Docherty, M. The case for structuring the discussion of scientific papers: Much the same as that for structuring abstracts. Faber, J. Writing scientific manuscripts: most common mistakes. Dental press journal of orthodontics, 22 5 , Fletcher, R.
The discussion section. Ghasemi, A. International journal of endocrinology and metabolism, 17 3. Hofmann, A. Writing in the biological sciences: a comprehensive resource for scientific communication. New York: Oxford University Press. Kotz, D.
Effective writing and publishing scientific papers, part V: results. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 66 9 , Mack, C. Moore, A. What's in a Discussion section? Bioessays, 38 12 , Peat, J. Sandercock, P. How to write and publish a scientific article. Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal, 45 1 , Teo, E. Singapore Medical Journal, 57 9 , Writing a scientific paper.
Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 22 6 , Vieira, R. How to write the discussion section of a scientific article. Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy, Subheading organization Subheadings within your results section are primarily going to detail major findings within each important experiment. Data or Results? Whereas, results are the texts presenting the meaning of your research data Bahadoran, Common Elements in Figures and Tables Figures and tables present information about your research data visually.
Data Labels Tables in the result section may contain several elements Bahadoran, : Table number Table title Row headings for example groups Column headings Data Row subheadings for example categories or groups Column subheadings for example categories or variables Footnotes for example statistical analyses Tips to Write the Result Section Direct the reader to the research data and explain the meaning of the data. Avoid using a repetitive sentence structure to explain a new set of data.
Write and highlight your important findings in your results. Use the same order as the subheadings of the methods section. Match the results with the research questions from the introduction. Your results should answer your research questions. Only present data that support the significance of your study. You can provide additional data in tables and figures as supplementary material. What do the results mean?
What were the important results from your study? How did the results answer your research questions? Did your results support your hypothesis or reject your hypothesis? What are the variables or factors that might affect your results? What were the strengths and limitations of your study? What other published works support your findings? What other published works contradict your findings? What possible factors might cause your findings different from other findings?
What is the significance of your research? What are new research questions to explore based on your findings? Organizing the Discussion Section The structure of the discussion section may be different from one paper to another, but it commonly has a beginning, middle-, and end- to the section. One way to organize the structure of the discussion section is by dividing it into three parts Ghasemi, : The beginning part: The first sentence of the first paragraph should state the importance and the new findings of your research.
The first paragraph may also include answers to your research questions mentioned in your introduction section. The middle part: The middle should contain the interpretations of the results to defend your answers, the strength of the study, the limitations of the study, and an update literature review that validates your findings.
The end part: The end concludes the study and the significance of your research. Then support your interpretation with evidence. Middle Paragraphs: The middle paragraphs should include the following Secondary results Limitations Unexpected findings Comparisons to previous publications Last Paragraph: The last paragraph should provide a summarization conclusion along with detailing the significance, implications and potential next steps.
Tips to Write the Discussion Section Highlight the significance of your findings Mention how the study will fill the gap of knowledge. Indicate the implication of your research. Avoid generalizing, misinterpreting your results, drawing a conclusion with no supportive findings from your results.
References Aggarwal, R. Related Articles. In additi In contrast, when the two sections are separated, there is continuity in the discussion and the reader can view and analyze the complete study in one go as opposed to reading results in between in a combined section. However, the reader would have to go back to the results section to correlate the discussion.
Both the methods are acceptable, and there is no right or wrong. Here we discuss the effective separation of the two sections. Keep in mind the following points when you want to separate the results and discussion in your manuscript:. The results section is the focus of your research paper. This section represents the outcome of your work. A well-written result is essential to generate interest in your findings. Do not represent the same data twice.
Choose between a table or a figure to represent your data. Avoid using both. Only presenting the results is not sufficient. The author needs to explain the significance of the results. We hope these tips help you effectively separate your results and discussion sections. Do you have any more tips to contribute to our list?