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Obabma thesis



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There are several pages of monologue that appear to have a superficial relevance, and some of these pages show references in footnotes. In conclusion, Michelle said that people feel most comfortable with the people that they spend the most time around. You might be tempted to regard the conclusion as being irrelevant to the thesis it purports to arise from. But perhaps not. Michelle might have chosen to leave unwritten the idea that educated Blacks should have their option of associating with Whitey curtailed, so that the benefits of their educations can be redirected into the community of poorer, less-educated Black people.

And this was merely a class assignment, not a graduation thesis. Of what do her data consist? How did she quantify her data? Search the paper all you wish: it will remain a mystery. With what equations did she manipulate her data? Physical scientists use equations derived from centuries of experience with natural phenomena.

Instead, she appears to have used her feelings as a substitute for empirical analysis to judge a poll about the feelings of several Black Princeton alumni. Apparently, if you want a Princeton Bachelor of Arts degree, then you must either 1 have money, be smart, and work hard — or else, 2 be Black and just enroll.

She tried her best, let compare her thesis with other past US president wife. It is better to be an objective judge than baseless hatred as the basis of perspective. Same happened with Martin King. He plagiarized his doctoral thesis at Harvard. No one cared because he was a negro.

This link is NOT her whole thesis. This is just pages 1 thru 25, the full thesis is pages long. You should get the remainder of the document and post it here as well. This same positive relationship is also shown in Table The motivation to benefit the Black community is also in- fluenced by time see table The more respondents in- creased the time they spent with Blacks the more motivated they became to benefit the Black community; and the more the respondents spent time with Whites, the more unmotivated the respondents became to benefit the Black community.

The relationship between change in time and change in mo- tivation to benefit the Black community for Prin-to-Post period in Table A strong relationship is indicated in the top portion of the table which shows that the more re- spondents began spending time with Blacks, the more respon- dents became motivated to benefit the Black community.

Yet, the relationship in the bottom portion of the table shows no relationship at all. It is possible that the disappearance of this relation- ship in the bottom portion of the table is correlated to the inability to determine which of the variables, time or ideologies, is more closely related to the dependent vari-. As opposed to Table Thus, for certain cases and periods of time, it is possible that ideologies is more in- fluential than time.

The relationship between change in time and change in ideologies is demonstrated by tables Thus, it may be understood that the more respondents increased the time they spent with Blacks or Whites greatly influenced their sense of comfort with Blacks and Whites, in general, in ad- dition to influencing their desire to benefit the Black com- munity, and their ideologies.

The frequencies from the data see tables 2 and 2a indi- cate that a smaller percentage of respondents spent time with Blacks during Pre-Princeton, in comparison to Prince- ton. During Princeton, this percentage increased greatly, but declined during Post-Princeton. The percentages in tables 2 and 2a, in addition to the relationships between change in time and the dependent vari- ables in tables Tables The tables demon- strate that for both the Pre-to-Prin and the Prin-to-Post periods, the more respondents increased the time they spent with Blacks, the more comfortable respondents became while engaging in intellectual and social activities with Blacks and the less comfortable they became with Whites.

The more respondents increased time spent with Whites, the more com- fortable respondents became while engaging in intellectual and social activities with Whites and the less they became comfortable with Blacks. Thus, the respondents who spent more time with Blacks during the Pre-to-Prin period were un- comfortable when interacting with Whites in social and inte- lectual activities. Tables 14 and This ob- servation indicates a likelihood that the high percentage of respondents who began spending time with Blacks during the Pre-to-Prin period did so consciously as opposed to being.

Also, given relationships shown in tables 13 and As we have seen, the findings discussed in the previous paragraphs seem to support the hypothesis that respondents who were increasing the time spent with Blacks were becoming more attached to the Black community during the Pre-to-Prin period both in their individual interactions and in their political ideologies about Black and White relations on a community level.

Respondents who were increasing time spent with Blacks were also becoming interested in positively con- tributing to the Black community. As a result of the huge decline in the percentage of re- spondents who began increasing time spent with Blacks during the Prin-to-Post period demonstrated earlier in Table 2, it seems probable that as respondents became.

Evidence to support the hypothesis previously discussed may be seen in Table 2a which shows the percentage of re- spondents who began spending time with Blacks and Whites. During the Prin-to-Post period, as respondents reported. However, it must be noted that these findings could be the result of the questionnaire design.

Respondents were asked to rate their attitudes by comparing Blacks and Whites, thus, as certain attitudes towards Blacks increase, it is inevitable that these attitudes towards Whites will decrease and vice versa. The study tries to examine ideologies as it relates to the dependent variables.

Thus, ideolo- gies during Princeton are not only related to time during Pre-Princeton, but to a combination of time and schools at- tended. It is my hypothesis that ideologies held by the respon- dents will be positively related to attitudes, comforts, and motivations of respondents. However, tables 18 and This table shows the variables moving together, yet, after Princeton, these variables move in different di- rections.

Table In order to explain this disappearance it would be help- ful to find some third variable having the same relationship to ideologies and to general comfort during the Pre-to-Prin period but would have different relationships to these vari- ables in the Prin-to-Post period. Unfortunately, I have been unable to find such a variable in this study.

Thus, in this instance, I will not venture to speculate beyond the limits of my data. Despite this peculiar occurance, ideologies and other de- pendent variables show relatively strong relationships with few inconsistencies. For example, tables 19 and One possible explanation for this occurance may be that both integrationist and separationist strive to benefit the Black community because supporters of these ideologies may. Such reasoning could account for the findings which show separationists becoming more motivated to benefit the Black community in comparison to integration- ists.

However, the relationship between the change in ideologies during the Prin-to-Post period and the change in feeling of obligation to the Black lower class in table These findings make it possible to speculate that at the Post-Princeton point, as more respondents were becoming in- creasingly motivated by their occupations, they had less at- tention to divide among their other priorities. As a re- sult, some of their motivations to the Black community may have become withdrawn in order to place more emphasis on oc- cupational attainments.

Consequently, their feelings of ob- ligation to the Black lower class were decreased as well. Tables 21 and But, it should be noted that the relationship during the Pre-to-Prin period, in this case, is a little weaker than the Prin-to-Post period relationship. When the relationship between change in ideologies and guilt of betraying the Black lower class is analyzed in ta- bles 22 and This conflict may result from actively integrating in a predominately White environment by attending Princeton.

On the other hand, the respondent is acting in the best interest of integrationist. Table 23, however, shows this same relationship but con- siderably stronger than the relationship in table This same relationship was present for the Prin-to-Post period in Table Integrationist and separationist ideologies both encour- age the active participation of the Black community in work- ing towards self-help.

Integrationism and separtionism may both be ways for the Black lower class to help themselves. Thus, it is not surprising that the idea of self-help by the lower class continued to increase through the life periods of the respondents. Finally, tables 24 and However, once again, this relationship was very weak for the same relationship in the Prin-to-Post Table My speculation for this finding is based on the possibil- ity that a separationist is more likely to have a realistic impression of the plight of the Black lower class because of the likelihood that a separationist is more closely associ- ated with the Black lower class than are integrationist.

By actually working with the Black lower class or within their communities as a result of their ideologies, a separationist may better understand the desparation of their situation and feel more hopeless about a resolution as opposed to an inte- grationist who is ignorant to their plight.

The original hypotheses of the study as demonstrated ear- lier by the causal models in diagram 1, stated that time would have a positive relationship to the dependent vari- ables such that the more respondents began spending time with Blacks, the more they would become attached to Black individuals and the Black community in several respects; and the more respondents began spending time with Whites, the more they would be attached to Whites in several respects.

The findings as demonstrated by the revised causal models below in diagrams 2 and 3, were not far off from these orig- inal hypotheses. The causal model in diagram 2 demonstrates that there is still a positive relationship between time and the dependent variables. Ideologies, however, was found to have the same relationship to the dependent variables.

Unfortunately, the data do not provide a way of determining whether time or ideologies is more closely related to the dependent vari- ables for reasons discussed earlier. However, I have chosen to examine the time respondents spent with Blacks and Whites as it determines later ideologies and attitudes because I am more interested in this relationship as opposed to examining how ideologies determines time. The causal model in diagram 3 demonstrates that the study examines the respondents who spent time interacting with Blacks and Whites on an individual level as the major causal variable of the study.

However, the more respondents began spending time with Whites, the more they became attached to and interested in the White community. The causal model goes on to argue that the relationships between ideologies and the variables which measure attit- dues, i.

However, after Princeton this identification decreased dras- tically. Before discussing this finding in more detail, I feel it is necessary to clarify this idea of identification as it is used in this study. In de- fining the concept of identification or the ability to identify with the Black community, I based my definition on the premise that there is a distinctive Black culture very different from White culture.

Some of these Blacks are no longer able to enjoy the qualities which make Black culture so unique or are unable to openly share their culture with other Blacks because they have become so far removed from these experiences and, in some instances, ashamed of them as a result of their integration. There are other Blacks who, in being integrated have not lost touch. They have maintained an awareness and a sincere appreciation for the uniqueness of the Black culture. It is with these ideas that I formulated my conception of identifying with the Black community.

Thus, I believe that a respondent who did not identify with the Black community would be less likely to spend time with Blacks and be less motivated to benefit the Black community. However I encoun- tered several problems following this line of reasoning. I now believe it is incorrect to assume that just because a Black individual does not enjoy or choose to participate in the culture of his people, that that individual is not interested in benefiting that group of people.

For example, a Black may not enjoy the music, or language of the Black community because his preferences lead him to other inter- ests, but this same individual may actively work to improve employment for Blacks because of a sincere interest in ame- liorating this condition.

Therefore, the inability to identify with one aspect of the Black culture does not nec- essarily cause apathy towards Blacks in general. Also, a Black individual may be unable to understand or appreciate the Black culture because that individual was not raised in that culture, yet still be able to;identify as be- ing a Black person.

It is possible that the individual. Thus, defining identification as an appreciation and an enjoyment found in the Black culture is not complete enough for the purposes of the study. However, through my study I was able to redefine the concept of identification. Until this point familiarity only served to explain the role of comfort in this study. However, after completion of my study, it is clear to me that familiarity or the extent to which respondents are familiar with the Black community is helpful in redefining the concept of identification.

Many questions arise from these findings. For instance, why did some respondents tend to become more attached and interested in the Black community during Princeton? What influence did their Princeton environment have on their at- titudes and why were these influences not present before and after Princeton? The findings provided by this study leave these questions unanswered because the questionnaire was not designed to investigate these surprising occurances.

How- ever, it is possible to develop new hypotheses which might explain these findings and suggest methods for testing them. One possible hypothesis explaining why some respondents become attached to Blacks during Princeton was derived from some ideas Dejoie brought out in her report discussed earli-.

Predominately White universi- ties like Princeton are socially and academically designed to cater to the needs of the White students comprising the bulk of their enrollments. At Princeton, for example, pres- ently their are only five Black tenured professsors on its faculty; and the program of Afro-American studies is one of the smallest and most understaffed departments in the Uni- versity only offering four courses during the spring semes- ter of ; and there is only one major University recog- nized organization on campus designed specifically for the intellectual and social interests of Blacks and other Third World students.

If Black students want to have certain speakers or programs, catering to their interests, they must form sepa- rate groups within the University, i. Several Black students within the past four years, have even organized a Food Co- operative which provides these students with an inexpensive alternative to University eating facilities and Eating Clubs which are very expensive by comparison.

Thus, it is not surprising that, in their attempts to satisfy their own in- tellectual, social, and also economic needs, some respon-. In order to study this hypothesis which, in essence, is saying that the more respondents became attached to Blacks during the Pre-to-Prin period, the more respondents became dissatisfied with the social and academic environment at Princeton, one might measure the degree of satisfaction re- spondents felt in their experiences at Princeton.

From such a question, one could discover how satisfied Blacks were at Princeton and what satisfied them most and least. It is possible that Black individuals either chose to or felt pressured to come together with other Blacks on campus because of the belief that Blacks must join in solidarity to combat a White oppressor. As the few Blacks in a White en-. One can contrast the mood of the campus years ago and the level of attachment to Blacks to that of the present mood of the campus, which is more pro-integrationist, and the level of attachment to Blacks.

Presently, with the Black Power Movement behind us and with the implementation of CURL College Undergraduate Residential Life , the mood of the campus has been shifted in such a way that Black students are discouraged from forming separate groups because of a fear that they are segregating themselves from mainstream campus life by doing so.

Thus, if a survey were to be made today of the level of Black involvement in minority organi- zations and their involvement in campus organizations, there would be a larger percentage of Blacks involved in main- stream life in comparison to the years when these respon- dents were at Princeton. But, on the other hand, the per- centage of involvement in Third World organizations would be much lower now than then.

It appears, that the present mood of the campus is one that encourages the integration and as- similation of Blacks, whereas the mood of the campus and even society in general several years ago encouraged the separation of Blacks. Thus, the mood of the time may have contributed its influence to more respondents becoming at- tached to Blacks. So far, I have discussed a few characteristics of Prince- ton and the time at which respondents were attending the University which may account for some of the main findings of this study.

It is impor- tant to remember that before Princeton, a large percentage of the respondents were attending secondary schools whose population was more heavily White in comparison to their primary schools. After Princeton, one may speculate that respondents were also in predominately White work environments or attending graduate or professional schools that were also predominate- ly White. Thus, a discussion of the differences between these experiences in predominately White environments and Princeton experiences that prevented Pre and Post environ- ments from changing their attitudes will be interesting.

During Pre-Princeton if respondents became frustrated or discouraged as a result of their experiences in a predominately White academic envi- ronment the respondents could always escape from these frus- trations when they left these environments to go home. However, when respondents enter col- lege, many, if not most, are unable to go home for support from families readily when they are frustrated or discour- aged by their Princeton environment usually because their familiies are far from them and telephoning home may be re- stricted because of the expense.

Thus, in their attempts to find a substitute support group, respondents turn to indi- viduals in their environments who most resemble their old support groups; individuals who share the same problems as themselves and understand their complaints. Assum- ing that most of these respondents are working or attending schools during Post-Princeton that are predominately White, most of their time during Post-Princeton will be spent in- teracting with their White co-workers or classmates.

Thus, the increasing amount of time spent with Whites resulting. In essence, in order to advance in their careers or post- graduate studies, respondents realize they must be able to get along with their co-workers or classmates who are likely to be White, thereby identifying more with Whites.

I began this study questionning my own attitudes as a fu- ture alumnus. I wondered whether or not my education at Princeton would affect my identification with the Black com- munity. I hoped that these findings would help me conclude that despite the high degree of identification with Whites as a result of the educational and occupational path that Black Princeton alumni follow, the alumni would still main- tain a certain level of identification with the Black commu- nity.

However, these findings do not support this possibil- ity. Findings show that some respondents did experience a change in their attitudes over the periods of time indicated in this study. Thus, these findings suggest that respondents who experience change as a result of their Princeton experiences are likely to identify less with Blacks and the Black community in comparison to Whites and the Whites community.

It is important to note that it is impossible for me to generalize these findings for all Black Princeton alumni be- cause the sample for this study was much too small to make any kind of generalizations. Therefore, I am only able to draw conclusions from these findings for the respondents to my questionnaire. What is left to be done now is a further examination of this issue to determine if a Princeton education has unique effects on Blacks or if the effects are common for all col- lege-educated Blacks in general.

It is my belief that such a study should be undertaken by developing a new question- naire to be distributed to Black alumni of several different types of universities. Such a study could prove to be inva- luable to bettering the educational environments for Blacks who are able to attend college, thereby improving the over- all quality of a college education for Blacks. Carmichael, S.

Conyers, J. Havemann, E. Politico is currently hosting it in a 4-part PDF. A complete PDF of the thesis can be downloaded here. The next post will be a word-searchable version, from a quick optical scan, minus the statistical data near the end of the thesis. Create a free website or blog at WordPress. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson I further authorize Princeton University to reproduce this thesis by photocopying or by other means, in total or in part, at the request of other institutions or individuals for the purpose of scholarly research.

Michelle LaVaughn Robinson Princeton University requires the signatures of all persons using or photocopying this thesis. Thank-you Professor Wallace you have made me a much better student. This is important for Blacks in contempo- rary society because as more Blacks begin attending predomi- nately White universities it will be helpful to know how their experiences in these universities affect their future 2 attitudes.

Interaction Attitudes There are two basic variables in this category. Therefore, in order to demonstrate the role of 7 these concepts in this study, the following section will draw on the writings of such authors as van den Berghe, Billingsley, and Carmichael and Hamilton, to name a few, whose writings utilize these concepts.

They discuss problems which face these Black officials who must persuade the White community that they are above issues of race and that they are representing 2 Stokely Carmichael and :Charles Hamilton, Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America, New York: Vintage Books , p. Benefit Attitudes The second set of dependent variables in this study tries especially to measure the extent to which the respondents were motivated to benefit various social groups.

As will be demonstrated, the independent variables which measure the actual time the indivdual spent with Blacks in 16 comparison to Whites throughout Pre-Princeton, Princeton, and Post-Princeton years will be used as an independent variable. Consequently, it is also likely that these respondents are motivated to benefit self, their loved ones who are also likely to be Black and the Black commu- nity in comparison to other social groups indicated by this 20 variable.

Measures of the Independent Variables The second part of the questionnaire consists of fourteen questions aimed at measuring the independent variables of the study e. The Black Power Movement was also strong during this time and as I have mentioned earlier in the study, such leaders as Stokely Carmichael 27 were stressing the need for Blacks to separate themselves from White society in order to strengthen the Black communi- ty.

Time vs. Ideologies In order to determine which came first, time or ideolo- gies, a new analysis was performed to obtain the relation- ships in tables General Comfort and Motivation to Black Community Support for the hypothesis discussed in the previous paragraph may be found in the relationships between change in time and change in general comfort the respondents feel when interacting with Blacks and Whites in various activ- ates.

The more respondents 38 increased the time they spent with Blacks during this peri- od, the more comfortable respondents became, in general, with Blacks; and the more respondents increased the time they spent with Whites during this period, the more comfor- table respondents became, in general, with Whites. It is possible that the disappearance of this relation- ship in the bottom portion of the table is correlated to the inability to determine which of the variables, time or ideologies, is more closely related to the dependent vari- 39 ables.

Association Between Time and Ideologies The relationship between change in time and change in ideologies is demonstrated by tables Time and its Correlates The frequencies from the data see tables 2 and 2a indi- cate that a smaller percentage of respondents spent time with Blacks during Pre-Princeton, in comparison to Prince- ton. This ob- servation indicates a likelihood that the high percentage of respondents who began spending time with Blacks during the Pre-to-Prin period did so consciously as opposed to being 42 forced to do so as a result of discrimination on the part of the University forcing Blacks and Whites apart.

Association Between Ideologies and Schools Attended The study tries to examine ideologies as it relates to the dependent variables. Associations between Ideologies and the Dependent Variables It is my hypothesis that ideologies held by the respon- dents will be positively related to attitudes, comforts, and motivations of respondents.

One possible explanation for this occurance may be that both integrationist and separationist strive to benefit the Black community because supporters of these ideologies may 46 believe that their ideologies best serve to benefit the Black community.

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The Senior Thesis

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Princeton-Educated Blacks and the Black Community by. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson. A thesis presented to Princeton University in partial fulfillment of the. Michelle Obama's senior year thesis at Princeton University, obtained from the campaign by Politico, shows a document written by a young. As far as has been determined, Barack Obama did not produce a formal thesis for his degree at Columbia University; the closest match is a paper.