Make sure you run your completed paper through the Citation Machine Plus smart proofreader, which scans for grammar, spelling, and plagiarism. An APA annotated bibliography is a full bibliography that includes a small note for each reference citation. Each note should be short paragraphs and contain a summary or your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations on CitationMachine. Follow the publication manual guidelines on paper format and writing style.
Let your instructor guide other details about your annotations. Still confused? Read our guide on annotated bibliographies. Need help with the design and formatting of your paper? Look no further! This section provides the ins and outs of properly displaying the information in your APA essay. Keep in mind that the order above is the recommendation for papers being submitted for peer review.
Each journal has different rules and procedures. Just a little nudge to remind you about the Citation Machine Plus smart proofreader. In older editions of APA, running heads were required for all papers. The running head displays the title of the paper and the page number on all pages of the paper. This header is found on every page of a professional paper not a student paper , even on the title page sometimes called an APA cover page and reference list taken from Section 2.
It's displayed all in capital letters at the top of the page. Across from the running head, along the right margin, is the page number. A title page, sometimes called an APA cover page, graces the cover of an essay or paper. An APA title page should follow rules from Section 2.
Follow the directions for the running head and page number in the section above. Below the running head, a few lines beneath, and centered in the middle of the page, should be the title. All components on this page should be written in the same font and size as the rest of your paper. Double space the title, names, name of school or institution, and all other information on the page except for the running head and page number.
Each journal is different and some may request a different type of APA format cover page. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to CitationMachine. An abstract briefly but thoroughly summarizes dissertation contents. Abstracts are meant to help readers determine whether to continue reading the entire document. With that in mind, try to craft the lead sentence to entice the reader to continue reading. Example abstract:.
If your paper includes a lot of numerical information or data, you may want to consider placing it into a table or a figure, rather than typing it all out. A visual figure or simple, organized table filled with numerical data is often easier for readers to digest and comprehend than tons of paragraphs filled with numbers. Chapter 7 of the Publication manual outlines formatting for tables and figures.
Let's cover the basics below. The 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was released in The current 7th edition came out in the fall of and was designed to be more student focused, provide more guidance on accessibility, and address changes that have developed over the last 10 years. For example:. Accretion of a giant planet onto a white dwarf star. Nature, , 61— There are few new guidelines when you are citing a book.
First, the publisher location no longer needs to be indicated. The font should be blue and underlined, or black and not underlined. Flood, A. Britain has closed almost libraries since , figures show. The Guardian. Within a full APA citation, you may spell out up to 20 author names. For sources with 21 or more authors, structure it as follows:. Trump, D. This helps abbreviate the mention. Instead of having different formats for tables and figures, both use one standardized format.
Worry less about a determiner , preposition , or adverb out of place and focus on your research! American Psychological Association. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 7th ed. Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Wendy Ikemoto. Michele Kirschenbaum has been an awesome school librarian since and is an expert in citing sources.
Choose your source. Website Book Journal More. Keep all of your citations in one safe place Create an account to save all of your citations. What is it? Common ways students and scholars accidentally plagiarize Believe it or not, there are instances when you could attempt to include in-text and full references in the appropriate places, but still accidentally plagiarize.
Here are some common mistakes to be aware of: Mistake 1 - Misquoting sources: If you plan to use a direct quote, make sure you copy it exactly as is. Make sure you quote and paraphrase properly in order to prevent accidental plagiarism. Why was this style created? The evolution of this style The guide below is based on APA style 7th edition, which was released in Details on the differences between the 6th and 7th editions is addressed later in this guide.
Date published. To start, simply click on the source type you're citing: Website Books Journal articles YouTube Images Moviews Interview Newspaper Magazines PDF In-text citations An APA in-text citation is included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source.
In-text citation APA example: According to a study done by Kent and Giles , student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. Structure for two authors Place the authors in the order they appear on the source.
Last name Author 1 et al. Agbayani et al. Jackson, a OR Jackson a Writers can even lump dates together. Example: Jackson often studied mammals while in Africa a, b. On the APA reference page, include the same letters in the full references. Groups and organizations Write out the full name of the group or organization in the first citation and place the abbreviation next to it in brackets. Example: Obama, ; Monroe et al.
Reference list citation components References display the full information for all the citations found in the body of a research project. Some things to keep in mind when it comes to the references: All references sit together on their own page, which is usually the last page s of a paper. Keep the title in the same font and size as the references.
Do not italicize, underline, place the title in quotation marks, or increase the font size. The entire page is double spaced. If the source lacks an author, alphabetize the source by the title ignore A, An, or The All references have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch.
See examples throughout this guide. Remember, each and every citation in the text of the paper MUST have a full reference displayed in the reference list. The citations in the text provide the reader with a quick glimpse about the sources used, but the references in the reference list provide the reader with all the information needed to seek out the source themselves. Format: Last name, F. Example: Angelou, M. Doyle, A. Two or more authors When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source.
Use this format: Last name, F. OR Last name, F. Kent, A. No authors If the source lacks an author, place the title in the first position in the reference Section 9. Example: United Nations. Examples: Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Roots: The saga of an American family.
For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Examples: Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. Example: The Seattle Times. The Citation Machine citation generator will format the title in your citations automatically. Additional information about the title If you feel it would be helpful to include additional information about the source type, include a descriptive noun or two in brackets immediately following the title.
Example: Kennedy, K. Besides [Film], other common notations include: [Audio podcast] [Brochure] [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] [Tweet] [Facebook page] [Blog post] [Lecture notes] [PowerPoint presentation] [Video file] If you are using Citation Machine citing tools, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. Publisher information For books and reports, include the publisher name but not the location see Section 9.
Example: Giannoukos, G. Examples: Pearson. Perseus Books. It is unnecessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time like in a Wikipedia article. It is not necessary to include the names of databases If using the Citation Machine APA citation website autocite features, the online publication information will be automatically replaced by the DOI. Annotated bibliographies: An APA annotated bibliography is a full bibliography that includes a small note for each reference citation.
Page formatting Need help with the design and formatting of your paper? Include the list of references on the page after the text. Tables and figures Keep in mind that the order above is the recommendation for papers being submitted for peer review.
Running heads In older editions of APA, running heads were required for all papers. Student paper: No running head Professional paper: Include a running head The running head displays the title of the paper and the page number on all pages of the paper. Use the header feature in your word processor.
Both Google Docs and Word have these features available. Use one for the recommended fonts mentioned under "Page formatting. If this is a student paper, do not include one. Abstracts An abstract briefly but thoroughly summarizes dissertation contents. Here are a few tips: Be factual and keep your opinions out.
An abstract should accurately reflect the paper or dissertation and should not involve information or commentary not in the thesis. Communicate your main thesis. What was the examined problem or hypothesis? A reader should know this from reading your abstract.
Keep it brief. It should not exceed words. For example, an empirical article may mention methodology or participant description. A quantitative or qualitative meta-analysis would mention the different variables considered and how information was synthesized. Use verbs over noun equivalents, and active voice. It should have the same font size and type as the rest of the paper. It should stick to one page. Double-space all page text. The body should also be in plain text.
For the keywords, place it on the line after the abstract and indent the first line but not subsequent lines. The actual keywords are sentence case and in plan font. List each keyword one after the other, and separate them by a comma. After the last keyword, no ending punctuation is needed. For figures, it would be 'Figure 1,' 'Figure 2,' and so forth. Even though every table and figure is numbered, also create a title for each that describes the information it contains.
Capitalize all important words in the title. We also offer a 6th edition guide. For example Smith, , p. See it as a shorter version of the entry in the reference list. In doing so, you give credit to the original author and avoid plagiarism. The in-text citation can take two forms: parenthetical and narrative.
The in-text citation changes slightly when a source has multiple authors or an organization as an author. APA references generally include information about the author , publication date , title , and source. Depending on the type of source, you may have to include extra information that helps your reader locate the source.
Citing a source starts with choosing the correct reference format. Pay close attention to punctuation, capitalization, and italicization. Generate APA citations for free. It is not uncommon for certain information to be unknown or missing, especially with sources found online.
In these cases, the reference is slightly adjusted. Place the page, right after the main body and before any appendices. On the second line, start listing your references in alphabetical order. On the reference page, you only include sources that you have cited in the text with an in-text citation.
In addition to the APA Citation Generator, Scribbr provides many more tools and resources that help millions of students and academics every month. The Scribbr Citation Generator is easy to use, accurate, and accessible for all students. Yes, after creating your citations you can download your reference list to Word.
To save you some time, the downloaded file is already set up in APA or MLA format , depending on which citation style you used. An account is not required to use the Scribbr Citation Generator. However, creating a Scribbr account does have some benefits:. Be sure to download a backup on a regular basis, or sign in to store it in your account automatically.
You fill in the forms with information about a source, such as the author s , title, and publication date. The tool then creates an accurate reference and in-text citation that you can use to give credit to the original author.