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Conservationists also work to preserve history in museums and are employed as professors at universities. Genetic counselors work with families to evaluate their risk of inherited medical conditions and provide them with support and options for the future. In addition to a degree in biology, genetic counselors also have medical degrees. Quality control involves making sure a company or lab is in compliance with regulatory requirements through auditing and other quality assurance methods.
Of course, you also have the opportunity to continue your education. As a science teacher, you will be working with students of various ages and educating them about science topics. You will have the ability to create meaningful coursework to inspire younger generations of students. As a physician, you can expect to examine patients, diagnose illnesses, prescribe medicine and manage diagnostic tests. A biologist's salary can depend on a number of factors, including education level, geographic location, and industry.
Biology degree graduates can move on to a wide variety of career opportunities and can also continue their education by furthering their degree. Biologists can choose to focus their studies in one subfield of biology, including biochemistry, cellular biology, ecology, genetics, molecular biology, or physiology, although many of these fields overlap at times.
Regardless of which area biologists choose to specialize in, they all conduct research based on the scientific method, whereby they form a hypothesis, run an experiment, and document the results. By continuing their education, biology graduates will enhance their research skills and will be more able to compete in this job field.
GMercyU students have the benefit of small classes, taught by professors with doctorate degrees. In addition to labs that accompany all required courses, summer research opportunities are available for interested students. At GMercyU, for example, students who pursue biology degrees automatically earn a minor in chemistry. Whatever career you intend to pursue after graduation, a biology degree from GMercyU can be a great first step! This consent includes contact via automated means.
I understand that consent is not required to apply or attend Gwynedd Mercy University. Contact Information. Box Gwynedd Valley, PA Facebook Twitter Instagram Youtube. Skip to main content. Next Steps for Biology Degree Graduates Biology degree graduates can move on to a wide variety of career opportunities and can also continue their education by furthering their degree. Please select Fall Spring Fall The absorbed light energy is used to remove electrons from a donor water to a primary electron acceptor, a quinone designated as Q.
The transport of electrons is coupled to the movement of protons or hydrogen from the stroma to the thylakoid membrane, which forms a pH gradient across the membrane as hydrogen becomes more concentrated in the lumen than in the stroma. This is analogous to the proton-motive force generated across the inner mitochondrial membrane in aerobic respiration.
During the third stage of photosynthesis, the movement of protons down their concentration gradients from the thylakoid lumen to the stroma through the ATP synthase is coupled to the synthesis of ATP by that same ATP synthase. Cell communication or signaling is the ability of cells to receive, process, and transmit signals with its environment and with itself.
Tumor cells, for example, can reproduce uncontrollably because they release signals that initiate their own self-division. In paracrine signaling, the ligand diffuses to nearby cells and affect them. For example, brain cells called neurons release ligands called neurotransmitters that diffuse across a synaptic cleft to bind with a receptor on an adjacent cell such as another neuron or muscle cell. In juxtacrine signaling, there is direct contact between the signaling and responding cells.
Finally, hormones are ligands that travel through the circulatory systems of animals or vascular systems of plants to reach their target cells. Once a ligand binds with a receptor, it can influence the behavior of another cell, depending on the type of receptor. For instance, neurotransmitters that bind with an inotropic receptor can alter the excitability of a target cell.
Other types of receptors include protein kinase receptors e. Activation of G protein-coupled receptors can initiate second messenger cascades. The process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events is called signal transduction.
The cell cycle is a series of events that take place in a cell that cause it to divide into two daughter cells. These events include the duplication of its DNA and some of its organelles , and the subsequent partitioning of its cytoplasm into two daughter cells in a process called cell division. Cell division gives rise to genetically identical cells in which the total number of chromosomes is maintained.
In general, mitosis division of the nucleus is preceded by the S stage of interphase during which the DNA is replicated and is often followed by telophase and cytokinesis ; which divides the cytoplasm , organelles and cell membrane of one cell into two new cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. The different stages of mitosis all together define the mitotic phase of an animal cell cycle—the division of the mother cell into two genetically identical daughter cells.
After cell division, each of the daughter cells begin the interphase of a new cycle. In contrast to mitosis, meiosis results in four haploid daughter cells by undergoing one round of DNA replication followed by two divisions. Both of these cell division cycles are used in the process of sexual reproduction at some point in their life cycle. Both are believed to be present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor.
Prokaryotes i. Unlike the processes of mitosis and meiosis in eukaryotes, binary fission takes in prokaryotes takes place without the formation of a spindle apparatus on the cell. Before binary fission, DNA in the bacterium is tightly coiled. After it has uncoiled and duplicated, it is pulled to the separate poles of the bacterium as it increases the size to prepare for splitting.
Growth of a new cell wall begins to separate the bacterium triggered by FtsZ polymerization and "Z-ring" formation  The new cell wall septum fully develops, resulting in the complete split of the bacterium.
The new daughter cells have tightly coiled DNA rods, ribosomes , and plasmids. Genetics is the scientific study of inheritance. Mendel established several principles of inheritance. The first is that genetic characteristics, which are now called alleles , are discrete and have alternate forms e. Based on his law of dominance and uniformity , which states that some alleles are dominant while others are recessive ; an organism with at least one dominant allele will display the phenotype of that dominant allele.
Heterozygotic individuals produce gametes with an equal frequency of two alleles. Finally, Mendel formulated the law of independent assortment , which states that genes of different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes, i. An exception to this rule would include traits that are sex-linked. Test crosses can be performed to experimentally determine the underlying genotype of an organism with a dominant phenotype.
The chromosome theory of inheritance , which states that genes are found on chromosomes, was supported by Thomas Morgans 's experiments with fruit flies , which established the sex linkage between eye color and sex in these insects.
Instead, pedigrees , which are genetic representations of family trees,  are used instead to trace the inheritance of a specific trait or disease through multiple generations. Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA is a molecule composed of two polynucleotide chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying genetic hereditary information.
The two DNA strands are known as polynucleotides as they are composed of monomers called nucleotides. The nucleotides are joined to one another in a chain by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next, resulting in an alternating sugar-phosphate backbone. It is the sequence of these four bases along the backbone that encodes genetic information.
Bases of the two polynucleotide strands are bound together by hydrogen bonds , according to base pairing rules A with T and C with G , to make double-stranded DNA. The bases are divided into two groups: pyrimidines and purines. In DNA, the pyrimidines are thymine and cytosine whereas the purines are adenine and guanine. The two strands of DNA run in opposite directions to each other and are thus antiparallel.
DNA is replicated once the two strands separate. A gene is a unit of heredity that corresponds to a region of DNA that influences the form or function of an organism in specific ways. DNA is found as linear chromosomes in eukaryotes , and circular chromosomes in prokaryotes. A chromosome is an organized structure consisting of DNA and histones. The set of chromosomes in a cell and any other hereditary information found in the mitochondria , chloroplasts , or other locations is collectively known as a cell's genome.
In eukaryotes, genomic DNA is localized in the cell nucleus , or with small amounts in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product that enables it to produce end products, protein or non-coding RNA , and ultimately affect a phenotype , as the final effect.
The process is summarized in the central dogma of molecular biology first formulated by Francis Crick in The genetic information stored in DNA represents the genotype, whereas the phenotype results from the synthesis of proteins that control an organism's structure and development, or that act as enzymes catalyzing specific metabolic pathways. A large part of DNA e. This process is used by all life— eukaryotes including multicellular organisms , prokaryotes bacteria and archaea , and utilized by viruses —to generate the macromolecular machinery for life.
Regulation of gene expression gives control over the timing, location, and amount of a given gene product protein or ncRNA present in a cell and can have a profound effect on cellular structure and function. A genome is an organism's complete set of DNA , including all of its genes. A cell's proteome is its entire set of proteins expressed by its genome. The genomes of various model organisms such as arabidopsis , fruit fly , mice, nematodes , and yeast have been sequenced.
The sequencing of the entire human genome has yielded practical applications such as DNA fingerprinting , which can be used for paternity testing and forensics. In medicine , sequencing of the entire human genome has allowed for the identification mutations that cause tumors as well as genes that cause a specific genetic disorder. Biotechnology is the use of cells or organisms to develop products for humans.
Other approaches such as pharming can produce large quantities of medically useful products through the use of genetically modified organisms. Development is the process by which a multicellular organism plant or animal goes through a series of a changes, starting from a single cell, and taking on various forms that are characteristic of its life cycle.
Determination sets the developmental fate of a cell, which becomes more restrictive during development. Differentiation is the process by which specialized cells from less specialized cells such as stem cells. With a few exceptions, cellular differentiation almost never involves a change in the DNA sequence itself. Morphogenesis, or development of body form, is the result of spatial differences in gene expression. Apoptosis , or programmed cell death, also occurs during morphogenesis, such as the death of cells between digits in human embryonic development, which frees up individual fingers and toes.
Expression of transcription factor genes can determine organ placement in a plant and a cascade of transcription factors themselves can establish body segmentation in a fruit fly. A small fraction of the genes in an organism's genome called the developmental-genetic toolkit control the development of that organism. These toolkit genes are highly conserved among phyla , meaning that they are ancient and very similar in widely separated groups of animals.
Differences in deployment of toolkit genes affect the body plan and the number, identity, and pattern of body parts. Among the most important toolkit genes are the Hox genes. Hox genes determine where repeating parts, such as the many vertebrae of snakes , will grow in a developing embryo or larva. The toolkit can drive evolution in two ways. A toolkit gene can be expressed in a different pattern, as when the beak of Darwin's large ground-finch was enlarged by the BMP gene,  or when snakes lost their legs as Distal-less Dlx genes became under-expressed or not expressed at all in the places where other reptiles continued to form their limbs.
A central organizing concept in biology is that life changes and develops through evolution , which is the change in heritable characteristics of populations over successive generations. The term evolution was introduced into the scientific lexicon by Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck in ,  and fifty years later Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace formulated the theory of evolution by natural selection.
As a results, traits that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to be passed on to subsequent generations. In the absence of any evolutionary process acting on a large random mating population, the allele frequencies will remain constant across generations as described by the Hardy—Weinberg principle.
Another process that drives evolution is genetic drift , which is the random fluctuations of allele frequencies within a population from one generation to the next. Genetic drift may therefore eliminate some alleles from a population due to chance alone. Speciation is the process of splitting one lineage into two lineages that evolve independently from each other. Reproductive isolation also tends to increase with genetic divergence.
Speciation can occur when there are physical barriers that divide an ancestral species, a process known as allopatric speciation. Pre-zygotic isolation such as mechanical , temporal , behavioral , habitat, and gametic isolations can prevent different species from hybridizing. Hybrid zones can emerge if there were to be incomplete reproductive isolation between two closely related species. A phylogeny is an evolutionary history of a specific group of organisms or their genes.
Each line drawn on the time axis of a tree represents a lineage of descendents of a particular species or population. When a lineage divides into two, it is represented as a node or split on the phylogenetic tree. The more splits there are over time, the more branches there will be on the tree, with the common ancestor of all the organisms in that tree being represented by the root of that tree.
Phylogenetic trees may portray the evolutionary history of all life forms, a major evolutionary group e. Within a tree, any group of species designated by a name is a taxon e. In contrast to a monophyletic group, a polyphyletic group does not include its common ancestor whereas a paraphyletic group does not include all the descendants of a common ancestor. Phylogenetic trees are the basis for comparing and grouping different species. Homologous features may be any heritable traits such as DNA sequence , protein structures, anatomical features, and behavior patterns.
A vertebral column is an example of a homologous feature shared by all vertebrate animals. Traits that have a similar form or function but were not derived from a common ancestor are described as analogous features. Phylogenies can be reconstructed for a group of organisms of primary interests, which are called the ingroup. A species or group that is closely related to the ingroup but is phylogenetically outside of it is called the outgroup , which serves a reference point in the tree.
The root of the tree is located between the ingroup and the outgroup. Based on the principle of Parsimony or Occam's razor , the tree that is favored is the one with the fewest evolutionary changes needed to be assumed over all traits in all groups. Computational algorithms can be used to determine how a tree might have evolved given the evidence.
Phylogeny provides the basis of biological classification, which is based on Linnaean taxonomy that was developed by Carl Linnaeus in the 18th century. Based on this system, each species is given two names, one for its genus and another for its species.
By convention, the scientific names of organisms are italicized, with only the first letter of the genus capitalized. The history of life on Earth traces the processes by which organisms have evolved from the earliest emergence of life to present day. Earth formed about 4.
Microbal mats of coexisting bacteria and archaea were the dominant form of life in the early Archean Epoch and many of the major steps in early evolution are thought to have taken place in this environment. Later, around 1. Algae-like multicellular land plants are dated back even to about 1 billion years ago,  although evidence suggests that microorganisms formed the earliest terrestrial ecosystems , at least 2. Land plants were so successful that they are thought to have contributed to the Late Devonian extinction event.
Ediacara biota appear during the Ediacaran period,  while vertebrates , along with most other modern phyla originated about million years ago during the Cambrian explosion. Bacteria are a type of cell that constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometers in length, bacteria have a number of shapes , ranging from spheres to rods and spirals.
Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth , and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs , radioactive waste ,  and the deep biosphere of the earth's crust. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals.
Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only about 27 percent of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory. Archaea constitute the other domain of prokaryotic cells and were initially classified as bacteria , receiving the name archaebacteria in the Archaebacteria kingdom , a term that has fallen out of use. Archaea are further divided into multiple recognized phyla. Archaea and bacteria are generally similar in size and shape, although a few archaea have very different shapes, such as the flat and square cells of Haloquadratum walsbyi.
Other aspects of archaeal biochemistry are unique, such as their reliance on ether lipids in their cell membranes ,  including archaeols. Archaea use more energy sources than eukaryotes: these range from organic compounds , such as sugars, to ammonia , metal ions or even hydrogen gas. Salt-tolerant archaea the Haloarchaea use sunlight as an energy source, and other species of archaea fix carbon , but unlike plants and cyanobacteria , no known species of archaea does both. Archaea reproduce asexually by binary fission , fragmentation , or budding ; unlike bacteria, no known species of Archaea form endospores.
The first observed archaea were extremophiles , living in extreme environments, such as hot springs and salt lakes with no other organisms. Improved molecular detection tools led to the discovery of archaea in almost every habitat , including soil, oceans, and marshlands. Archaea are particularly numerous in the oceans, and the archaea in plankton may be one of the most abundant groups of organisms on the planet.
Archaea are a major part of Earth's life. They are part of the microbiota of all organisms. In the human microbiome , they are important in the gut , mouth, and on the skin. Protists are mostly microscopic eukaryotic organisms that are not plants , fungi , or animals.
Like groupings such as algae , invertebrates , or protozoans , the protist grouping is not a formal taxonomic group but is used for convenience. The taxonomy of protists is still changing. Newer classifications attempt to present monophyletic groups based on morphological especially ultrastructural ,    biochemical chemotaxonomy   and DNA sequence molecular research information.
Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae, which would exclude fungi and some algae. Approximately , species of land plants have been studied, of which some , species are vascular plants including approximately , species of flowering plants ,  and approximately 20, are bryophytes. Algae is a large and diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms.
Included organisms range from unicellular microalgae , such as Chlorella , Prototheca and the diatoms , to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelp , a large brown alga. Most are aquatic and autotrophic and lack many of the distinct cell and tissue types, such as stomata , xylem and phloem , which are found in land plants.
The largest and most complex marine algae are called seaweeds , while the most complex freshwater forms are the Charophyta. Nonvascular plants are plants without a vascular system consisting of xylem and phloem.
Instead, they may possess simpler tissues that have specialized functions for the internal transport of water. Vascular plants , on the other hand, are a large group of plants c. Vascular plants include the clubmosses , horsetails , ferns , gymnosperms including conifers and angiosperms flowering plants.
Seed plants or spermatophyte comprise five divisions, four of which are grouped as gymnosperms and one is angiosperms. Gymnosperms includes conifers , cycads , Ginkgo , and gnetophytes. Gymnosperm seeds develop either on the surface of scales or leaves, which are often modified to form cones , or solitary as in yew , Torreya , Ginkgo. They are distinguished from gymnosperms by having characteristics such as flowers , endosperm within their seeds , and production of fruits that contain the seeds.
Fungi are eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds , as well as the more familiar mushrooms. A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Fungi, like animals, are heterotrophs ; they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment. Fungi do not photosynthesize.
Growth is their means of mobility , except for spores a few of which are flagellated , which may travel through the air or water. Fungi are the principal decomposers in ecological systems. These and other differences place fungi in a single group of related organisms, named the Eumycota true fungi or Eumycetes , which share a common ancestor from a monophyletic group.
This fungal group is distinct from the structurally similar myxomycetes slime molds and oomycetes water molds. Most fungi are inconspicuous because of the small size of their structures, and their cryptic lifestyles in soil or on dead matter. Fungi include symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi and also parasites.
They may become noticeable when fruiting , either as mushrooms or as molds. Fungi perform an essential role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling and exchange in the environment. The fungus kingdom encompasses an enormous diversity of taxa with varied ecologies, life cycle strategies, and morphologies ranging from unicellular aquatic chytrids to large mushrooms. However, little is known of the true biodiversity of Kingdom Fungi, which has been estimated at 2.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material , breathe oxygen , are able to move , can reproduce sexually , and grow from a hollow sphere of cells , the blastula , during embryonic development. Over 1.
They have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera, are a basal Metazoa animal clade as a sister of the Diploblasts. This includes all animals apart from the subphylum Vertebrata.
Familiar examples of invertebrates include arthropods insects , arachnids , crustaceans , and myriapods , mollusks chitons , snail , bivalves , squids , and octopuses , annelid earthworms and leeches , and cnidarians hydras , jellyfishes , sea anemones , and corals. Many invertebrate taxa have a greater number and variety of species than the entire subphylum of Vertebrata.
In contrast, vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata chordates with backbones. Vertebrates represent the overwhelming majority of the phylum Chordata , with currently about 69, species described.
Viruses are submicroscopic infectious agents that replicate inside the cells of organisms. When infected, a host cell is forced to rapidly produce thousands of identical copies of the original virus. When not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles, or virions , consisting of the genetic material DNA or RNA , a protein coat called capsid , and in some cases an outside envelope of lipids.
The shapes of these virus particles range from simple helical and icosahedral forms to more complex structures. Most virus species have virions too small to be seen with an optical microscope , as they are one-hundredth the size of most bacteria.
The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids —pieces of DNA that can move between cells—while others may have evolved from bacteria. In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer , which increases genetic diversity in a way analogous to sexual reproduction. Viruses can spread in many ways.
One transmission pathway is through disease-bearing organisms known as vectors : for example, viruses are often transmitted from plant to plant by insects that feed on plant sap , such as aphids ; and viruses in animals can be carried by blood-sucking insects. Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. Norovirus and rotavirus , common causes of viral gastroenteritis , are transmitted by the faecal—oral route , passed by hand-to-mouth contact or in food or water. Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response that usually eliminates the infecting virus.
Immune responses can also be produced by vaccines , which confer an artificially acquired immunity to the specific viral infection. The plant body is made up of organs that can be organized into two major organ systems : a root system and a shoot system.
The roots themselves absorb water and minerals and store photosynthetic products. The shoot system is composed of stem , leaves , and flowers. The stems hold and orient the leaves to the sun, which allow the leaves to conduct photosynthesis. The flowers are shoots that have been modified for reproduction. Shoots are composed of phytomers , which are functional units that consist of a node carrying one or more leaves, internode, and one or more buds.
A plant body has two basic patterns apical—basal and radial axes that been established during embryogenesis. The ground tissue makes up virtually all the tissue that lies between the dermal and vascular tissues in the shoots and roots. It consists of three cell types: Parenchyma , collenchyma , and sclerenchyma cells. Finally, the vascular tissues are made up of two constituent tissues: xylem and phloem. The xylem is made up two of conducting cells called tracheids and vessel elements whereas the phloem is characterized by the presence of sieve tube elements and companion cells.
Like all other organisms, plants are primarily made up of water and other molecules containing elements that are essential to life. The majority of plants are able to obtain these nutrients from solutions that surrounds their roots in the soil.
Carnivorous plants such as Venus flytraps are able to obtain nutrients by digesting other arthropods whereas parasitic plants such as mistletoes can parasitize other plants for water and nutrients. Plants need water to conduct photosynthesis , transport solutes between organs, cool their leaves by evaporation , and maintain internal pressures that support their bodies.
The direction of water movement across a semipermeable membrane is determined by the water potential across that membrane. In vascular plants , water and solutes are able to enter the xylem , a vascular tissue , by way of an apoplast and symplast. Once in the xylem, the water and minerals are distributed upward by transpiration from the soil to the aerial parts of the plant. Plant development is regulated by environmental cues and the plant's own receptors , hormones , and genome.
Development begins with a seed , which is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. Most plant seeds are usually dormant , a condition in which the seed's normal activity is suspended. Dormancy is broken once conditions are favorable for growth, and the seed will begin to sprout, a process called germination.
Imbibition is the first step in germination, whereby water is absorbed by the seed. Once water is absorbed, the seed undergoes metabolic changes whereby enzymes are activated and RNA and proteins are synthesized.
Once the seed germinates, it obtains carbohydrates , amino acids , and small lipids that serve as building blocks for its development. These monomers are obtained from the hydrolysis of starch , proteins , and lipids that are stored in either the cotyledons or endosperm. Germination is completed once embryonic roots called radicle have emerged from the seed coat. At this point, the developing plant is called a seedling and its growth is regulated by its own photoreceptor proteins and hormones.
Unlike animals in which growth is determinate, i. In primary growth, the shoots and roots are formed and lengthened. The apical meristem produces the primary plant body, which can be found in all seed plants. During secondary growth, the thickness of the plant increases as the lateral meristem produces the secondary plant body, which can be found in woody eudicots such as trees and shrubs.
Monocots do not go through secondary growth. The apical meristems in the root and shoot systems give rise to primary meristems protoderm, ground meristem, and procambium , which in turn, give rise to the three tissue systems dermal , ground , and vascular. Most angiosperms or flowering plants engage in sexual reproduction.
Flowers may facilitate two types of pollination : self-pollination and cross-pollination. Self-pollination occurs when the pollen from the anther is deposited on the stigma of the same flower, or another flower on the same plant. Cross-pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower on a different individual of the same species.
This pollination does not require an investment from the plant to provide nectar and pollen as food for pollinators. Like animals, plants produce hormones in one part of its body to signal cells in another part to respond. The ripening of fruit and loss of leaves in the winter are controlled in part by the production of the gas ethylene by the plant. Stress from water loss, changes in air chemistry, or crowding by other plants can lead to changes in the way a plant functions.
These changes may be affected by genetic, chemical, and physical factors. To function and survive, plants produce a wide array of chemical compounds not found in other organisms. Because they cannot move, plants must also defend themselves chemically from herbivores , pathogens and competition from other plants.
They do this by producing toxins and foul-tasting or smelling chemicals. Other compounds defend plants against disease, permit survival during drought, and prepare plants for dormancy, while other compounds are used to attract pollinators or herbivores to spread ripe seeds. Many plant organs contain different types of photoreceptor proteins , each of which reacts very specifically to certain wavelengths of light. Shoots generally grow towards light, while roots grow away from it, responses known as phototropism and skototropism, respectively.
They are brought about by light-sensitive pigments like phototropins and phytochromes and the plant hormone auxin. In addition to light, plants can respond to other types of stimuli. For instance, plants can sense the direction of gravity to orient themselves correctly. They can respond to mechanical stimulation. The cells in each animal body are bathed in interstitial fluid , which make up the cell's environment.
This fluid and all its characteristics e. Animals such as mammals and birds are regulators as they are able to maintain a constant internal environment such as body temperature despite their environments changing. These animals are also described as homeotherms as they exhibit thermoregulation by keeping their internal body temperature constant. In contrast, animals such as fishes and frogs are conformers as they adapt their internal environment e. These animals are also described as poikilotherms or ectotherms as they allow their body temperatures to match their external environments.
In terms of energy, regulation is more costly than conformity as an animal expands more energy to maintain a constant internal environment such as increasing its basal metabolic rate , which is the rate of energy consumption. Homeostasis is the stability of an animal's internal environment, which is maintained by negative feedback loops.
The body size of terrestrial animals vary across different species but their use of energy does not scale linearly according to their size. When an animal runs, its metabolic rate increases linearly with speed. When a fish swims faster, it encounters greater water resistance and so its metabolic rates increases exponential. As it speeds up its flight, its metabolic rate decreases with the aid of air rapidly flows over its wings.
However, as it increases in its speed even further, its high metabolic rates rises again due to the increased effort associated with rapid flight speeds. Basal metabolic rates can be measured based on an animal's rate of heat production. An animal's body fluids have three properties: osmotic pressure , ionic composition, and volume. Aquatic animals are diverse with respect to their body fluid compositions and their environments. For example, most invertebrate animals in the ocean have body fluids that are isosmotic with seawater.
In contrast, ocean bony fishes have body fluids that are hyposmotic to seawater. Finally, freshwater animals have body fluids that are hyperosmotic to fresh water. Typical ions that can be found in an animal's body fluids are sodium , potassium , calcium , and chloride. The volume of body fluids can be regulated by excretion. Vertebrate animals have kidneys , which are excretory organs made up of tiny tubular structures called nephrons , which make urine from blood plasma. The kidneys' primary function is to regulate the composition and volume of blood plasma by selectively removing material from the blood plasma itself.
The ability of xeric animals such as kangaroo rats to minimize water loss by producing urine that is times concentrated than their blood plasma allows them to adapt in desert environments that receive very little precipitation. Animals are heterotrophs as they feed on other organisms to obtain energy and organic compounds. The amount of energy stored in food can be quantified based on the amount of heat measured in calories or kilojoules emitted when the food is burnt in the presence of oxygen.
If an animal were to consume food that contains an excess amount of chemical energy, it will store most of that energy in the form of lipids for future use and some of that energy as glycogen for more immediate use e.
These molecules include nutrients such as carbohydrates , fats , and proteins. Vitamins and minerals e. The digestive system , which typically consist of a tubular tract that extends from the mouth to the anus, is involved in the breakdown or digestion of food into small molecules as it travels down peristaltically through the gut lumen shortly after it has been ingested. These small food molecules are then absorbed into the blood from the lumen, where they are then distributed to the rest of the body as building blocks e.
In addition to their digestive tracts, vertebrate animals have accessory glands such as a liver and pancreas as part of their digestive systems. Mechanical digestion of food starts in the mouth with the esophagus serving as a passageway for food to reach the stomach, where it is stored and disintegrated by the stomach's acid for further processing.
Upon leaving the stomach, food enters into the midgut , which is the first part of the intestine or small intestine in mammals and is the principal site of digestion and absorption. Food that does not get absorbed are stored as indigestible waste or feces in the hindgut , which is the second part of the intestine or large intestine in mammals.
The hindgut then completes the reabsorption of needed water and salt prior to eliminating the feces from the rectum. The respiratory system consists of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants. The anatomy and physiology that make this happen varies greatly, depending on the size of the organism, the environment in which it lives and its evolutionary history.
In land animals the respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs. These microscopic air sacs have a very rich blood supply, thus bringing the air into close contact with the blood. These enter the lungs where they branch into progressively narrower secondary and tertiary bronchi that branch into numerous smaller tubes, the bronchioles. In birds the bronchioles are termed parabronchi. It is the bronchioles, or parabronchi that generally open into the microscopic alveoli in mammals and atria in birds.
Air has to be pumped from the environment into the alveoli or atria by the process of breathing , which involves the muscles of respiration. A circulatory system usually consists of a muscular pump such as a heart , a fluid blood , and system of blood vessels that deliver it. There are two types of circulatory systems: open and closed. In open circulatory systems, blood exits blood vessels as it circulates throughout the body whereas in closed circulatory system, blood is contained within the blood vessels as it circulates.
Open circulatory systems can be observed in invertebrate animals such as arthropods e. Circulation in animals occur between two types of tissues: systemic tissues and breathing or pulmonary organs. Systemic tissues take up oxygen but adds carbon dioxide to the blood whereas a breathing organs takes up carbon dioxide but add oxygen to the blood.
In the circulatory system, blood is important because it is the means by which oxygen , carbon dioxide , nutrients , hormones , agents of immune system, heat, wastes, and other commodities are transported. Other animals such as crustaceans e. Vertebrate hearts are multichambered and are able to pump blood when their ventricles contract at each cardiac cycle , which propels blood through the blood vessels.
In vertebrates , the muscular system consists of skeletal , smooth and cardiac muscles. It permits movement of the body, maintains posture and circulates blood throughout the body. A single motor neuron is able to innervate multiple muscle fibers, thereby causing the fibers to contract at the same time.
Once innervated, the protein filaments within each skeletal muscle fiber slide past each other to produce a contraction, which is explained by the sliding filament theory. The contraction produced can be described as a twitch, summation, or tetanus, depending on the frequency of action potentials. Unlike skeletal muscles, contractions of smooth and cardiac muscles are myogenic as they are initiated by the smooth or heart muscle cells themselves instead of a motor neuron.
Nevertheless, the strength of their contractions can be modulated by input from the autonomic nervous system. The mechanisms of contraction are similar in all three muscle tissues. In invertebrates such as earthworms and leeches , circular and longitudinal muscles cells form the body wall of these animals and are responsible for their movement. Most multicellular animals have nervous systems  that allow them to sense from and respond to their environments. A nervous system is a network of cells that processes sensory information and generates behaviors.
At the cellular level, the nervous system is defined by the presence of neurons , which are cells specialized to handle information. According to the sodium theory, these action potentials can be generated by the increased permeability of the neuron's cell membrane to sodium ions. The connections between neurons can form neural pathways , neural circuits , and larger networks that generate an organism's perception of the world and determine its behavior.
Along with neurons, the nervous system contains other specialized cells called glia or glial cells, which provide structural and metabolic support. In vertebrates, the nervous system consists of the central nervous system CNS , which includes the brain and spinal cord , and the peripheral nervous system PNS , which consists of nerves that connect the CNS to every other part of the body.
Nerves that transmit signals from the CNS are called motor nerves or efferent nerves , while those nerves that transmit information from the body to the CNS are called sensory nerves or afferent nerves. Spinal nerves are mixed nerves that serve both functions. The PNS is divided into three separate subsystems, the somatic , autonomic , and enteric nervous systems.
Somatic nerves mediate voluntary movement. The autonomic nervous system is further subdivided into the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems. The sympathetic nervous system is activated in cases of emergencies to mobilize energy, while the parasympathetic nervous system is activated when organisms are in a relaxed state.
The enteric nervous system functions to control the gastrointestinal system. Both autonomic and enteric nervous systems function involuntarily. Nerves that exit directly from the brain are called cranial nerves while those exiting from the spinal cord are called spinal nerves. Many animals have sense organs that can detect their environment.
These sense organs contain sensory receptors , which are sensory neurons that convert stimuli into electrical signals. Hormones are signaling molecules transported in the blood to distant organs to regulate their function. In vertebrates , the hypothalamus is the neural control center for all endocrine systems.
In humans specifically, the major endocrine glands are the thyroid gland and the adrenal glands. Many other organs that are part of other body systems have secondary endocrine functions, including bone , kidneys , liver , heart and gonads. For example, kidneys secrete the endocrine hormone erythropoietin. Hormones can be amino acid complexes, steroids , eicosanoids , leukotrienes , or prostaglandins. Endocrine glands have no ducts , are vascular, and commonly have intracellular vacuoles or granules that store their hormones.
In contrast, exocrine glands, such as salivary glands , sweat glands , and glands within the gastrointestinal tract , tend to be much less vascular and have ducts or a hollow lumen. Animals can reproduce in one of two ways: asexual and sexual. Nearly all animals engage in some form of sexual reproduction.
The smaller, motile gametes are spermatozoa and the larger, non-motile gametes are ova. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, and develop into a new sponge. This may take place through fragmentation ; budding , such as in Hydra and other cnidarians ; or parthenogenesis , where fertile eggs are produced without mating , such as in aphids. Animal development begins with the formation of a zygote that results from the fusion of a sperm and egg during fertilization.
Gastrulation occurs, whereby morphogenetic movements convert the cell mass into a three germ layers that comprise the ectoderm , mesoderm and endoderm. The end of gastrulation signals the beginning of organogenesis , whereby the three germ layers form the internal organs of the organism.
Cellular differentiation is influenced by extracellular signals such as growth factors that are exchanged to adjacent cells, which is called juxtracrine signaling, or to neighboring cells over short distances, which is called paracrine signaling. These signaling pathways allows for cell rearrangement and ensures that organs form at specific sites within the organism. The immune system is a network of biological processes that detects and responds to a wide variety of pathogens.
Many species have two major subsystems of the immune system. The innate immune system provides a preconfigured response to broad groups of situations and stimuli. The adaptive immune system provides a tailored response to each stimulus by learning to recognize molecules it has previously encountered. Both use molecules and cells to perform their functions. Nearly all organisms have some kind of immune system.
Bacteria have a rudimentary immune system in the form of enzymes that protect against virus infections. Other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient plants and animals and remain in their modern descendants. These mechanisms include phagocytosis , antimicrobial peptides called defensins , and the complement system.
Jawed vertebrates , including humans, have even more sophisticated defense mechanisms, including the ability to adapt to recognize pathogens more efficiently. Adaptive or acquired immunity creates an immunological memory leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen.
This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination. Behaviors play a central a role in animals' interaction with each other and with their environment. An animal's nervous system activates and coordinates its behaviors. Fixed action patterns , for instance, are genetically determined and stereotyped behaviors that occur without learning.
Other behaviors that have emerged as a result of natural selection include foraging , mating , and altruism. Ecology is the study of the distribution and abundance of life , the interaction between organisms and their environment. By feeding on plants and on one another, animals play an important role in the movement of matter and energy through the system. They also influence the quantity of plant and microbial biomass present. By breaking down dead organic matter , decomposers release carbon back to the atmosphere and facilitate nutrient cycling by converting nutrients stored in dead biomass back to a form that can be readily used by plants and other microbes.
The Earth's physical environment is shaped by solar energy and topography. Variation in solar energy input drives weather and climate patterns. Weather is the day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years.
On the windward side of a mountain, for example, air rises and cools, with water changing from gaseous to liquid or solid form, resulting in precipitation such as rain or snow. In contrast, conditions tend to be dry on the leeward side of a mountain due to the lack of precipitation as air descends and warms, and moisture remains as water vapor in the atmosphere. Temperature and precipitation are the main factors that shape terrestrial biomes. A population is the number of organisms of the same species that occupy an area and reproduce from generation to generation.
Population growth during short-term intervals can be determined using the population growth rate equation , which takes into consideration birth , death , and immigration rates. In the longer term, the exponential growth of a population tends to slow down as it reaches its carrying capacity , which can be modeled using the logistic equation.
In human populations , new technologies such as the Green revolution have helped increase the Earth's carrying capacity for humans over time, which has stymied the attempted predictions of impending population decline, the famous of which was by Thomas Malthus in the 18th century. A community is a group of populations of two or more different species occupying the same geographical area at the same time.
A biological interaction is the effect that a pair of organisms living together in a community have on each other. They can be either of the same species intraspecific interactions , or of different species interspecific interactions.
These effects may be short-term, like pollination and predation , or long-term; both often strongly influence the evolution of the species involved. A long-term interaction is called a symbiosis. Symbioses range from mutualism , beneficial to both partners, to competition , harmful to both partners. Every species participates as a consumer, resource, or both in consumer—resource interactions , which form the core of food chains or food webs.
And those that eat secondary consumers are tertiary consumers and so on. Omnivorous heterotrophs are able to consume at multiple levels. Finally, there are decomposers that feed on the waste products or dead bodies of organisms. On average, the total amount of energy incorporated into the biomass of a trophic level per unit of time is about one-tenth of the energy of the trophic level that it consumes.
Waste and dead material used by decomposers as well as heat lost from metabolism make up the other ninety percent of energy that is not consumed by the next trophic level. In the global ecosystem or biosphere , matter exist as different interacting compartments, which can be biotic or abiotic as well as accessible or inaccessible, depending on their forms and locations. A biogeochemical cycle is a pathway by which specific elements of matter are turned over or moved through the biotic biosphere and the abiotic lithosphere , atmosphere , and hydrosphere compartments of Earth.
There are biogeochemical cycles for nitrogen , carbon , and water. In some cycles there are reservoirs where a substance remains or is sequestered for a long period of time. Climate change includes both global warming driven by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases and the resulting large-scale shifts in weather patterns. Though there have been previous periods of climatic change , since the midth century humans have had an unprecedented impact on Earth's climate system and caused change on a global scale.
Conservation biology is the study of the conservation of Earth 's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species , their habitats , and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions. Conservation biologists research and educate on the trends of biodiversity loss , species extinctions , and the negative effect these are having on our capabilities to sustain the well-being of human society.
Organizations and citizens are responding to the current biodiversity crisis through conservation action plans that direct research, monitoring, and education programs that engage concerns at local through global scales. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Biological disambiguation. Science that studies life. Biology deals with the study of life.
Index Outline Glossary. Key components. Biologist list List of biology awards List of journals List of research methods List of unsolved problems. Agricultural science Biomedical sciences Health technology Pharming. Further information: History of biology. Further information: Chemistry.
Further information: Organic chemistry. Further information: Biochemistry. Further information: Cell biology. Further information: Bioenergetics. Further information: Classical genetics. Further information: Genomics and Proteomics. Further information: Molecular biology.
Further information: Evolutionary developmental biology. Further information: Evolutionary biology. Further information: Phylogenetics and Biodiversity. Life timeline. This box: view talk edit. Single-celled life. Multicellular life. Arthropods Molluscs. Earth formed mya. Earliest water. Earliest life. LHB meteorites. Earliest oxygen. Atmospheric oxygen. Earliest multicellular life. Earliest fungi. Sexual reproduction.
Earliest plants. Earliest animals. Ediacaran biota. Cambrian explosion. Earliest tetrapods. Further information: Microbiology. Further information: Protistology. Further information: Botany. Further information: Mycology. Further information: Zoology. Further information: Virology. Further information: Plant morphology , Plant anatomy , and Plant physiology. Further information: Plant reproduction. Further information: Anatomy and Physiology. Further information: Osmoregulation and Urinary system.
Further information: Nutrition. Further information: Muscle contraction. Further information: Neuroscience and Neuroethology.
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If you would like to know more about different formats of academic biography, read the next article in this series! Subscribe for free to get unrestricted access to all our resources on research writing and academic publishing including:. We hate spam too. If you want to bio several key ancestors in your family tree, consider choosing one ancestor to get.
Many of your lessons below have an internet link for you to click on. Reflect on your research and comment on how you view the person Read your bio aloud to yourself, use free editing tools like the Hemingway app, Slickwrite or any other number of free resources that will help you write a great bio about yourself that keeps readers interested. We keep the library up-to-date, so you may find new or improved content here over time A comprehensive database of more than biology quizzes online, test your knowledge with biology quiz questions.
They prefer that you paraphrase all your sources and present the ideas in your own words. A primary do my biology biography source can also be any other information the do my biology biography subject has provided, such as a personal website, Twitter bio, social media account or professional bio A comprehensive database of do my biology biography more than biology quizzes online, test your knowledge with biology quiz questions. In general, biologists study the structure, function, growth.
Built for flexibility, these digital platforms let you create a course to best fit the unique needs of your curriculum and your students. Once you have reorganized your biology notes, be sure to review them before the end of the day. Your ability to identify the parts of your face can be credited to anatomy. A personal biography is a short account of who you are, your credentials and your notable accomplishments in life.
Each course has a foundation of interactive course-specific content — by authors who are experts. What you eat for lunch was influenced by biology and put on your plate with the help of biology Unsure of what to include in a biography? See more Respondents mostly consider as bio-products "products of organic farming, which do not contain chemical compounds" or "are not produced with the help of synthetic fertilizers. Personal bios ought to be short, precise and relevant to your target audience.
Do not be afraid to put your own thoughts about the person in the text. Bert Hubert provides the perfect analogy for describing why biology ought to be fascinating: Imagine a flashy spaceship lands in your backyard Aristotle: Biology. A biography, often a very brief one. Departing from traditional college textbooks, XBio presents biology as detective work and focuses on the process of science.
Include your own opinions and thoughts about the person. We have used the biological processes of microorganisms for more than 6, years to make useful…. First, begin by narrowing the scope of your written biography to something that is both manageable to write and to read.
This includes the origin and history of animal and plant life, and their characteristics, function, processes and habits The information biology has taught us is present in everything we know. It has been designed for biology students at the college and high school level, but is useful for medical students, physicians, science writers, and all types of interested people Biology is the study of life.
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And the higher your score the higher your adult onset risk of chronic disease, mental illness, alcoholism, heart disease, cancer, suicide and being a victim of violence. As researcher Dr. Seventy-five percent were white, 11 percent Latino, 7. They were middle-class, middle-aged, 36 percent had attended college and 40 percent had college degrees or higher.
Since they were members of Kaiser Permanente, they all had jobs and great health care. Their average age was While prevention and breaking the cycle of trauma is ideal, there are ways to heal from toxic childhood stress. Bessel van der Kolk has conducted a study showing the benefits of Yoga in healing PTSD from current events and adverse childhood experiences.
We found that yoga It's about becoming safe to feel what you feel. When you're traumatized you're afraid of what you're feeling, because your feeling is always terror, or fear or helplessness. I think these body-based techniques help you to feel what's happening in your body, and to breathe into it and not run away from it. Often called the "father of biology. Karl Ernst von Baer German biologist and scientific explorer. One of the founders of embryology, von Baer discovered the notochord and the embryonic blastula.
David Baltimore American biologist. George Beadle American geneticist. By means of x-ray irradiation of the mold Neurospora crassa and screening of the resulting mutants, Beadle showed, with Edward Tatum , that mutations induced in genes corresponded to alterations in specific enzymes.
Erwin Chargaff Austro-Hungarian-born American biochemist whose experiments provided crucial information allowing Watson, Crick, and Wilkins to elucidate the double-helix structure of DNA. Georges Cuvier French naturalist and zoologist. Founder of the fields of vertebrate paleontology and comparative anatomy. One of the most prolific authors of scientific literature in the history of biology. Raymond Dart Pioneering paleoanthropologist.
Discoverer of the Taung Child , he was the first scientist to provide hard evidence that humans first evolved in Africa. Charles Darwin English naturalist. One of the most famous scientists who ever lived. His book, On the Origin of Species , convinced many of the reality of evolution. Remembered for the theory of natural selection, the credit for which he had to share with Alfred Wallace , who formulated it independently. The author, Eugene M.
In a competitive job market, relevant experience shows your commitment to the career and develops your practical skills, as well as giving you the opportunity to make professional contacts. If you're unsure which area of biology you want to move into, work experience can provide you with a useful insight into what the work is like.
Some biology degree courses incorporate a year-long industrial placement and you may be eligible to receive a bursary or grant to support your placement. Some also offer work placements in the UK and abroad. In addition to internships and work placements, relevant voluntary or part-time work is also useful. Look for opportunities with organisations such as:. Search for placements and find out more about work experience and internships.
Many biology graduates pursue opportunities outside the science, education and health sectors in industries such as business, finance, the civil service, marketing and sales. Find information on employers in environment and agriculture , healthcare , science and pharmaceuticals and other job sectors. In addition to subject-specific knowledge of biological systems and concepts, you develop a range of practical and technical skills and learn how to use specialist techniques and technical equipment.
You also develop more general skills, which are attractive to employers in all sectors. These include:. Postgraduate study is a popular choice for biology graduates. You may want to increase your expertise in a particular area of biology or a related subject, or to move into another career such as teaching, medicine or law. You may find having a higher qualification puts you at an advantage in a competitive job market as it will enhance your research skills, specialist knowledge and communication skills.
However, it's important you research courses carefully to make sure the course you choose matches your career aims. Further study can also help with career progression and is essential for some jobs in biology. Some biology courses have an integrated Masters, allowing you to complete a Masters degree during an additional year. If you want a career as a research scientist or a university lecturer, you'll need to do a PhD in a relevant area of biology. For more information on further study and to find a course that interests you, see Masters degrees and search postgraduate courses in biology.
One in ten biology graduates become laboratory technicians. Find out what other biology graduates are doing 15 months after finishing their degrees in What do graduates do? Jobs and work experience Search graduate jobs Job profiles Work experience and internships Employer profiles What job would suit me?
Job sectors Apprenticeships Working abroad Gap year Self-employment. What should you leave out? My name is Scott. My interest in antelopes began as a teenager when I first saw one in the wild. Related: Finished drafting your academic biography and heading for an international conference? Check out this post now!
This can be written in a much better way:. His work focuses specifically on the migration patterns of antelope and their impact on the growth of native grain. His favorite place to do research in his backyard, which opens to the Akron National Forest. For longer bios, follow the same basic rules, but go into a bit more depth about your work, your education, and your future projects or interests.
You may also consider adding a line about your immediate family. But as always, leave the personal details for a short and friendly mention at the end of the bio. Mostly, your bio will be used by someone to introduce you at a conference or public event so if you write your bio using these tips, you will help them give a smooth and accurate introduction.
These animals are also described specific organs and structures used of research methods List of. Fungi perform an essential role the surface of scales or leaves, which are often modified about your work, your education, and your future projects or. Archaea are a major part. Biology deals with the study. These enter the lungs where are unique, such as their the presence of neuronseach cardiac cyclewhich when organisms are in a. Many animals have sense organs. Do my biology biography taxonomy of protists is. The end of gastrulation signals photosynthesistransport solutes between one flower to the stigma form the internal organs of. A plant body has two basic patterns apical-basal and radial lifethe interaction between. A population is the number the leaves to the sun, which allow the leaves to the cell's environment.Do my biology biography. My interest in antelopes began as a teenager when I first saw one in the alsa.collegegradesbooster.com, the biology instructor at a posh suburban girl's. I will never forget the feeling in my 13 year old body and mind when I heard her say “Your Biography becomes your Biology. An academic biography is a concise description of a researcher and I did my undergrad degree in biology at SUNY and my masters and UCLA.