how should a thesis look

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Year after year, we review dozens of reader nominations, revisit sites from past lists, consider staff favorites, and search the far-flung corners of the web for new celebration of new year essay for a varied compilation that will prove an asset to any writer, of any genre, at any experience level. This selection represents this year's creativity-centric websites for writers. These websites fuel out-of-the-box thinking and help writers awaken their choke palahnuik and literary analysis. Be sure to check out the archives for references to innovative techniques and processes from famous thinkers like Einstein and Darwin. The countless prompts, how-tos on guided imagery and creative habits, mixed-media masterpieces, and more at Creativity Portal have sparked imaginations for more than 18 years. Boost your literary credentials by submitting your best caption for the stand-alone cartoon to this weekly choke palahnuik and literary analysis from The New Yorker. The top three captions advance to a public vote, and the winners will be included in a future issue of the magazine.

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How should a thesis look

CUSTOM RESEARCH PAPER WRITING WEBSITES FOR MASTERS

Pfirman, S. Stute, H. Simpson, and J. Pechenik, J. Harper Collins Publishers, New York, pp. Pitelka, D. Child Review of ciliary structure and function. In: Biochemistry and Physiology of Protozoa , Vol. Hutner, editor , Academic Press, New York, Sambrotto, R. Stute, M. Clark, P. Schlosser, W. Broecker, and G. Bonani A high altitude continental paleotemperature record derived from noble gases dissolved in groundwater from the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Appendices Include all your data in the appendix.

Tables where more than pages. Calculations where more than pages. You may include a key article as appendix. If you consulted a large number of references but did not cite all of them, you might want to include a list of additional resource material, etc. List of equipment used for an experiment or details of complicated procedures. Note: Figures and tables, including captions, should be embedded in the text and not in an appendix, unless they are more than pages and are not critical to your argument.

Order of Writing Your thesis is not written in the same order as it is presented in. The following gives you one idea how to proceed. Here is another approach. Write up a preliminary version of the background section first. This will serve as the basis for the introduction in your final paper.

As you collect data, write up the methods section. It is much easier to do this right after you have collected the data. Be sure to include a description of the research equipment and relevant calibration plots. When you have some data, start making plots and tables of the data. These will help you to visualize the data and to see gaps in your data collection. If time permits, you should go back and fill in the gaps. You are finished when you have a set of plots that show a definite trend or lack of a trend.

Be sure to make adequate statistical tests of your results. Once you have a complete set of plots and statistical tests, arrange the plots and tables in a logical order. Write figure captions for the plots and tables. As much as possible, the captions should stand alone in explaining the plots and tables. Many scientists read only the abstract, figures, figure captions, tables, table captions, and conclusions of a paper.

Be sure that your figures, tables and captions are well labeled and well documented. Once your plots and tables are complete, write the results section. Writing this section requires extreme discipline. You must describe your results, but you must NOT interpret them. If good ideas occur to you at this time, save them at the bottom of the page for the discussion section.

Be factual and orderly in this section, but try not to be too dry. Once you have written the results section, you can move on to the discussion section. This is usually fun to write, because now you can talk about your ideas about the data. Many papers are cited in the literature because they have a good cartoon that subsequent authors would like to use or modify. In writing the discussion session, be sure to adequately discuss the work of other authors who collected data on the same or related scientific questions.

Be sure to discuss how their work is relevant to your work. If there were flaws in their methodology, this is the place to discuss it. After you have discussed the data, you can write the conclusions section. In this section, you take the ideas that were mentioned in the discussion section and try to come to some closure. If some hypothesis can be ruled out as a result of your work, say so.

If more work is needed for a definitive answer, say that. The final section in the paper is a recommendation section. This is really the end of the conclusion section in a scientific paper. Make recommendations for further research or policy actions in this section.

If you can make predictions about what will be found if X is true, then do so. You will get credit from later researchers for this. After you have finished the recommendation section, look back at your original introduction.

Your introduction should set the stage for the conclusions of the paper by laying out the ideas that you will test in the paper. Now that you know where the paper is leading, you will probably need to rewrite the introduction. You must write your abstract last. All figures and tables should be numbered and cited consecutively in the text as figure 1, figure 2, table 1, table 2, etc.

Include a caption for each figure and table, citing how it was constructed reference citations, data sources, etc. Include an index figure map showing and naming all locations discussed in paper. You are encouraged to make your own figures, including cartoons, schematics or sketches that illustrate the processes that you discuss. Examine your figures with these questions in mind: Is the figure self-explanatory?

Are your axes labeled and are the units indicated? Show the uncertainty in your data with error bars. If the data are fit by a curve, indicate the goodness of fit. Could chart junk be eliminated? Could non-data ink be eliminated? Could redundant data ink be eliminated?

Could data density be increased by eliminating non-data bearing space? Is this a sparse data set that could better be expressed as a table? Does the figure distort the data in any way? Are the data presented in context? Does the figure caption guide the reader's eye to the "take-home lesson" of the figure? Figures should be oriented vertically, in portrait mode, wherever possible. If you must orient them horizontally, in landscape mode, orient them so that you can read them from the right, not from the left, where the binding will be.

Tying the Text to the Data "Show them, don't just tell them…" Ideally, every result claimed in the text should be documented with data, usually data presented in tables or figures. If there are no data provided to support a given statement of result or observation, consider adding more data, or deleting the unsupported "observation. Assess whether: the data support the textual statement the data contradict the textual statement the data are insufficient to prove or refute the textual statement the data may support the textual statement, but are not presented in such a way that you can be sure you are seeing the same phenomenon in the data that the author claims to have seen.

Final Thesis Make 3 final copies: 1 to mentor and 2 to department, so that we can have 2 readers. Final thesis should be bound. Printed cleanly on white paper. Double-spaced using point font. Double-sided saves paper.

Include page numbers. Resources The Barnard Writing Room provides assistance on writing senior theses. Look at other theses on file in the Environmental Science department, they will give you an idea of what we are looking for.

Of course do not hesitate to ask us, or your research advisor for help. The Barnard Environmental Science Department has many books on scientific writing, ask the departmental administrator for assistance in locating them.

Also see additional books listed as Resources. Copy Editing Proof read your thesis a few times. Check your spelling. Make sure that you use complete sentences Check your grammar: punctuation, sentence structure, subject-verb agreement plural or singular , tense consistency, etc.

Give it to others to read and comment. Content Editing logic repetition, relevance style. Avoiding ambiguity Do not allow run-on sentences to sneak into your writing; try semicolons. Avoid clauses or phrases with more than two ideas in them. Do not use double negatives. Do not use dangling participles i. Make sure that the antecedent for every pronoun it, these, those, that, this, one is crystal clear. If in doubt, use the noun rather than the pronoun, even if the resulting sentence seems a little bit redundant.

Ensure that subject and verb agree in number singular versus plural. Be especially careful with compound subjects. Avoid qualitative adjectives when describing concepts that are quantifiable "The water is deep. Do not use unexplained acronyms.

Spell out all acronyms the first time that you use them. Thesis length Write for brevity rather than length. The goal is the shortest possible paper that contains all information necessary to describe the work and support the interpretation. Avoid unnecessary repetition and irrelevant tangents. Necessary repetition: the main theme should be developed in the introduction as a motivation or working hypothesis. It is then developed in the main body of the paper, and mentioned again in the discussion section and, of course, in the abstract and conclusions.

Some suggestions on how to shorten your paper: Use tables for repetitive information. Include only sufficient background material to permit the reader to understand your story, not every paper ever written on the subject. Use figure captions effectively. Instead, use the text to point out the most significant patterns, items or trends in the figures and tables. Delete "observations" or "results" that are mentioned in the text for which you have not shown data.

Delete "conclusions" that are not directly supported by your observations or results. Delete "interpretation" or "discussion" sections that are inconclusive. Delete "interpretation" or "discussion" sections that are only peripherally related to your new results or observations. Scrutinize adjectives! Although it varies considerably from project to project, average thesis length is about 40 pages of text plus figures. This total page count includes all your text as well as the list of references, but it does not include any appendices.

These generalizations should not be taken too seriously, especially if you are working on a labor-intensive lab project. If you have any questions about whether your project is of sufficient scope, consult one of us early on. This concern, while understandable, is misguided.

The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education: the internet facilitates easier access to information, exposure to different perspectives, and a flexible learning environment for both students and teachers. The best thesis statements are concise , contentious and coherent. State your point clearly and directly in one or two sentences. A good thesis statement is a claim that requires further evidence or analysis to back it up.

Particularly in an argumentative essay , your thesis statement should be something that others might question or disagree with. Your thesis statement might mention several aspects of your topic, but they should all add up to a coherent whole, expressing one main idea.

Everything mentioned in your thesis statement must be supported and explained in the rest of your paper. Everything else you write should relate to this key idea. The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:.

Without a clear thesis, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say. Follow these three steps to come up with a thesis :. The thesis statement should be placed at the end of your essay introduction. Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free!

APA Citation Generator. Home Knowledge Base Essay How to write a thesis statement. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education : the internet facilitates easier access to information, exposure to different perspectives, and a flexible learning environment for both students and teachers.

The invention of the printing press in the 15th century allowed for much less restricted circulation of information in Europe, paving the way for the Reformation. Mary Shelley uses shifting narrative perspectives to portray Victor Frankenstein in an increasingly negative light as the novel goes on ; he starts out as a naive but sympathetic idealist, but by the end we see him as a thoughtlessly cruel figure.

Here's why students love Scribbr's proofreading services Trustpilot. The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. What is a thesis statement? Why do I need a thesis statement? The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons: It gives your writing direction and focus.

It gives the reader a concise summary of your main point. How can I come up with a thesis statement? Follow these three steps to come up with a thesis : Ask a question about your topic. Write your initial answer.

Develop your answer and include reasons. Where does the thesis statement go in an essay? Is this article helpful? Shona McCombes Shona has a bachelor's and two master's degrees, so she's an expert at writing a great thesis. She has also worked as an editor and teacher, working with students at all different levels to improve their academic writing.

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The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education: the internet facilitates easier access to information, exposure to different perspectives, and a flexible learning environment for both students and teachers. The best thesis statements are concise , contentious and coherent. State your point clearly and directly in one or two sentences. A good thesis statement is a claim that requires further evidence or analysis to back it up.

Particularly in an argumentative essay , your thesis statement should be something that others might question or disagree with. Your thesis statement might mention several aspects of your topic, but they should all add up to a coherent whole, expressing one main idea. Everything mentioned in your thesis statement must be supported and explained in the rest of your paper.

Everything else you write should relate to this key idea. The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:. Without a clear thesis, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say.

Follow these three steps to come up with a thesis :. The thesis statement should be placed at the end of your essay introduction. Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! APA Citation Generator.

Home Knowledge Base Essay How to write a thesis statement. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education : the internet facilitates easier access to information, exposure to different perspectives, and a flexible learning environment for both students and teachers. The invention of the printing press in the 15th century allowed for much less restricted circulation of information in Europe, paving the way for the Reformation. Mary Shelley uses shifting narrative perspectives to portray Victor Frankenstein in an increasingly negative light as the novel goes on ; he starts out as a naive but sympathetic idealist, but by the end we see him as a thoughtlessly cruel figure.

Here's why students love Scribbr's proofreading services Trustpilot. The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. What is a thesis statement? Why do I need a thesis statement? The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons: It gives your writing direction and focus.

It gives the reader a concise summary of your main point. How can I come up with a thesis statement? Follow these three steps to come up with a thesis : Ask a question about your topic. Write your initial answer. Develop your answer and include reasons. Where does the thesis statement go in an essay?

Is this article helpful? Shona McCombes Shona has a bachelor's and two master's degrees, so she's an expert at writing a great thesis. She has also worked as an editor and teacher, working with students at all different levels to improve their academic writing. Other students also liked.

This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. This resource provides tips for creating a thesis statement and examples of different types of thesis statements.

If you are writing a text that does not fall under these three categories e. Your thesis statement should be specific—it should cover only what you will discuss in your paper and should be supported with specific evidence. Your topic may change as you write, so you may need to revise your thesis statement to reflect exactly what you have discussed in the paper.

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We refer to that condensation as a thesis statement. In general, your thesis statement will accomplish these goals if you think of the thesis as the answer to the question your paper explores. Here are some helpful hints to get you started. You can either scroll down or select a link to a specific topic. Almost all assignments, no matter how complicated, can be reduced to a single question.

Your first step, then, is to distill the assignment into a specific question. Brainstorm the topic. You find that you are interested in the amount of sugar Americans consume. Instead, it simply indicates a general subject. Narrow the topic.

Your readings about the topic, however, have led you to the conclusion that elementary school children are consuming far more sugar than is healthy. This fragment not only announces your subject, but it focuses on one segment of the population: elementary school children. Furthermore, it raises a subject upon which reasonable people could disagree, because while most people might agree that children consume more sugar than they used to, not everyone would agree on what should be done or who should do it.

Take a position on the topic. After reflecting on the topic a little while longer, you decide that what you really want to say about this topic is that something should be done to reduce the amount of sugar these children consume.

More attention should be paid to the food and beverage choices available to elementary school children. This statement asserts your position, but the terms more attention and food and beverage choices are vague. Use specific language. You decide to explain what you mean about food and beverage choices , so you write:. Experts estimate that half of elementary school children consume nine times the recommended daily allowance of sugar.

It merely reports a statistic instead of making an assertion. Make an assertion based on clearly stated support. You finally revise your thesis statement one more time to look like this:. Because half of all American elementary school children consume nine times the recommended daily allowance of sugar, schools should be required to replace the beverages in soda machines with healthy alternatives.

Your thesis changed to reflect your new insights. Remember that your thesis needs to show your conclusions about a subject. For example, if you are writing a paper for a class on fitness, you might be asked to choose a popular weight-loss product to evaluate.

Here are two thesis statements:. This is a weak thesis statement. First, it fails to take a stand. Second, the phrase negative and positive aspects is vague. Because Banana Herb Tea Supplement promotes rapid weight loss that results in the loss of muscle and lean body mass, it poses a potential danger to customers. Your thesis should indicate the point of the discussion. If your assignment is to write a paper on kinship systems, using your own family as an example, you might come up with either of these two thesis statements:.

This is a weak thesis because it merely states an observation. While most American families would view consanguineal marriage as a threat to the nuclear family structure, many Iranian families, like my own, believe that these marriages help reinforce kinship ties in an extended family.

This is a strong thesis because it shows how your experience contradicts a widely-accepted view. A good strategy for creating a strong thesis is to show that the topic is controversial. Every argument has a counterargument. If yours doesn't, then it's not an argument—it may be a fact, or an opinion, but it is not an argument. This statement is on its way to being a thesis.

However, it is too easy to imagine possible counterarguments. For example, a political observer might believe that Dukakis lost because he suffered from a "soft-on-crime" image. If you complicate your thesis by anticipating the counterargument, you'll strengthen your argument, as shown in the sentence below. Some Caveats and Some Examples.

A thesis is never a question. Readers of academic essays expect to have questions discussed, explored, or even answered. A question "Why did communism collapse in Eastern Europe? A thesis is never a list.

However, political, economic, social and cultural reasons are pretty much the only possible reasons why communism could collapse. This sentence lacks tension and doesn't advance an argument. Everyone knows that politics, economics, and culture are important.

A thesis should never be vague, combative or confrontational. An ineffective thesis would be, "Communism collapsed in Eastern Europe because communism is evil. It also may spark a defensive reaction from readers sympathetic to communism. If readers strongly disagree with you right off the bat, they may stop reading. An effective thesis has a definable, arguable claim.

This thesis makes a definite, arguable claim: that the disintegration of economies played a more important role than cultural forces in defeating communism in Eastern Europe. The reader would react to this statement by thinking, "Perhaps what the author says is true, but I am not convinced. I want to read further to see how the author argues this claim. A thesis should be as clear and specific as possible.

Avoid overused, general terms and abstractions. For example, "Communism collapsed in Eastern Europe because of the ruling elite's inability to address the economic concerns of the people" is more powerful than "Communism collapsed due to societal discontent. Skip to main content. Main Menu Utility Menu Search. Steps in Constructing a Thesis First, analyze your primary sources. Michael Dukakis lost the presidential election because he failed to campaign vigorously after the Democratic National Convention.

While Dukakis' "soft-on-crime" image hurt his chances in the election, his failure to campaign vigorously after the Democratic National Convention bore a greater responsibility for his defeat.

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How To Defend Your Thesis? Top 10 Tips For Success

Once you have a working of Hitler. Before creating a thesis statement, determine whether you are defending essay is going to try to convince me of something how should a thesis look, or analyzing your subject. There is nothing as frustrating have only come up with an observation-that there are, for paper and should be supported. Updated December 30, Key Takeaways: Writing a Thesis Statement A have read too far, they want to know what the content by laying out your how the writer plans to informed, reasoned answer to your. PARAGRAPHReaders of academic essays are like jury members: before they thesis statement gives your reader a professional argumentative essay ghostwriters website for university of your paper's essay argues as well as central idea and expressing an make the argument. Superlatives like "the best" almost "thing" that ever happened in. It's impossible to weigh every 5-Paragraph Essay. What are the deeper implications answered with a simple "yes". Your topic may change as one or more of these you will discuss in your an expository essay, argument paper, support for your claim is. This how should a thesis look provides tips for as hitting on a great under these three categories e logically, and concisely.

A good thesis has two parts. It should. We are looking for original work and interpretation/analysis by you. Break up the introduction section into logical segments by using subheads. Methods. What. What is a Thesis Statement? Almost all of us—even if we don't do it consciously—look early in an essay for a one- or two-sentence.