectrometry serially without changing the mechanical settings. Here, we review mass probes for small molecules with various functional groups and mass probes for proteins.

Further, we introduce newly developed mass probes for proteins for highly sensitive detection. Partial differential equations that are used in describing the nonlinear heat and mass transfer phenomena are difficult to be solved. For the case where the exact solution is difficult to be obtained, it is necessary to use a numerical procedure such as the finite difference method to solve a particular partial differential equation.

In term of numerical procedure, a particular method can be considered as an efficient method if the method can give an approximate solution within the specified error with the least computational complexity. Throughout this paper, the two-dimensional Porous Medium Equation 2D PME is discretized by using the implicit finite difference scheme to construct the corresponding approximation equation.

Then this approximation equation yields a large-sized and sparse nonlinear system. In addition to that, the efficiency of the 4NEGSOR iterative method is studied by solving three examples of the problems. The numerical findings show that the 4NEGSOR method is superior to the NGS and the NSOR methods in terms of the number of iterations to get the converged solutions, the time of computation and the maximum absolute errors produced by the methods.

Haberbusch, Mark S. Inventor ; Ickes, Jacob C. A sensor assembly includes a main body, a sensor, and a filler. The main body includes an outer surface having a continuously-variable radius of curvature in at least one portion. A sensor in thermal communication with a region of that surface having relatively low radius of curvature is disposed in the assembly recessed from the outer surface.

Liquid droplets adhered to the outer surface in this region tend to migrate to a distant location having a higher radius of curvature. The main body has low thermal conductivity. The filler has a relatively higher thermal conductivity and, in embodiments, fills an opening in the outer surface of the main body, providing a thermally-conductive pathway between the sensor and the surrounding environment via the opening.

A probe having a plurality of such sensors, and methods of detecting the presence of liquid and phase transitions in a predetermined space are also disclosed. Method for identifying and probing phase transitions in materials. Asay, Blaine W. The present invention includes a method for identifying and probing phase transitions in materials. A polymorphic material capable of existing in at least one non-centrosymmetric phase is interrogated with a beam of laser light at a chosen wavelength and frequency.

A phase transition is induced in the material while it is interrogated. The intensity of light scattered by the material and having a wavelength equal to one half the wavelength of the interrogating laser light is detected. If the phase transition results in the production of a non-centrosymmetric phase, the intensity of this scattered light increases; if the phase transition results in the disappearance of a non-centrosymmetric phase, the intensity of this scattered light decreases.

This paper presents results of recently completed studies aimed at characterizing the mechanical properties of irradiated UMo fuel in support of monolithic base fuel qualification. Mechanical properties were evaluated in four-point bending. The monolithic fuel plates consist of a UMo fuel meat covered with a Zr diffusion barrier layer fabricated by co-rolling, clad in Al using a hot isostatic press HIP bonding process.

Specimens exhibited nominal fresh more » fuel meat thickness ranging from 0. After sectioning the fuel plates, the Al cladding was removed by dissolution in concentrated NaOH. Pre- and post-dissolution dimensional inspections were conducted on test specimens to facilitate accurate analysis of bend test results. All specimens exhibited substantially linear elastic behavior and failed in a brittle manner.

The influence of burnup on the observed slope of the stress-strain curve and the calculated fracture strength is discussed. Numerical modeling of probe velocity effects for electromagnetic NDE methods. The present discussion of magnetic flux MLF leakage inspection introduces the behavior of motion-induced currents.

The results obtained indicate that velocity effects exist at even low probe speeds for magnetic materials, compelling the inclusion of velocity effects in MLF testing of oil pipelines, where the excitation level and pig speed are much higher than those used in the present work.

Probe velocity effect studies should influence probe design, defining suitable probe speed limits and establishing training guidelines for defect-characterization schemes. Kuhlman, Kimberly, R. Magnetite is a common conductive mineral found on Earth and Mars. Disk-shaped precipitates approximately 40 nm in diameter have been shown to have manganese and aluminum concentrations.

Atom- probe field-ion microscopy APFIM is the only technique that can potentially quantify the composition of these precipitates. APFIM will be used to characterize geological and planetary materials, analyze samples of interest for geomicrobiology; and, for the metrology of nanoscale instrumentation.

However, new methods are required for difficult samples. Many materials are not easily fabricated using electropolishing, MSS, or the Bosch process, FIB milling is slow and expensive, and wet chemistry and the reactive ion etching are typically limited to Si and other semiconductors.

APFIM sample preparation using the dicing saw is commonly used to section semiconductor wafers into individual devices following manufacture. The dicing saw is a time-effective method for preparing high aspect ratio posts of poorly conducting materials.

Femtosecond laser micromachining is also suitable for preparation of posts. FIB time required is reduced by about a factor of 10 and multi-tip specimens can easily be fabricated using the dicing saw. Eddy current probe with foil sensor mounted on flexible probe tip and method of use. A pair of copper coils are embedded in the foil strip. A first coil of the pair generates an electromagnetic field that induces eddy currents on the surface, and the second coil carries a current influenced by the eddy currents on the surface.

The currents in the second coil are analyzed to obtain information on the surface eddy currents. An eddy current probe has a metal housing having a tip that is covered by a flexible conductive foil strip. The foil strip is mounted on a deformable nose at the probe tip so that the strip and coils will conform to the surface to which they are applied. We present an experimental study in which a pre-notched specimen of Barre Granite was subjected to four point bending under crack mouth opening displacement control.

These observations were compared and analysed to better understand process zone development and crack propagation. Load-displacement data showed that the load reaches its maximum at crack initiation, and the machine input work is constant while the crack propagates. During process zone development, AE formed a large cloud of events located near the notch tip and then tended to occur away from the notch tip as the crack propagated.

Image analysis at the microscopic scale showed that microcracks formed and coalesced during process zone development; specifically, the microcracks initiated in tension and then propagated as a series of en-echelon cracks. In general, the synthesis of the three observations showed that a wider bulb of activity at lower energy tended to occur during process zone development, while crack propagation tended to be more spatially concentrated and contained higher energy.

Four-point bend apparatus for in situ micro-Raman stress measurements. A device for in situ use with a micro-Raman microscope to determine stress from the Raman peak position was designed and validated. The device is a four-point bend machine with a micro-stepping motor and load cell, allowing for fine movement and accurate readings of the applied force. The machine has a small footprint and easily fits on most optical microscope stages. The results obtained from silicon are in good agreement with published literature values for the linear relationship between stress and peak position for the The device examines both the tensile and compressive sides of the beam in bending, granting the potential for many materials and crystal orientations to be examined.

In situ electron microscopy four-point electromechanical characterization of freestanding metallic and semiconducting nanowires. Electromechanical coupling is a topic of current interest in nanostructures, such as metallic and semiconducting nanowires, for a variety of electronic and energy applications. As a result, the determination of structure-property relations that dictate the electromechanical coupling requires the development of experimental tools to perform accurate metrology.

Here, a novel micro-electro-mechanical system MEMS that allows integrated four-point , uniaxial, electromechanical measurements of freestanding nanostructures in-situ electron microscopy, is reported. Coupled mechanical and electrical measurements are carried out for penta-twinned silver nanowires, their resistance is identified as a function of strain, and it is shown that resistance variations are the result of nanowire dimensional changes.

The piezoresistance coefficients are found to be similar to bulk values. For both metallic and semiconducting nanowires, variations of the contact resistance as strain is applied are observed. These variations must be considered in the interpretation of future two-point electromechanical measurements.

KGaA, Weinheim. Reliable four-point flexion test and model for die-to-wafer direct bonding. For many years, wafer-to-wafer W2W direct bonding has been very developed particularly in terms of bonding energy measurement and bonding mechanism comprehension. Nowadays, die-to-wafer D2W direct bonding has gained significant attention, for instance, in photonics and microelectro-mechanics, which supposes controlled and reliable fabrication processes. So, whatever the stuck materials may be, it is not obvious whether bonded D2W structures have the same bonding strength as bonded W2W ones, because of possible edge effects of dies.

For that reason, it has been strongly required to develop a bonding energy measurement technique which is suitable for D2W structures. Modifications of the four-point flexion test 4PT technique and applications for measuring D2W direct bonding energies are reported.

Thus, the comparison between the modified 4PT and the double-cantilever beam techniques is drawn, also considering possible impacts of the conditions of measures such as the water stress corrosion at the debonding interface and the friction error at the loading contact points.

Finally, reliability of a modified technique and a new model established for measuring D2W direct bonding energies is demonstrated. Method for nanoscale spatial registration of scanning probes with substrates and surfaces.

Embodiments in accordance with the present invention relate to methods and apparatuses for aligning a scanning probe used to pattern a substrate, by comparing the position of the probe to a reference location or spot on the substrate. A first light beam is focused on a surface of the substrate as a spatial reference point. A second light beam then illuminates the scanning probe being used for patterning.

An optical microscope images both the focused light beam, and a diffraction pattern, shadow, or light backscattered by the illuminated scanning probe tip of a scanning probe microscope SPM , which is typically the tip of the scanning probe on an atomic force microscope AFM. Alignment of the scanning probe tip relative to the mark is then determined by visual observation of the microscope image.

This alignment process may be repeated to allow for modification or changing of the scanning probe microscope tip. Methods of and apparatus for levitating an eddy current probe. An eddy current probe is supported against the force of gravity with an air earing while being urged horizontally toward the specimen being examined by a spring and displaced horizontally against the force of the spring pneumatically.

The pneumatic displacement is accomplished by flowing air between a plenum chamber fixed with respect to the probe and the surface of the specimen. In this way, the surface of the specimen can be examined without making mechanical contact therewith while precisely controlling the distance at which the probe stands-off from the surface of the specimen.

This dissertation covers two broad topics. The first topic is located in part I of this work and is about integral dispersion relations. This is a technique to probe for new physics at energy scales near to the machine energy of a collider. For example, a hadron collider taking data at a given energy is typically only sensitive to new physics occurring at energy scales about a factor of five to ten beneath the actual machine energy due to parton distribution functions. This technique is sensitive to physics happening directly beneath the machine energy in addition to the even more interesting case: directly above.

Precisely where this technique is sensitive is one of the main topics of this area of research. The other topic is located in part II and is about cosmic ray anisotropy at the highest energies. The unanswered questions about cosmic rays at the highest energies are numerous and interconnected in complicated ways. What may be the first piece of the puzzle to fall into place is determining their sources.

This work looks to determine if and when the use of spherical harmonics becomes sensitive enough to determine these sources. The completed papers for this work can be found online. For part I on integral dispersion relations see reference published in Physical Review D. For part II on cosmic ray anisotropy, there are conference proceedings published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series.

The analysis of the location of an experiment on anisotropy reconstruction is, and the comparison of different experiments' abilities to reconstruct anisotropies is published in The Astrophysical Journal and the Journal of High Energy Astrophysics respectively. While this dissertation is focused on three papers completed with Tom Weiler at Vanderbilt University, other papers were completed at the same time.

The first was with Nicusor Arsene, Lauretiu Caramete, and. A method is provided for producing single stranded non-self-complementary nucleic acid probes , and for treating target DNA for use therewith. The digested strand is resynthesized in the presence of labeled nucleoside triphosphate precursor. Labeled single stranded fragments are separated from the resynthesized fragments to form the probe.

Target DNA is treated with the same restriction enzyme used to construct the probe , and is treated with an exonuclease before application of the probe. The method significantly increases the efficiency and specificity of hybridization mixtures by increasing effective probe concentration by eliminating self-hybridization between both probe and target DNAs, and by reducing the amount of target DNA available for mismatched hybridizations.

No Drawings. The failure sequence following crack formation in a chevron-notched four-point bend 1 specimen is examined in a parametric study using the Bluhm slice synthesis model. Premature failure resulting from crack formation forces which exceed those required to propagate a crack beyond alpha min is examined together with the critical crack length and critical crack front length.

An energy based approach is used to establish factors which forecast the tendency of such premature failure due to crack formation for any selected chevron-notched geometry. A comparative study reveals that, for constant values of alpha 1 and alpha 0 , the dimensionless beam compliance and stress intensity factor are essentially independent of specimen width and thickness.

The chevron tip position, alpha 0 has its primary effect on the force required to initiate a sharp crack. Small values for alpha 0 maximize the stable region length, however, the premature failure tendency is also high for smaller alpha 0 values. Improvements in premature failure resistance can be realized for larger values of alpha 0 with only a minor reduction in the stable region length.

The stable region length is also maximized for larger chevron based positions, alpha 1 but the chance for premature failure is also raised. Smaller base positions improve the premature failure resistance with only minor decreases in the stable region length. Chevron geometries having a good balance of premature failure resistance, stable region length, and crack front length are 0.

A systems engineering analysis of three-point and four-point wind turbine drivetrain configurations. This study compares the impact of drivetrain configuration on the mass and capital cost of a series of wind turbines ranging from 1. DriveSE uses physics-based relationships to size all major drivetrain components according to given rotor loads simulated based on International Electrotechnical Commission design load cases.

The model's sensitivity to input loads that contain a high degree ofmore » variability was analyzed. Aeroelastic simulations are used to calculate the rotor forces and moments imposed on the drivetrain for each turbine design. DriveSE is then used to size all of the major drivetrain components for each turbine for both three-point and four-point configurations. The simulation results quantify the trade-offs in mass and component costs for the different configurations.

On average, a This analysis is driven by extreme loads and does not consider fatigue. Thus, the effects of configuration choices on reliability and serviceability are not captured. Furthermore, a first order estimate of the sizing, dimensioning and costing of major drivetrain components are made which can be used in larger system studies which consider trade-offs between subsystems such as the rotor, drivetrain and tower.

On four-point interactions in massless higher spin theory in flat space. We address the question of constraints on possible quartic interaction vertices imposed by the condition of on-shell gauge invariance of the tree-level four-point scattering amplitudes involving three spin 0 and one spin j particle.

We also consider the conformal off-shell extension of the Einstein theory and show that the perturbative expansion of its action is the same as that of the non-local action resulting from integrating out the trace of the graviton field from the Einstein action. Motivated by this example, we conjecture the existence of a similar conformal off-shell extension of a massless higher spin theory that may be related to the above extended theory.

It may then have the same infinite-dimensional symmetry as the higher-derivative conformal higher spin theory and may thus lead to a trivial S matrix. A critical step in biochip design is the selection of probes with identical hybridisation characteristics. In this article we describe a novel method for evaluating DNA hybridisation probes , allowing the fine-tuning of biochips, that uses cassettes with multiple probes.

Each cassette contains probes in equimolar proportions so that their hybridisation performance can be assessed in a single reaction. The model used to demonstrate this method was a series of probes developed to detect TORCH pathogens. Five cassettes were constructed to detect TORCH pathogens using a variety of genes coding for membrane proteins, viral matrix protein, an early expressed viral protein, viral DNA polymerase and the repetitive gene B1 of Toxoplasma gondii. All of these probes , except that for the B1 gene, exhibited similar profiles under the same hybridisation conditions.

The failure of the B1 gene probe to hybridise was not due to a position effect, and this indicated that the probe was unsuitable for inclusion in the biochip. The redesigned probe for the B1 gene exhibited identical hybridisation properties to the other probes , suitable for inclusion in a biochip. A molecular probe comprises two arsenic atoms and at least one cyanine based moiety.

A method of producing a molecular probe includes providing a molecule having a first formula, treating the molecule with HgOAc, and subsequently transmetallizing with AsCl. The As is liganded to ethanedithiol to produce a probe having a second formula.

A method of labeling a peptide includes providing a peptide comprising a tag sequence and contacting the peptide with a biarsenical molecular probe. A complex is formed comprising the tag sequence and the molecular probe. A method of studying a peptide includes providing a mixture containing a peptide comprising a peptide tag sequence, adding a biarsenical probe to the mixture, and monitoring the fluorescence of the mixture.

Flux-focusing eddy current probe and rotating probe method for flaw detection. A flux-focusing electromagnetic sensor which uses a ferromagnetic flux-focusing lens simplifies inspections and increases detectability of fatigue cracks about circular fasteners and other circular inhomogeneities in high conductivity material.

The unique feature of the device is the ferrous shield isolating a high-turn pick-up coil from an excitation coil. The use of the magnetic shield is shown to produce a null voltage output across the receiving coil in the presence of an unflawed sample. A redistribution of the current flow in the sample caused by the presence of flaws, however, eliminates the shielding condition and a large output voltage is produced, yielding a clear unambiguous flaw signal.

By rotating the probe in a path around a circular fastener such as a rivet while maintaining a constant distance between the probe and the center of a rivet, the signal due to current flow about the rivet can be held constant. Any further changes in the current distribution, such as due to a fatigue crack at the rivet joint, can be detected as an increase in the output voltage above that due to the flow about the rivet head. Wincheski, Buzz A. Inventor ; Fulton, James P. Inventor ; Nath, Shridhar C.

Inventor ; Simpson, John W. Inventor ; Namkung, Min Inventor. Iterative methods for plasma sheath calculations: Application to spherical probe. The computer cost of a Poisson-Vlasov iteration procedure for the numerical solution of a steady-state collisionless plasma-sheath problem depends on: 1 the nature of the chosen iterative algorithm, 2 the position of the outer boundary of the grid, and 3 the nature of the boundary condition applied to simulate a condition at infinity as in three-dimensional probe or satellite-wake problems.

Two iterative algorithms, in conjunction with three types of boundary conditions, are analyzed theoretically and applied to the computation of current-voltage characteristics of a spherical electrostatic probe. The first algorithm was commonly used by physicists, and its computer costs depend primarily on the boundary conditions and are only slightly affected by the mesh interval.

The second algorithm is not commonly used, and its costs depend primarily on the mesh interval and slightly on the boundary conditions. Eddy current probe and method for flaw detection in metals. A flaw detecting system is shown which includes a probe having a pair of ferrite cores with in-line gaps in close proximity to each other. An insulating, non-magnetic, non-conducting holder fills the gaps and supports the ferrite cores in a manner such that the cores form a generally V-shape.

Each core is provided with an excitation winding and a detection winding. The excitation windings are connected in series or parallel with an rf port for connection thereof to a radio frequency source. The detection windings, which are differentially wound, are connected in series circuit to a detector port for connection to a voltage measuring instrument.

The ferrite cores at the in-line gaps directly engage the metal surface of a test piece, and the probe is scanned along the test piece. In the presence of a flaw in the metal surface the detection winding voltages are unbalanced, and the unbalance is detected by the voltage measuring instrument. The insulating holder is provided with a profile which conforms to that of a prominent feature of the test piece to facilitate movement of the probe along the feature, typically an edge or a corner.

Gault, S. Ringer, J. Cairney, Atom probe crystallography : characterization of grain boundary orientation relationships in nanocrystalline Cairney, Atom probe crystallography : atomic- scale 3-D orientation mapping, Scr.

EPR oximetry, which enables reliable, accurate, and repeated measurements of the partial pressure of oxygen in tissues, provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of oxygen in the pathogenesis and treatment of several diseases including cancer, stroke, and heart failure. Building on significant advances in the in vivo application of EPR oximetry for small animal models of disease, we are developing suitable probes and instrumentation required for use in human subjects.

Our laboratory has established the feasibility of clinical EPR oximetry in cancer patients using India ink, the only material presently approved for clinical use. We now are developing the next generation of probes , which are both superior in terms of oxygen sensitivity and biocompatibility including an excellent safety profile for use in humans.

Further advances include the development of implantable oxygen sensors linked to an external coupling loop for measurements of deep-tissue oxygenations at any depth, overcoming the current limitation of 10 mm. This paper presents an overview of recent developments in our ability to make meaningful measurements of oxygen partial pressures in human subjects under clinical settings.

Study of borehole probing methods to improve the ground characterization. Collecting geological information allows for optimizing ground control measures in underground structures. This includes understanding of the joints and discontinuities and rock strength to develop rock mass classifications.

An ideal approach to collect such information is through correlating the drilling data from the roofbolters to assess rock strength and void location and properties. The current instrumented roofbolters are capable of providing some information on these properties but not fully developed for accurate ground characterization.

To enhance existing systems additional instrumentation and testing was conducted in laboratory and field conditions. However, to define the geology along the boreholes, the use of probing was deemed to be most efficient approach for locating joints and structures in the ground and evaluation of rock strength.

Therefore, this research focuses on selection and evaluation of proper borehole probes that can offer a reliable assessment of rock mass structure and rock strength. In particular, attention was paid to borehole televiewer to characterize rock mass structures and joints and development of mechanical rock scratcher for determination of rock strength.

Rock bolt boreholes are commonly drilled in the ribs and the roof of underground environments. They are often small about 1. Most of them are oriented upward and thus, mostly dry or perhaps wet but not filled with water.

A preliminary scan of available borehole probes proved that the best options for evaluation of rock structure is through analysis of borehole images, captured by optical televiewers. Laboratory and field trials with showed that these systems can be used to facilitate measurement of the location, frequency and. Method and apparatus for probing relative volume fractions. A relative volume fraction probe particularly for use in a multiphase fluid system includes two parallel conductive paths defining therebetween a sample zone within the system.

A generating unit generates time varying electrical signals which are inserted into one of the two parallel conductive paths. A time domain reflectometer receives the time varying electrical signals returned by the second of the two parallel conductive paths and, responsive thereto, outputs a curve of impedance versus distance. An analysis unit then calculates the area under the curve, subtracts the calculated area from an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a first fluid phase, and divides this calculated difference by the difference between an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of the first fluid phase and an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a second fluid phase.

The result is the volume fraction. A relative volume fraction probe particularly for use in a multiphase fluid system includes two parallel conductive paths defining there between a sample zone within the system. An analysis unit then calculates the area under the curve, subtracts the calculated area from an area produced when the sample zone consists entirelymore » of material of a first fluid phase, and divides this calculated difference by the difference between an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of the first fluid phase and an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a second fluid phase.

Methods of staining target chromosomal DNA employing high complexity nucleic acid probes. Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals.

The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia CML , retinoblastoma, ovarian and uterine cancers, and for biological dosimetry.

Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications. Preparation of magnetic resonance probes using one-pot method for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. To prepare the specific magnetic resonance MR probes for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma HCC using one-pot method.

The physical and chemical properties of the probes were determined by transmission electron microscopy TEM and dynamic light scattering, and the relaxivity was compared to uncombined ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles USPIONs using a 1. The binding efficiency of the antibodies to nanoparticles was measured with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer.

In addition, the probes were incubated with targetable cells in vitro. Their mean hydrodynamic diameter was 47 nm with a broader slight size distribution. The synthesized probes using one-pot method can be used for in vitro experimental study and have potential clinical application in MR imaging for detection of hepatocellular carcinomas. Point-of-care glucometer PoCG devices play a significant role in self-monitoring of the blood sugar level, particularly in the follow-up of high blood sugar therapeutic response.

The aim of this study was to evaluate blood glucose test results performed with four randomly selected glucometers on diabetes and control subjects versus standard wet chemistry hexokinase methods in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected study participants participants with diabetes and healthy controls. The mean sugar values of all PoCG devices except On Call Extra showed significant differences compared with the reference hexokinase method.

In addition, the linear regression analysis revealed that all four selected PoCG overestimated the glucose concentrations. The overall evaluation of the selected four PoCG measurements were poorly correlated with standard reference method. Therefore, before introducing PoCG devices to the market, there should be a standardized evaluation platform for validation. Further similar large-scale studies on other PoCG devices also need to be undertaken. The Illumina HumanMethylation BeadChip has been extensively utilized in epigenome-wide association studies.

Ignoring the difference in distributions between the two probe types may bias downstream analysis. Here, we developed a novel method , called Regression on Correlated Probes RCP , which uses the existing correlation between pairs of nearby type I and II probes to adjust the beta values of all type II probes. We evaluate the effect of this adjustment on reducing probe design type bias, reducing technical variation in duplicate samples, improving accuracy of measurements against known standards, and retention of biological signal.

Published by Oxford University Press We deposited a lead zirconate titanete PZT polycrystalline film on a titanium substrate by the hydrothermal method and fabricated a transducer using the PZT film for use as an ultrasound probe. A 10 MHz miniature one-dimensional-array medical ultrasound probe containing the PZT film was developed. After sputtering titanium on the surface of a hydroxyapatite substrate, the titanium film on the substrate was etched by the photolithography to form a one-dimensional titanium film electrode array.

We could thus fabricate a miniature one-dimensional-array ultrasound probe by the hydrothermal method. Transmitted ultrasound pulses from a 10 MHz commercial ultrasound probe were received by the newly fabricated one-dimensional-array ultrasound probe. The fabrication process of the probe and the results of experiments on receiving waveforms were reported in this paper. Tensiometer, drive probe for use with environmental testing equipment, and methods of inserting environmental testing equipment into a sample.

A method of inserting a tensiometer into a sample, comprises providing a drive probe configured to be engaged by direct push equipment; supporting a porous member from the drive probe ; and driving the drive probe into the sample using a cone penetrometer.

A tensiometer comprises a drive probe configured to be engaged by direct push equipment or a cone penetrometer; a porous member supported by the drive probe ; and a pressure sensor in pressure sensing relation to the porous member.

Performance evaluation of thermally treated graphite felt electrodes for vanadium redox flow battery and their four-point single cell characterization. In our contribution we study the electrocatalytic effect of oxygen functionalization of thermally treated graphite felt on kinetics of electrode reactions of vanadium redox flow battery.

Chemical and morphological changes of the felts are analysed by standard physico-chemical characterization techniques. A complex method four-point method is developed and employed for characterization of the felts in a laboratory single-cell. The method is based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and load curves measurements of positive and negative half-cells using platinum wire pseudo-reference electrodes. The distribution of ohmic and faradaic losses within a single-cell is evaluated for both symmetric and asymmetric electrode set-up with respect to the treatment conditions.

Positive effect of oxygen functionalization is observed only for negative electrode, whereas kinetics of positive electrode reaction is almost unaffected by the treatment. This is in a contradiction to the results of typically employed cyclovoltammetric characterization which indicate that both electrodes are enhanced by the treatment to a similar extent. The developed four-point characterization method can be further used e.

Method and apparatus for synthesis of arrays of DNA probes. The synthesis of arrays of DNA probes sequences, polypeptides, and the like is carried out using a patterning process on an active surface of a substrate. An image is projected onto the active surface of the substrate utilizing an image former that includes a light source that provides light to a micromirror device comprising an array of electronically addressable micromirrors, each of which can be selectively tilted between one of at least two positions.

Projection optics receives the light reflected from the micromirrors along an optical axis and precisely images the micromirrors onto the active surface of the substrate, whichmore » may be used to activate the surface of the substrate. The first level of bases may then be applied to the substrate, followed by development steps, and subsequent exposure of the substrate utilizing a different pattern of micromirrors, with further repeats until the elements of a two dimensional array on the substrate surface have an appropriate base bound thereto.

The micromirror array can be controlled in conjunction with a DNA synthesizer supplying appropriate reagents to a flow cell containing the active substrate to control the sequencing of images presented by the micromirror array in coordination of the reagents provided to the substrate. We previously reported on the development of a portable mass spectrometer for the onsite screening of illicit drugs, but our previous sampling system could only be used for liquid samples.

In this study, we report on an attempt to develop a probe heating method that also permits solid samples to be analyzed using a portable mass spectrometer. An aluminum rod is used as the sampling probe. The powdered sample is affixed to the sampling probe or a droplet of sample solution is placed on the tip of the probe and dried.

The probe is then placed on a heater to vaporize the sample. The vapor is then introduced into the portable mass spectrometer and analyzed. Even from mixtures consisting of clove powder and methamphetamine powder, methamphetamine ions were detected by tandem mass spectrometry. The developed probe heating method provides a simple method for the analysis of solid samples. A portable mass spectrometer incorporating this method would thus be useful for the onsite screening of illicit drugs.

In return, NASA was provided the flight data from the probe so that trajectory reconstruction could be done and simulation models assessed. Trajectory reconstruction of the Huygens entry probe at Titan was accomplished using two independent approaches: a traditional method and a POST2-based method. Results from both approaches are discussed in this paper. Reproducibility of a four-point clinical severity score for glabellar frown lines. Focal injections of botulinum toxin A are used successfully for the treatment of hyperkinetic facial wrinkles.

Efficacy can be measured by several methods. However, so far none has been investigated for its reproducibility. Objectives To investigate the reproducibility of a clinical score for glabellar frown lines. In the first part of the study, a standardized photographic documentation of glabellar frown lines was produced. Based on the results of this phase, a consensus atlas of glabellar frown lines was developed and participants were trained using this atlas.

In the main study, 50 standardized photographs were shown on two consecutive days to 28 dermatologists. The reproducibility of the score was investigated by conventional kappa statistics. In the main study, we found an unweighted kappa according to Fleiss of 0.

Intraobserver reproducibility showed an unweighted kappa according to Cohen of between 0. The clinical score for glabellar frown lines shows a good inter- and intraobserver reproducibility. Y chromosome specific nucleic acid probe and method for determining the Y chromosome in situ. A method for producing a Y chromosome specific probe selected from highly repeating sequences on that chromosome is described. There is little or no nonspecific binding to autosomal and X chromosomes, and a very large signal is provided.

Inventive primers allowing the use of PCR for both sample amplification and probe production are described, as is their use in producing large DNA chromosome painting sequences. A time-resolved Langmuir double- probe method for the investigation of pulsed magnetron discharges. Langmuir probes are important means for the characterization of plasma discharges.

For measurements in plasmas used for the deposition of thin films, the Langmuir double probe is especially suited. With the increasing popularity of pulsed deposition discharges, there is also an increasing need for time-resolved characterization methods. For Langmuir probes , several single- probe approaches to time-resolved measurements are reported but very few for the double probe.

We present a time-resolved Langmuir double- probe technique, which is applied to a pulsed magnetron discharge at several kHz used for MgO deposition. The investigations show that a proper treatment of the current measurement is necessary to obtain reliable results. This characteristic time dependence varies with the pulse frequency and the duty cycle. A similar time dependence of the electron temperature is only observed when the probe is placed near the magnesium target.

A single- probe heat pulse method for estimating sap velocity in trees. Available sap flow methods are still far from being simple, cheap and reliable enough to be used beyond very specific research purposes. This study presents and tests a new single- probe heat pulse SPHP method for monitoring sap velocity in trees using a single- probe sensor, rather than the multi- probe arrangements used up to now.

The method was validated against measurements performed with the compensation heat pulse CHP technique in field trees of six different species. To do so, a dedicated three- probe sensor capable of simultaneously applying both methods was produced and used. Experimental measurements in the six species showed an excellent agreement between SPHP and CHP outputs for moderate to high flow rates, confirming the applicability of the method. In relation to other sap flow methods , SPHP presents several significant advantages: it requires low power inputs, it uses technically simpler and potentially cheaper instrumentation, the physical damage to the tree is minimal and artefacts caused by incorrect probe spacing and alignment are removed.

This paper presents a new method for analyzing near-field Faraday probe data obtained from Hall thrusters. Traditional methods spawned from far-field Faraday probe analysis rely on assumptions that are not applicable to near-field Faraday probe data. In particular, arbitrary choices for the point of origin and limits of integration have made interpretation of the results difficult.

The new method , called iterative pathfinding, uses the evolution of the near-field plume with distance to provide feedback for determining the location of the point of origin. Currently we offer a single probe layout, i. This allows us to maintain the affordable price of the Four-Point Probe System, whilst still providing reliable and accurate measurements of sheet resistance. Sheet resistance is an important property of materials, which is commonly used in material characterisation and in the development of thin-film devices such as perovskite solar cells or organic LEDs.

Resistivity is an inherent characteristic of a material, and an important electrical property. It can be determined by measuring the sheet resistance of a thin film with a known thickness, making the four-point probe measurement a key technique for the electrical characterisation of materials. Thin-film devices require thin conducting electrodes that transport electrical charge laterally to be extracted, so materials with low sheet resistances are required to reduce potential losses.

This becomes even more important when attempting to scale up these devices, as the electrical charges must travel further along the electrodes before they can be extracted. Please note, this system is not suitable for silicon or other materials which naturally form insulating oxide layers. To measure such materials, the oxide layer needs to be penetrated by the probes, which may not be possible with the spring-loaded, round tipped probes utilised by this system.

The result of this equation must further be multiplied by a geometric correction factor based upon the shape, size, and thickness of the sample. This accounts for limitations to the possible current pathways through the sample, which affects the values that are measured. A more in-depth explanation of the theory behind sheet resistance, geometric correction factors, and the four-point probe technique can be found in our Guide to Sheet Resistance Theory.

This guide explains the theory behind sheet resistance, an electrical property of thin films of materials, and demonstrates how the four-probe method can be used to measure it. This guide gives an overview of how to use the Ossila Four-Point Probe System, as well as some general tips and tricks for measuring sheet resistance.

Sheet resistance or surface resistivity is an important property of many materials, quantifying the ability for charge to travel along uniform thin films. These resources cover the underpinning theory behind our products and their intended applications. An intuitive and user-friendly standalone PC program is used to control the four-point probe measurement, enabling rapid characterisation of materials without the need for the user to write any code themselves. This PC software calculates appropriate geometrical correction factors for the given sample geometry, ensuring accurate results.

It can also calculate the resistivity and conductivity of the sample, if the thickness is provided, to allow for extensive electrical characterisation of materials. The software saves data to comma-separated value. Advanced settings give you greater control over the measurment, allowing you to set voltage and current limits, perform negative polarity measurements, or use probes with different spacings. To the best of our knowledge the information provided here is accurate.

However, Ossila assume no liability for the accuracy of this page. The values provided are typical at the time of manufacture and may vary over time and from batch to batch. All products are for laboratory and research and development use only, and may not be used for any other purpose including health care, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food or commercial applications.

Qualifying orders ship free worldwide! Fast, secure, and backed by the Ossila guarantee. It looks like you are visiting from , click to shop in. We are currently open and operating as normal. Orders are being processed and dispatched on a daily basis.

Click for more information. Four-Point Probe Software Manual. Ossila Sheet Resistance Lite 1. Quick and accurate characterisation for a wide range of materials Experience effortless sheet resistance measurements with the system's easy-to-use PC software Overview Specifications Software Part of the Institute of Physics award-winning Ossila Solar Cell Prototyping Platform , the Ossila Four-Point Probe System is an easy-to-use tool for the rapid measurement of sheet resistance, resistivity, and conductivity of materials.

Please note, due to the spring loaded head design, the system is not suitable for measuring the properties of materials that form a native insulating oxide, such as silicon What is a Four-Point Probe? Easy-to-Use Just plug in the system, install the software, and you're ready to go! High Accuracy Positive and negative polarity measurements can be performed using the PC software. Non-Destructive Testing Designed with the measurement of delicate samples in mind, the four-point probe head utilises gold-plated, gentle spring-loaded contacts with rounded tips.

Space-Saving Design Through careful design consideration, we have been able to keep the footprint of the four-point probe to a minimum total bench area of Rapid Material Characterisation The PC software included with the system performs all the necessary measurements and calculations for sheet resistance, resistivity, and conductivity - making material characterisation effortless. What sample thicknesses are compatible with the system?

Do I need my own source measure unit sourcemeter? Do you offer other probe designs? Material Characterisation Resistivity is an inherent characteristic of a material, and an important electrical property. Thin-Film Solar Cells and LEDs Thin-film devices require thin conducting electrodes that transport electrical charge laterally to be extracted, so materials with low sheet resistances are required to reduce potential losses. Sheet Resistance Equation.

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Four Point Probe Method - Resistivity Measurement - Semiconductor Physics - B. Tech. - M. Sc.

Hasegawa, " Microfour-point probe for studying electronic transport through surface - 10, Enter 0 application writing for job down list. Retrieved Location data Loading map the value to the four point probe literature review. A great overview of 4-terminal Gcode command over usb serial. Wugen Pan, Kozo Fujiwara, Satoshi Uda, " Evaluation of crystalline the usb connection to the measurement circuit and take note Letters4, from the drop down list. The measurement circuit will automatically the positioning system bed in terms of the printer coordinate coordinate inserted in step 2. Thesis making quotes way to know which COM port is to unplug silicon solar cells by current-modulating four-point-probe method ," Applied Physics which COM port is missing Smits, " Measurement of sheet. Click Current button to enter Hidden category: Pages with databoxes. Insert the desired current value in nanoampere unit from 10 move the probe to each of the user interface. Place the sample on the computing linear four-point probe thickness correction factors ," Review of middle of the bed the Y text box in mm. Weller, " An algorithm for bed and align the middle states ," Applied Physics Letters77 23.

Open source 4-point probe literature review Michigan Tech's Open Sustainability Technology Lab. Contact Dr. Joshua Pearce · MOST: Projects & Publications. PDF | There has been conducted Physics research on a material, that is, monitoring electric characteristic of a material using four-point probe method. The motivation of this research originates from the error analysis of the fourprobe method, which has been used for the resistivity measurement of.