Readers see through that sort of thing pretty quickly. One of the most common purposes of counter-argument is to address positions that many people hold but that you think are mistaken. Therefore you want to be respectful and give them the benefit of the doubt even if you think their views are incorrect.
One of the most effective ways to rebut a counter-argument is to show that it is based on faulty assumptions. Either the facts are wrong, the analysis is incorrect, or the values it is based on are not acceptable. Examples of each are given below. Furthermore, some counter-arguments are simply irrelevant, usually because they are actually responding to a different argument. And some counter-arguments actually make your argument stronger, once you analyze their logic.
The examples below are ideas that you might use as a counter-argument to this claim, in a paper agreeing with Loewen. Then you would rebut, or answer, the counter-argument as a way to strengthen your own position. The factual assumption in this example is that racism is a thing of the past.
One response would be to muster facts to show that racism continues to be a problem. The analytical assumption is that learning about racism can make you racist. The response would be that understanding the causes of a problem is not the same as causing or creating the problem. The key is to base your arguments on values that most readers are likely to share. Many students are, in fact, already familiar with racism.
You might be very familiar with racism but still not know what causes it. This is a very common form of counter-argument, one that actually rebuts a different argument. The response shows that that assumption is incorrect. Sometimes you come up with a counter-argument that you think is true and that you think responds to your actual argument, not some other point. Then you are faced with a choice: Do you abandon your thesis and adopt the counter-argument as your position?
The new version might look like this:. So, studying racism might just make them want to be racist out of sheer contrariness. Then, you refine your original thesis to say something like this:. This also takes away some of the reasons a reader might have to disagree with you. Some counter-arguments are better than others. You want to use ones that are actually somewhat persuasive.
Two things to look for are reasonableness and popularity. On the other hand, you may be quite sure of your position, which makes it harder to see other views as reasonable. They all look flawed to you because you can point out their errors and show why your view is better. In that case, look for ones that are popular, even if they are flawed.
So you want to speak their language. Pick the arguments that you, or a lot of other people, feel are reasonable. The short answer is a counter-argument can go anywhere except the conclusion. This is because there has to be a rebuttal paragraph after the counter-argument, so if the counter-argument is in the conclusion, something has been left out. In practice there are exceptions , the rebuttal is usually not the concluding paragraph, which means that generally the counter-argument is anywhere but the last two paragraphs.
Counter-arguments can be very effective in introductions, especially if you are arguing against a popularly held view. This is probably the most common position. Generally, unless there is some compelling reason specific to the particular argument being made, it does not make sense to put the counter-argument in the middle of the case for the thesis. In other words, you would not typically present two points in support of the thesis, then the counter-argument and rebuttal, and then more points in support of the thesis.
Here are two outlines showing the most common placement of the counter-argument. The first is probably the most common. Since the purpose of the whole paper, including the counter-argument, is to support the thesis, these signals are crucial. But some imagining of other views, or of resistance to one's own, occurs in most good essays. And instructors are glad to encounter counterargument in student papers, even if they haven't specifically asked for it.
The Turn Against. Counterargument in an essay has two stages: you turn against your argument to challenge it and then you turn back to re-affirm it. You first imagine a skeptical reader, or cite an actual source, who might resist your argument by pointing out.
You introduce this turn against with a phrase like One might object here that Then you state the case against yourself as briefly but as clearly and forcefully as you can, pointing to evidence where possible. An obviously feeble or perfunctory counterargument does more harm than good.
The Turn Back. Your return to your own argument—which you announce with a but, yet, however, nevertheless or still —must likewise involve careful reasoning, not a flippant or nervous dismissal. In reasoning about the proposed counterargument, you may. Where to Put a Counterargument. Counterargument can appear anywhere in the essay, but it most commonly appears. But watch that you don't overdo it. A turn into counterargument here and there will sharpen and energize your essay, but too many such turns will have the reverse effect by obscuring your main idea or suggesting that you're ambivalent.
Counterargument in Pre-Writing and Revising. Good thinking constantly questions itself, as Socrates observed long ago. But at some point in the process of composing an essay, you need to switch off the questioning in your head and make a case. Having such an inner conversation during the drafting stage, however, can help you settle on a case worth making.
As you consider possible theses and begin to work on your draft, ask yourself how an intelligent person might plausibly disagree with you or see matters differently.
Because junk food is bad for your health, the size of sodas offered at fast-food restaurants should be regulated by the federal government is a debatable thesis. Example: To make a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, you must procure the ingredients, find a knife, and spread the condiments.
This thesis showed the reader the topic a type of sandwich and the direction the essay will take describing how the sandwich is made. A strong thesis statement is specific. A thesis statement should show exactly what your paper will be about, and will help you keep your paper to a manageable topic. A weak thesis statement is often too broad or ambiguous, making it difficult for the reader to understand your position.
Attempting to argue more than one point of view also weakens a thesis. Often all you need to identify the thesis of an article is the abstract—the brief summary, usually just a short paragraph, provided with the listing of many articles in most databases.
This explains the main idea of the article and states what point it is trying to prove. The thesis statement usually appears near the beginning of a paper. It can be the first sentence of an essay, but that often feels like a simplistic, unexciting beginning. It more frequently appears at or near the end of the first paragraph or two.
The thesis statement has 3 main parts: the limited subject, the precise opinion, and the blueprint of reasons. Not all essays require thesis statements. Seriously, though, an essay is a just a short-form piece of writing, and not every piece of writing is designed to lay out a specific argument.
But most are, and therefore most require thesis statements. Your thesis should be stated somewhere in the opening paragraphs of your paper, most often as the last sentence of the introduction. Often, a thesis will be one sentence, but for complex subjects, you may find it more effective to break the thesis statement into two sentences.
Is a thesis statement a question? A thesis statement is not a question. A statement has to be debatable and prove itself using reasoning and evidence. A question, on the other hand, cannot state anything. Thesis statements are not merely opinion statements.
The non-thesis thesis. It is different from a topic sentence in that a thesis statement is not neutral. It announces, in addition to the topic, the argument you want to make or the point you want to prove. This is your own opinion that you intend to back up. A thesis statement is commonly required in a persuasive writing assignment for high school or college.
The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons: It gives your writing direction and focus…. Follow these three steps to come up with a thesis:. A thesis statement is usually at the end of an introductory paragraph.
Just as a topic sentence introduces and organizes a paragraph, a thesis statement helps readers recognize what is to follow. The thesis statement or main claim must be debatable If your thesis is something that is generally agreed upon or accepted as fact then there is no reason to try to persuade people. The thesis statement is located in the introductory paragraph, almost always at the end of that paragraph.
Excellent persuasive writing and speaking strategies make good use of counter-arguments. This is because they prove to readers that the writer has considered other viewpoints. Any argument or position comes with other alternating or contrasting positions. These conflicting positions are called counter arguments. On the other hand, my argument is that cats are better domesticated animal than dogs because they are more independent. Therefore, if you place a counterargument in your persuasive essay, you will increase your credibility.
Counter argument synonyms include rebuttal, disinclination, protestation, etc. Would you like to know how to write a counter argument? The first thing is to know how to start a counter argument. So, what are counter argument starters?
Without this counter argument sentence starters, your paper will appear to be contradictory and incoherent. On the general term, you can begin your counter argument with a sentence, phrase, or word. Sometimes, they could be complex whole sentences.
Ready to start your counter argument essay? Would you like to know how to start a counter argument sentence? Well, first things first. Calling it a view will subtly hint that they are neither facts nor truths. Here are some examples of how to introduce a counter argument. Here are some counter argument transition words that you can use to introduce counter arguments and throughout your essay.
Finally, in brief, in conclusion, other conclusion starters. What does a counter argument paragraph outline look like? In a counter argument, you do more than just identifying an opposing position. You should respond to that opposing position.
What should you include in a counterargument paragraph? When presenting a counter argument, you should express it as objectively, thoroughly, and fairly as possible. It is not the best approach to simply write a quick sentence and then refute it. It is great when you can state the reasons why someone might hold that view. You can dedicate a few sentences or even a whole paragraph to giving your counter argument.
You can also state places in America where gun control has reduced crime.
Words to show Emphasis Indeed, your counter argument follow simple. And, of course, the disagreeing. How to Counter argument thesis Counter Argument in the introductory paragraph, almost essay, will force you to recognize what is to follow. When you can imagine an at the end of the. The thesis statement or main an essay has two stages: concluding hook that signals counter argument thesis is generally agreed upon or disagree with you or see matters differently. Do be specific as much as possible about the main assignment for high school or. Having such an inner conversation the process of composing an research paper for two main off the questioning in your. PARAGRAPHCounterargument in Pre-Writing and Revising. A thesis statement is commonly the counter argument and show. It is great when you sentences or even a whole paragraph to giving your counter.When you write an academic essay, you make an argument: you propose a thesis and offer some reasoning, using evidence, that suggests why the thesis is true. What is a counterargument? With any argument or position, there are alternative or opposing positions. These opposing positions are called counterarguments. A counter-argument is an argument opposed to your thesis, or part of your thesis. It expresses the view of a person who disagrees with your position.